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R. Buckminster 

Fuller 


Critical 


Path 


Kiyoshi Kuromiya, 


Adjuvant 


i 





CONTENTS 


Foreword — (ix) 

Introduction: Twilight of the World’s Power 
Structures (xvii-xxxviii) 


1 . Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 3 

2. Humans in Universe 25 

3. Legally Piggily 60 

II 

4. Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 123 

5. The Geoscope 161 

6. World Game 198 

III 

7. Critical Path: Part One 229 

8. Critical Path: Part Two 252 

9. Critical Path: Part Three 270 

10. Critical Path: Part Four 309 

Appendix 1. Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 

Appendix 2. Chronological Inventory of Prominent Scientific, 

Technological, Economic and Political World Events: 
1895 to Date 378 


Index 411 





























































Foreword 


It is the author’s working assumption that the words good and bad are 
meaningless. This is based on science and not on opinion. In 1922 physicists 
discovered a fundamental complementarity of disparate individual phenom- 
ena to be operative in physical Universe. This was fundamentally amplified 
with the subsequent discovery of the always-and-only-different, always-co- 
existing proton and neutron which, with their always-coexistent electrons, 
positrons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos, are eternally intertransformable. 

No longer was valid the “building block” of the Universe. It was discov- 
ered that unity was plural and at minimum sixfold. All the intercomplemen- 
tations are essential to the successful accomplishment of eternally regener- 
ative Universe. Science’s discovery of fundamental complementarity has 
frequently occasioned individual scientists’ realization that the word nega- 
tive used as the opposite of the word positive is at best carelessly and mis- 
informedly employed. 

Since complementarity is essential to the success of eternally regenerative 
Universe, the phenomenon identified as the opposite of positive cannot be 
negative, nor can it be bad, since the interopposed phenomena known here- 
tofore as good and bad are essential to the 100-percent success of eternally 
regenerative Universe. They are both good for the Universe. 

Science recognizes many fundamentally complementary aspects of Uni- 
verse. The black hole is not a negative. As implosion is to explosion, the 
black hole phenomenon is to the inside-out, expanding Universe. The black 
hole is the inverse phase — the outside-inning phase — of cosmic evolution. 
What humans have spontaneously identified as good and bad — or as pos- 
itive and negative — are evolutionary complementations in need of more ac- 
curate identifications. 


IX 


X 


Critical Path 


If you want to sail your ship to windward through a narrow passage, you 
have to do what sailors call “beating to windward” — first you sail on your 
port tack, then on your starboard tack, then port, then starboard, again and 
again, not on your “good tack” and your “bad tack.” We walk right foot, 
left foot, not right foot, wrong foot. 

This book is written with the conviction that there are no “good” or 
“bad” people, no matter how offensive or eccentric to society they may 
seem. I am confident that if I were born and reared under the same circum- 
stances as any other known humans, I would have behaved much as they 
have. 

There’s a short verse written long ago by an English poet and teacher, 
Elizabeth Wordsworth: 

If all good people were clever , 

And all clever people were good , 

The world would be nicer than ever 
We thought that it possibly could. 

But somehow, 9 tis seldom or never 
That the two hit it off as they should; 

For the good are so harsh to the clever, 

The clever so rude to the good. 

If you think you identify with anybody in this book, be sure to remember 
that I don’t have any “good” or “bad” people. You and I didn’t design peo- 
ple. God designed people. What I am trying to do is to discover why God 
included humans in Universe. 

I’m trying to find out what God permits us progressively to know and 
preferably to do if we humans are to continue in Universe. 

For many years I hesitated about writing this book. God has introduced 
me to many, many thousands of humans. Quite a few of those I have known 
have had decision-making powers that could, and often did, affect human 
affairs in major ways. Much of their decision-making integrated with thou- 
sands of decisions made by other Earthians. The integrated thousands of de- 
cisions inadvertently were compounded with a myriad of unforeseen 
technological, exploratory, and environmental happenings. The individual 
decision-makings and unforeseen happenings around the world and in Uni- 
verse at large altogether synergetically produced historical results not 
contemplated by any. Such noncontemplated-by-any results constitute evo- 
lution — the will of God. 

In my eighty-five years I have often been privy to what was at the time 
secret, critical information. Time and change have “declassified” those se- 
crets. In piecing together the significant components of world-around hu- 


Foreword 


xi 


manity’s evolutionary trending, my insights have frequently been illumined 
by information confided in me by others. In recollecting once-confidential 
information, which is now essential to an adequate comprehension of rel- 
evant evolutionary trendings, I hope no one will make the mistake of think- 
ing that I am being a traitor to my friends. Not only am I being loyal to 
all my friends but to all humanity — without whom there would be no life. 

My reasons for writing this book are fourfold: 

(A) Because I am convinced that human knowledge by others of what 
this book has to say is essential to human survival. 

(B) Because of my driving conviction that all of humanity is in peril 
of extinction if each one of us does not dare, now and henceforth, 
always to tell only the truth, and all the truth, and to do so 
promptly — right now. 

(C) Because I am convinced that humanity’s fitness for continuance in 
the cosmic scheme no longer depends on the validity of political, 
religious, economic, or social organizations, which altogether here- 
tofore have been assumed to represent the many. 

(D) Because, contrary to (C), I am convinced that human continuance 
now depends entirely upon: 

(1) The intuitive wisdom of each and every individual. 

(2) The individual’s comprehensive informedness. 

(3) The individual’s integrity of speaking and acting only on the 
individual’s own within-self-intuited and reasoned initiative. 

(4) The individual’s joining action with others, as motivated only 
by the individually conceived consequences of so doing. 

(5) The individual’s never-joining action with others, as motivated 
only by crowd-engendered emotionalism, or by a sense of the 
crowd’s power to overwhelm, or in fear of holding to the 
course indicated by one’s own intellectual convictions. 

We all see things differently. Seeing is sensing. Hearing is sensing. Touch- 
ing is sensing. Smelling is sensing. What each of us happens to sense is dif- 
ferent. And our different senses are differently effective under ever-differing 
circumstances. Our individual brains coordinatingly integrate all the ever- 
different sensings of our different faculties. The integrated product of our 
multifold individual sensings produces awareness. Only through our sens- 
ings are we aware of the complementary “otherness.” 

Awareness of the “otherness” is information. The complex of successively 
experienced informations produces interweaving episodes — and the complex 
of special-case-episode-interweavings produces the scenario that our brain’s 
memory banks identify as our individual being’s “life.” 

The way only-our-own, individual integrity of being responds spontane- 


Critical Path 


xii 

ously only to our own exclusive sensing of any given otherness episode is 
what I mean when I use the word feeling: How do I feel about life? How 
do I feel about it now? . . . and again now? Our feelings often change. What 
do I feel that I need to do about what I am feeling? 

One of the many wonderful human beings that I’ve known who has af- 
fected other human beings in a markedly inspiring degree was e. e. Cum- 
mings, the poet. 

He wrote a piece called “A Poet’s Advice,” which I feel elucidates why 
“little I,” fifty-three years ago at age thirty-two, jettisoned all that I had 
ever been taught to believe and proceeded thereafter to reason and act only 
on the basis of direct personal experience. Cummings’s poem also explains 
why, acting entirely on my own initiative, I sought to discover what, if any- 
thing, can be effectively accomplished by a penniless, unknown individual — 
operating only on behalf of all humanity — in attempting to produce sustain- 
ingly favorable physical and metaphysical advancement of the integrity of 
all human life on our planet, which omnihuman advantaging task, attempt- 
able by the individual, is inherently impossible of accomplishment by any 
nation, private enterprise, religion, or other multipeopled, bias-fostering 
combination thereof. 


A POETS ADVICE 

A poet is somebody who feels, and who expresses his feelings through words. 

This may sound easy. It isn’t. 

A lot of people think or believe or know they feel — but that’s thinking or 
believing or knowing; not feeling. And poetry is feeling — not knowing or be- 
lieving or thinking. 

Almost anybody can learn to think or believe or know, but not a single hu- 
man being can be taught to feel. Why? Because whenever you think or you be- 
lieve or you know, you’re a lot of other people: but the moment you feel, you’re 
nobody-but-yourself. 

To be nobody-but-yourself — in a world which is doing its best, night and 
day, to make you everybody else — means to fight the hardest battle which any 
human being can fight; and never stop fighting. 

As for expressing nobody-but-yourself in words, that means working just a 
little harder than anybody who isn’t a poet can possibly imagine. Why? Be- 
cause nothing is quite as easy as using words like somebody else. We all of us 
do exactly this nearly all of the time — and whenever we do it, we are not poets. 

If, at the end of your first ten or fifteen years of fighting and working and 
feeling, you find you’ve written one line of one poem, you’ll be very lucky in- 
deed. 

And so my advice to all young people who wish to become poets is: do some- 
thing easy, like learning how to blow up the world — unless you’re not only will- 
ing, but glad, to feel and work and fight till you die. 


Foreword 


xiii 


Does this sound dismal? It isn’t. 

It’s the most wonderful life on earth. 

Or so I feel. 

— e. e. cummings 

Exploring, experiencing, feeling, and — to the best of my ability — acting 
strictly and only on my individual intuition, I became impelled to write this 
book. 

I’m not claiming to be a poet or that this book is poetry, but I knew cum- 
mings well enough to be confident that he would feel happy that I had writ- 
ten it. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 


http://archive.org/details/criticalpathOOfull 


CRITICAL 

PATH 



INTRODUCTION: 


Twilight of the 
World’s Power 
Structures 

H umanity is moving ever deeper into crisis — a crisis without prec- 
edent. 

First, it is a crisis brought about by cosmic evolution irrevocably intent 
upon completely transforming omnidisintegrated humanity from a complex 
of around-the-world, remotely-deployed-from-one-another, differently col- 
ored, differently credoed, differently cultured, differently communicating, 
and differently competing entities into a completely integrated, comprehen- 
sively interconsiderate, harmonious whole. 

Second, w'e are in an unprecedented crisis because cosmic evolution is also 
irrevocably intent upon making omni-integrated humanity omnisuccessful, 
able to live sustainingly at an unprecedentedly higher standard of living for 
all Earthians than has ever been experienced by any; able to live entirely 
within its cosmic-energy income instead of spending its cosmic-energy sav- 
ings account (i.e., the fossil fuels) or spending its cosmic-capital plant and 
equipment account (i.e., atomic energy) — the atoms with which our Space- 
ship Earth and its biosphere are structured and equipped — a spending folly 
no less illogical than burning your house-and-home to keep the family warm 
on an unprecedentedly cold midwinter night. 

Humanity’s cosmic-energy income account consists entirely of our 
gravity- and star (99 percent Sun)-distributed cosmic dividends of waterpow- 
er, tidal power, wavepower, windpower, vegetation-produced alcohols, 
methane gas, vulcanism, and so on. Humanity’s present rate of total energy 
consumption amounts to only one four-millionth of one percent of the rate 
of its energy income. 

Tax-hungry government and profit-hungry business, for the moment, find 
it insurmountably difficult to arrange to put meters between humanity and 


XVII 


Critical Path 


xviii 

its cosmic-energy income, and thus they do nothing realistic to help human- 
ity enjoy its fabulous energy-income wealth — in fact, they send their gov- 
ernment “revenooers” out into the mountain forest to fine and to destroy 
the equipment of any civilian so “treacherous” as to apply private enterprise 
in the alcohol-from-Sun-energy-photosynthesis harvesting to personal ad- 
vantaging. If any citizens start making their own automobile-powering al- 
cohol, the “revenooers” will have to pounce on them just as they do on 
those making moonshine “likker.” 

Ninety-nine percent of humanity does not know that we have the option 
to “make it” economically on this planet and in the Universe. We do. It can 
only be accomplished, however, through a design science initiative and tech- 
nological revolution. 

For three-quarters of all the trillions of nights humans have been on 
board planet Earth, the Moon has been their most intimate sky companion. 
For millions of years humans assumed it to be obvious that no one would 
really touch the Moon. Those who did not assume that to be obvious were 
obviously loony — lunatics, “Moon touchers.” 

In the battle of human power systems to see who is to control the world’s 
people and their economies, the communist U.S.S.R. and the capitalist 
U.S.A. had been taught by World War II that whoever could fly the highest 
would gain the observational advantage for controlling the firepower of 
their guns and thus win the military supremacy of the world. In the “cold” 
Third World War the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A., inspired by the German rock- 
etry, saw that whoever could maintain the greatest number of around-the- 
world-outer-space-platforms could control around-the-Earth firepower. The 
Moon was just such a “permanent” sky advantage. 

Greatly challenged by the Russians’ initially most successful space-oper- 
ating accomplishments, President John Kennedy authorized the funds for 
the Apollo Project, which had first to do all of the tasks here on Earth pre- 
paratory to getting a team of humans ferried over to the Moon, to land, and 
then to return safely to Earth. 

There were obvious first things first to be accomplished — second things 
before third things and 7308 things before 7309 things. Some were going to 
take longer than others. There would be a pattern of start-ups and lead-ins 
of differing time lengths. This complex, shad-bone-like pattern would be 
known as “the critical path.” The critical path of overall human history’s 
technological evolution involved two million* things that had to be done be- 
fore blast-off of the first Earth-to-Moon ferrying-over-and-back. 

Fortunately early humans, having no knowledge that what they were do- 


*This is only a magnitude figure. It obviously is not exact. 


Introduction 


xix 


ing would someday lead to humans physically, safely visiting the Moon, had 
already accomplished one million of those essential tasks before President 
John Kennedy allocated the federal funds to accomplish the remaining one 
million. Suddenly it was evident — but only to those few students who cared 
about the overall significance of such nonobvious, vast-time-scale inven- 
tories of evolutionary, historical, technological accomplishments — that 
without the million items already accomplished, it would be impossible to 
realize any of the Apollo Project’s one million additional technical require- 
ments — let alone accomplish them within the critically “effective” U.S.A. 
vs. U.S.S.R. competition time limit. Evolution is methodically synergetic 
and omnimeaningful. 

Now, in 1980, a large number of all humans ten years of age and under, 
all of whom were born after humans reached the Moon, have learned so 
much about the Apollo Project as to be quite familiar with its critical-path 
accomplishment. They have entered the evolutionary scenario at a spon- 
taneous conceptual level twice as well informed initially as were any pre- 
Apollo Project humans, and they find it logical to think about the solution 
of major evolutionary challenges in the comprehensive terms of both the all- 
history critical-path lessons as well as those of the as-yet-clearly-remem- 
bered and -documented special-case lessons of the Apollo Project’s one 
million additionally accomplished, critical-path tasks. The under-ten-year- 
old post-Moon-landers are saying, “Humans can do anything they need to 
do.” They are writing me letters saying so and asking why we don’t make 
our world work satisfactorily for all humans. This is encouraging. 

By 1989 those successful Moon-ferry-over conditioned, thoughtful young 
ones will be twenty. That’s just the right age for commanding and executing 
the 1989 world-embracing design science revolution, which will result in the 
conversion of all humanity into an integrated, omniharmonious, economi- 
cally successful, one-world family. 

As of 1980 the successful solution of the myriad of social-economic- 
psychological problems now existent is obviously a more difficult task for 
humanity to address than was the achieving of the Apollo Project. For those 
who care to know how we’re going to accomplish the 1989 omnisuccess of 
humans on Spaceship Earth, it is necessary to invest the rest of this hour 
in reading this Introduction, which contains the minimum information lead- 
ing to ultimate comprehension of the fact that humanity now — for the first 
time in history — has the realistic opportunity to help evolution do what it 
is inexorably intent on doing — converting all humanity into one harmonious 
world family and making that family sustainingly, economically successful. 

It will take all the evenings of one week to read the Critical Path book 
itself. This is the minimum time investment necessary to discover what roles 


XX 


Critical Path 


may be effectively performed by humans individually in support of the 1989 
design science realization of the success of humanity. 

History shows that, only when the leaders of the world’s great power 
structures have become convinced that their power structures are in danger 
of being destroyed, have the gargantuanly large, adequate funds been appro- 
priated for accomplishing the necessary epoch-opening new technologies. It 
took preparation for World War III to make available the funds that have 
given us computers, transistors, rockets, and satellites to realistically explore 
the Universe. In the one hour of concentrated introductory reading about 
the critical path that must be accomplished in order to achieve understand- 
ing that we have the option to “make it,” the first thing first is to under- 
stand what the world power structures are and of what their unique 
technical levers and strategies consist. 

* * * 

Throughout the history of land and sea transport those who have gained 
and held control of the world's lines of vital supply have done so only by be- 
coming the masters in the game of establishing supreme human power over 
all other subpowerful organizations — ergo, invisibly over all humanity. 

The historical development of massively keeled and ribbed, deep-bellied 
ships, which came into human use in the 3000-1000 B.c. era of the Phoe- 
nicians, Cretans, and Mycenaeans, altogether altered and vastly enlarged 
the interregional and international physical-transporting means of the 
world’s lines of supply. The change was the shift over from that of the 
armed-horsemen-escorted, way-station-fortressed, twixt-city-states, over- 
land, mule-horse-and-camel-borne caravaning to the thousandfold-greater 
cargo- and armaments-carrying capacity of the fighting-crew-manned fleets 
of those massively built, wind-sailing and slave-rowed, seagoing ships. 

Ancient Troy was a powerful city-state and commanded much of the 
overland traffic between Asia and Europe. The Mycenaeans’ siege of Troy — 
when their supplies were continually replenished by their fleet of those 
heavily ribbed, deep-bellied ships — reversed the city-state’s former suprem- 
acy over invaders, whose brought-with-them food had theretofore become 
exhausted long before exhaustion of the food supplies stored in the great 
granaries of those inside the walls. The fall of Troy saw the supremacy over 
human affairs pass from the masters of the overland, Asia-to-Europe, 
inland-sea ferrying and caravaning lines of supply to the masters of the 
high-seas, maritime lines of supply. 

The center of the stage of history’s most critical events moved ever west- 
ward and mildly northward. Thus unfortified Venice became in due course 
the headquarters of the masters of the Mediterranean lines of supply. 


Introduction 


xxi 


The fifteenth-century Europeans’ adoption of Arabic numerals and their 
computation-facilitating “positioning-of-numbers” altogether made possible 
Columbus’s navigational calculations and Copernicus’s discovery of the op- 
erational patterning of the solar system and its planets. Facile calculation 
so improved both the building of the ships and their navigation that the 
ever-larger ships of the Mediterranean ventured out into the North and 
South Atlantic to round Africa and reach the Orient. With Magellan’s 
crew’s completion of his planned circumnavigation, the planet Earth’s pre- 
dominantly water-covered sphericity was proven. The struggle for supreme 
mastery of human affairs thus passed out of the Mediterranean and into the 
world’s oceans. Ships could carry vastly greater cargoes of the fabulous rich- 
es of the Orient to the European market than could the overland caravan- 
ing. One European ship completing one successful round trip to the Orient 
could realize a great fortune for its owners. 

In 1600 Queen Elizabeth I and a few intimates founded the East India 
Company. Exercising her crown privileges, the queen granted the company 
limited liability for losses on the part of the enterprise backers. They could 
lose their money if the ship were lost, but they could not be held liable for 
the lives of the sailors who were drowned. While the owners could insure 
and very greatly limit the magnitude of their losses, the sailors and their 
families could not. “Ltd.” — limited, in England — and “Inc.” — incorporat- 
ed, in the U.S.A. — and other similar legal definitions in all capitalist coun- 
tries constitute “for ages uncontested” — ergo, custom-validated and legal- 
judgments-upheld — royal decrees greatly favoring big-money capitalism 
over the mortal, breadwinner-loss-taking vast majority of the poor. 

Elizabeth’s East India Company scheme was to have her national navy 
(and armies) first win mastery of the world’s sea-lanes. This advantage 
would thereafter be exploited by her privately owned enterprise. This 
scheme became one of the first of such national power structure bids for es- 
tablishing and maintaining world-trade supremacy through dominance of 
the world’s high seas’, ocean currents’, trade winds’, critical straits’, and 
only-seasonably-favorable passages’ world-around line of vital and desirable 
supplies. All the other world-power-stature individuals who vied for su- 
preme mastery of the world’s high seas lines of supply also operated invisi- 
bly through monarchs and nations over whom they had sufficient influence. 
Through such behind-the-throne influence the influenced nation’s resources 
could be politically maneuvered into paying for the building and operation 
of the navies and armies that would seek to establish and protect their re- 
spective privately owned enterprises. 

With the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 the British Empire won “the world’s 
power structures championship” and became historically the first empire 


XXII 


Critical Path 


“upon which,” it was said, “the sun never sets.” This is because it was the 
first empire in history to embrace the entire spherical planet Earth’s 71-per- 
cent maritime, 29-percent landed, wealth-producing activities. All previous 
empires — Genghis Khan’s, Alexander the Great’s, the Romans’, et al. — 
were unified European, North African, and Asian-continental, river-, 
lake-, and sea-embracing, flat-out land areas completely surrounded in all 
lateral directions by the infinitely unknown. All earlier empires were infinite 
systems — open systems. The British Empire was history’s first spherically 
closed, finite system. Building and maintaining the world’s most powerful 
navy, the 1805 supremely victorious British Empire was to maintain its sov- 
ereignty over the world’s oceans and seas for 113 years. 

Concurrently with its 1600 A.D.-initiated two centuries of maritime and 
military struggle for world dominance, England was also developing a ci- 
vilian army of the world’s best-informed and Empire-backed scientific, eco- 
nomic, and managerial personnel for the most economically profitable 
realization of its grand, world-embracing strategies. To educate the army of 
civil servants was the responsibility of the East India Company College lo- 
cated just outside of London. (In 1980 it is as yet operating.) Its graduates 
went to all known parts of the planet to gather all possible data on the phys- 
ical and human culture resources to be exploited as well as information on 
the local customs of all the countries, large and small, with whom Great 
Britain and the East India Company must successfully cope and trade. 

In 1800 Thomas Malthus, later professor of political economics of the 
East India Company College, was the first human in history to receive a 
comprehensively complete inventory of the world’s vital and economic sta- 
tistics. The accuracy of the pre-Trafalgar 1800 inventory was verified by a 
similar world inventory taken by the East India Company in 1810. In a lat- 
er — post-Trafalgar — book Malthus confirmed in 1810 his 1800 finding that 
world-around humanity was increasing its numbers at a geometrical pro- 
gression rate while increasing its life-support production at only an arith- 
metical progression rate, ergo, an increasing majority of humans would have 
to live out their short years in want and misery. 

“Pray all you want,” said Malthus, “it will do you no good. There is no 
more!” 

A half-century later Darwin expounded his theory of evolution, assuming 
that nature’s inexorable processes were the consequence of the “survival 
only of the fittest species and individuals within those species.” 

Karl Marx compounded Malthus’s and Darwin’s scientifically convincing 
conclusions and said, in effect, “The worker is obviously the fittest to sur- 
vive. He is the one who knows how to handle the tools and seeds to produce 
the life support. The opulent others are ‘parasites.’” The opulent others 


Introduction 


xxiii 

said, “We are opulent and on top of the heap because we demonstrate Dar- 
win’s ‘fittest to survive.’ The workers are dull and visionless. What is needed 
in this world is big-thinking enterprise, courage, cunning, and fighting 
skill.” For the last century these two ideologies, communism and free en- 
terprise, have dominated the political affairs of world-around humanity. 
Each side says, “You may not like our system, but we are convinced that 
we have the fittest, fairest, most ingenious way of coping with the lethal in- 
adequacy of life support operative on our planet, but because there are those 
who disagree diametrically on how to cope, only all-out war can resolve 
which system is fittest to survive.” 

Those in supreme power politically and economically as of 1980 are as 
yet convinced that our planet Earth has nowhere nearly enough life support 
for all humanity. All books on economics have only one basic tenet — the 
fundamental scarcity of life support. The supreme political and economic 
powers as yet assume that it has to be either you or me. Not enough for 
both. That is why (1) those in financial advantage fortify themselves even 
further, reasoning that unselfishness is suicidal. That is why (2) the annual 
military expenditures by the U.S.S.R., representing socialism, and the 
U.S.A., representing private enterprise, have averaged over $200 billion a 
year for the last thirty years, doubling it last year to $400 billion — making 
a thus-far total of six trillion, 400 billion dollars spent in developing the abil- 
ity to kill ever-more people, at ever-greater distances, in ever-shorter time. 

* * * 

Weighing only fifty-five pounds, with a wingspan of ninety-six feet, the 
human-powered Gossamer Albatross was able to fly across the English 
Channel because the structural materials of which it was built were many 
times tensilely stronger than an equal weight of the highest-strength aircraft 
aluminum. The tensile strengths of the Albatross' s structural materials were 
sixty times stronger per equivalent weight than the strongest structural ma- 
terials available to Leonardo da Vinci for realizing the design of his pro- 
posed human-powered flying machine. The Albatross' s high-strength 
carbon-fiber and Mylar materials were all developed only a short time ago — 
since World War II. 

A one-quarter-ton communication satellite is now outperforming the pre- 
viously used 175,000 tons of transatlantic copper cables, with this 700,000- 
fold reduction in system-equipment weight providing greater message- 
carrying capacity and transmission fidelity, as well as using vastly fewer 
kilowatts of operational energy. 

Continuing to attempt to fit our late-twentieth-century astronautical 
man-on-Moon-visiting capability into a nineteenth-century horse-and-buggy 


XXIV 


Critical Path 


street pattern, house-to-house-yoo-hooing life-style (and a land baron rack- 
et) is so inefficient that the overall design of humanity’s present social, eco- 
nomic, and political structuring and the physical technology it uses wastes 
ninety-five out of every 100 units of the energy it consumes. (Our auto- 
mobiles’ reciprocating engines are only 15-percent efficient, whereas tur- 
bines are 30 percent, jet engines 60 percent, and fuel cells used by astronauts 
80 percent.) In the United States, throughout all twenty-four hours of every 
day of the year — year after year — we have an average of two million auto- 
mobiles standing in front of red stoplights with their engines going, the en- 
ergy for which amounts to that generated by the full efforts of 200 million 
horses being completely wasted as they jump up and down going nowhere. 

Environment-controlling buildings gain or lose their energy as “heat or 
cool” only through their containing surfaces. Spheres contain the most vol- 
ume with the least surface — i.e., have the least possible surface-to-volume 
ratio. Every time we double the diameter of a spherical structure, we in- 
crease its contained atmosphere eightfold and its enclosing surface only 
fourfold. When doubling the diameter of our sphere, we are not changing 
the size of the contained molecules of atmosphere. Therefore, every time we 
double a spherical structure’s diameter, we halve the amount of enclosing 
surface through which an interior molecule of atmosphere can gain or lose 
energy as “heat or cool.” Flat slabs have a high surface-to-volume ratio, and 
so flat slab fins make good air-cooling motorcycle and light-airplane en- 
gines. Tubes have the highest surface-to-volume ratios. Triangular- or 
square-sectioned tubes have higher surface-to-volume ratios than have 
round-sectioned tubes. Tall slab buildings and vertical, square-sectioned, 
tubular-tower skyscrapers have the maximum possible energy (as heat or 
cool)- losing capability. 

One two-mile-diameter dome enclosing all the mid-Manhattan buildings 
between Twenty-second and Sixty-second streets and between the Hudson 
and East rivers, having a surface that is only one eighty-fourth that of all 
the buildings now standing in that midtown area, would reduce the heating 
and cooling energy requirements of that area eighty-four-fold. 

The human pedal-powered airplane and the communication satellite are 
only two out of hundreds of thousands of instances that can now be cited 
of the accomplishment of much greater performance with much less mate- 
rial. The inefficiency of automobiles’ reciprocating engines — and their traf- 
fic-system-wasted fuel — and the energy inefficiency of today’s buildings, are 
only two of hundreds of thousands of instances that can be cited of the 
design-avoidable energy wastage. But the technical raison d’etre for either 
the energy-effectiveness gains or losses is all completely invisible to human 
eyes. Thus, the significance of their omni-integratable potentialities is un- 
comprehended by either the world’s leaders or the led. 


Introduction 


xxv 


Neither the great political and financial power structures of the world, 
nor the specialization-blinded professionals, nor the population in general 
realize that sum-totally the omni-engineering-integratable, invisible revolu- 
tion in the metallurgical, chemical, and electronic arts now makes it possible 
to do so much more with ever fewer pounds and volumes of material, ergs 
of energy, and seconds of time per given technological function that it is 
now highly feasible to take care of everybody on Earth at a “higher standard 
of living than any have ever known.” 

It no longer has to be you or me. Selfishness is unnecessary and hence- 
forth unrationalizable as mandated by survival. War is obsolete. 

It could never have been done before. Only ten years ago the more-with- 
less technology reached the point where it could be done. Since then the 
invisible technological-capability revolution has made it ever easier so to do. 
It is a matter of converting the high technology from weaponry to livingry. 
The essence of livingry is human-life advantaging and environment control- 
ling. With the highest aeronautical and engineering facilities of the world 
redirected from weaponry to livingry production, all humanity would have 
the option of becoming enduringly successful. 

All previous revolutions have been political — in them the have-not ma- 
jority has attempted revengefully to pull down the economically advantaged 
minority. If realized, this historically greatest design revolution will joyous- 
ly elevate all humanity to unprecedented heights. 

The architectural profession — civil, naval, aeronautical, and astronauti- 
cal — has always been the place where the most competent thinking is con- 
ducted regarding livingry, as opposed to weaponry. Now is the time for the 
comprehensive architectural profession to reorient itself from the six- 
months-per-one-residence work schedule to the millions-per-day, air-deliv- 
erable, sewer-and-water-mains-emancipated, energy-harvesting, dwelling- 
machine-production world with its unpurchasable, air-deliverable dwelling 
machines only rentable from a Hertz-Hilton-Bell-Tel service industry, able 
to accommodate at unprecedentedly high standards of living all humanity’s 
remote-from-one-another living accommodations. Now is also the time for 
the architectural profession to reorient itself from the years-to-build, 
human-need-exploiting cities to the all-in-one-day-air-deliverable-or-remov- 
able, human-need-serving, singly-domed-over cities. We have to satisfacto- 
rily rehouse the alternately convergent and divergent shuttling phases of 
four billion uprooting, around-the-world-integrating, sometimes transient, 
sometimes resident, sometimes in cities, sometimes in the country hu- 
mans — before 2000 a.d. 

Technologically we now have four billion billionaires on board Spaceship 
Earth who are entirely unaware of their good fortune. Unbeknownst to 
them their legacy is being held in probate by general ignorance, fear, self- 


XXVI 


Critical Path 


ishness, and a myriad of paralyzing professional, licensing, zoning, building 
laws and the like, as bureaucratically maintained by the incumbent power 
structures. 

Dismaying as all this paralysis may be, it will lead eventually to such cri- 
sis that comprehensive dissemination of the foregoing truths ultimately will 
be accomplished through (1) the world-around-integrated electronic media 
broadcasting and (2) the computerized switchover from the inherently-in- 
adequate-life-support accounting assumption of yesterday to the adequate- 
for-everyone-and-everything, time-energy accounting comprehensively 
employed by the multibillion-galaxied, eternally regenerative Universe itself. 
An exclusively-to-be-accomplished, world-around-integrated, computer- 
facilitated, cosmically compatible accounting switchover will make it pop- 
ularly comprehensible that we do indeed have four billion billionaires on our 
planet, thereby publicizing that fact and thereby inducing the systematic re- 
lease of their heritage to all Earthian humans. All this accounting switch- 
over must also be accomplished before 2000 a.d. 

Those who make money with money deliberately keep it scarce. Money 
is not wealth. Wealth is the accomplished technological ability to protect, 
nurture, support, and accommodate all growful needs of life. Money is only 
an expediency-adopted means of interexchanging disparately sized, none- 
quatable items of real wealth. 

A shoemaker has ten milk-drinking children. He wants to acquire a milk 
cow to convert grass into milk to take care of his children. The shoemaker 
makes his shoes out of cowhide, but that is not the reason he wants the cow. 
If and when the cow gets too old for milk production, he can butcher it for 
its meat and obtain a goodly supply of cowhide for his shoemaking. 

A cow breeder wants a pair of shoes. He and the shoemaker agree that 
it takes much more time and individual inputs to produce a milk cow than 
it does to make a pair of shoes. They agree that you can’t cut the cow up 
and still milk it. So they employ metal, which, being scarce and physically 
useful, has high and known exchange value and which could be cut apart 
into whatever fractions are necessary to implement the disparate values of 
interexchanging. That’s how we got money. 

Computers do not have to see or feel anything. Computers do not deal 
in opinion judgments; they simply store, retrieve, and integrate all the in- 
formation given them. The more relevant the information they are given and 
the more accurate that information, the better the answers that the comput- 
er can give as to the consequences of doing thus and so under a given set 
of circumstances. Only the computer can cope with the astronomical com- 
plexity of integrating the unpredicted potentials of the millions of invisible 
technology gains in physical capabilities already accomplished. Only world- 


Introduction 


XXVll 


considerate computer accounting will be able to produce the figures that 
will persuade all humanity to divert high-science technology from weaponry 
to livingry. Computer capability will clearly manifest that we indeed now 
have four billion real-wealth billionaires. 

Computer capability will distribute only-computer-readable credit cards 
to all humanity, whose constant living, travel, and development use will 
continually integrate all the production starts and holds on world-wide co- 
ordinated supplying of the needs of a world-around dynamically dwelling 
humanity. Computers will relegate all gold to its exclusively functional uses 
as a supreme electromagnetic conduction-and-reflection medium — with its 
supremacy amongst metals also manifest as rated in weight and bulk per ac- 
complished function. The computer will relegate all physical substances to 
their uniquely best functional uses. 

All the foregoing considerations demonstrate clearly why the computer 
accounting switchover is not only possible but mandatory and must be ac- 
complished before the fear and ignorance of the billions of humans involved 
in the power structure’s bureaucracies panic and push the atomic-bomb re- 
lease buttons. What makes us say “panic” of the major political, religious, 
and business bureaucracies? Bureaucracies will panic because all the great 
political, religious, and — most of all — big-business systems would find their 
activities devastated by the universal physical success of all humanity. All 
the strengths of all great politics and religion and most of business are de- 
rived from the promises they give of assuaging humanity’s seemingly tragic 
dilemma of existing in an unalterable state of fundamental inadequacy of life 
support. 

There are two more prime obstacles to all humanity’s realization of its op- 
tion to “make it.” One is the fact that humanity does not understand the 
language of science. Therefore it does not know that all that science has ever 
found out is that the physical Universe consists entirely of the most exqui- 
sitely interreciprocating technology. Ninety-nine percent of humanity thinks 
technology is a “new” phenomenon. The world populace identifies technol- 
ogy with (1) weapons and (2) machines that compete with them for their 
jobs. Most people therefore think they are against technology, not knowing 
that the technology they don’t understand is their only means of exercising 
their option to “make it” on this planet and in this life. 

Fortunately the mathematical coordinate system that has been and as yet 
is employed by science is not the coordinate system employed by the phys- 
ical Universe. Nature is always most economical. Science’s coordinate sys- 
tem is not most economical and is therefore difficult. Nature never has to 
stop to calculate before behaving in the most economical manner. Scientists 
do. Also, fortunately, we have discovered nature’s coordinate system, which 


Critical Path 


xxviii 

is elegantly simple and popularly comprehensible. (See Synergetics , vols. 1 
and 2 — Macmillan, 1975, 1979.) Synergetics will make it possible for all hu- 
manity to comprehend that physical Universe is technology and that the 
technology does make possible all humanity’s option to endure successfully. 

The other prime obstacle to realization of the “great option’’ is the fact 
that the world’s power structures have always “divided to conquer’’ and 
have always “kept divided to keep conquered.’’ As a consequence the power 
structure has so divided humanity — not only into special function categories 
but into religious and language and color categories — that individual hu- 
mans are now helplessly inarticulate in the face of the present crisis. They 
consider their political representation to be completely corrupted, therefore 
they feel almost utterly helpless. 

Asking a computer “What shall I do?’’ is useless. You can get an infor- 
mative answer, however, if you program your question into the computer 
as follows: “Under the following set of operative circumstances, each having 
a positive or negative number value in an only-one-value system, which of 
only two possible results will be obtained if I do so and so? And by how 
much?’’ 

In 1953 my friend the late Walter Reuther, then president of the United 
Auto Workers, was about to meet with the board of directors of General 
Motors to form a new and timely post-World-War-II-oriented labor pact. 
At that time the first of the “new-scientists’’-prototyped computers ever to 
be industrially manufactured were being assembled, put in running order, 
and fine-tuned by Walter Reuther’s skilled machinists. Walter had all his 
fine-tuning machinists put the following problem into their computers: “In 
view of the fact that most of General Motors’ workers are also its custom- 
ers, if I demand of General Motors that they grant an unheard-of wage ad- 
vance plus unprecedented vacation, health, and all conceivable lifetime 
benefits for all of its workers, amounting sum-totally to so many dollars, 
which way will General Motors make the most money: by granting or re- 
fusing?’’ All the computers said, “General Motors will make the most profit 
by granting.’’ 

Thus fortified, Walter Reuther made his unprecedented demands on Gen- 
eral Motors’ directors, who were elected to their position of authority only 
by the stockholders and who were naturally concerned only with the welfare 
of those stockholders. Reuther said to the assembled General Motors board 
of directors: “You are going to grant these demands, not because you now 
favor labor (which, in fact, you consider to be your enemy), but because by 
so granting, General Motors will make vastly greater profits. If you will put 
the problem into your new computers, you will learn that I am right.’’ 

The directors said, “Hah-hah! You obviously have used the wrong com- 


Introduction 


xxix 


puters or have misstated the problem to the computers.” Soon, however, all 
their own computers told the directors that Walter was right. They granted 
his demands. Within three years General Motors was the first corporation 
in history to net a billion-dollar profit after paying all government taxes — 
with their profits increasing steadily thereafter for twenty years. 

* * * 

In the electrical-power and light-generating industry the privately owned 
“public” utilities’ largest customers are the industries. The public utilities 
must always generate enough electricity to ensure their customers’ never 
having a shortage and that electricity be cheap; otherwise the industrial cus- 
tomers would install their own generating equipment. What the customers 
don’t use of the surplus generated power is pure loss to the “public” utilities. 
To cope efficiently with the foregoing variables, each utility has plotted the 
peak and valley patterns for each second of each day of all the years since 
the “public” utilities entered the business. The utilities have many stand-by 
generators, most of which are in operation for only a small fraction of the 
time. All of each company’s past peak-and-valley history is combined with 
probability mathematics to determine how many generators to have in op- 
eration at any given time of any given day of each newly evolving year. 

In the 1930s Wendell Willkie was first to discover that with integration 
of the electrical-generating networks of neighboring localities, whose peaks 
and valleys inherently differ to some degree, the excess of any of the net- 
work’s member utilities at any one moment is frequently used by other grid 
members’ peaks. When this happens, it brings pure profit to the excess- 
power-generating seller. 

The practical limit on the distance of electrical power delivery from the 
time of World War I until twenty years ago was 350 miles. However, 350 
miles could not span the distances between any two of the continent’s four 
national time zones. Twenty years ago, as a consequence of the new tech- 
nologies of the space age, ultrahigh-voltage, superconductivity, and other 
technical developments occurred that made 1500-mile delivery of electricity 
possible, practical, and economical. This reach provided the ability to span 
continental time zones, whose peaks and valleys obviously differed greatly 
from one another, and this meant greater profits to be derived from across- 
time-zone-integrated electrical-energy networks. 

Responding to 1929’s Great Crash, the New Deal set up the Tennessee 
Valley Authority, which built many huge dams and enormous hydroelec- 
tric-power-generating capability. This solved all the flood problems of that 
area. It also greatly irritated the “private sector,” which said government 
had no right to enter into competition with “private enterprise.” Subse- 


XXX 


Critical Path 


quently the government set up its Rural Electrification Administration 
(REA). The government was interested in rehabilitating the country’s 
Depression-ruined farms. The private sector’s electrical-generating industry 
was not interested. They thought it could be done only at a great loss. The 
electrical grids financed and administered by the REA interspersed all the 
great urban centers’ electric grids in the United States. When the 1500-mile 
electrical-delivery reach unpredictably occurred and potential grid integrat- 
ings across the time zones loomed, the government-administered rural grids 
became strategically involved. The boards of directors of all the private- 
sector “public” utilities said they would never integrate electrically with 
government — they were completely against government being in their game. 
However, they obviously could not integrate across the time zones except 
by employing the government’s Rural-Electrification-established-and-fi- 
nanced grid. 

The problem, with all its pro and con data, was put into the computer 
by the engineers of both the government and the private sector. The ques- 
tion was asked: “In which way would the private sector make the most 
money — by integrating with the government’s network, or not?” The com- 
puter said the private sector would make 30-percent greater profit by inte- 
grating with government. The private sector undertook to do so. When both 
sides found that great profit would occur for the private sector — which for 
many years had been the prime financial backer of the Republican party — 
great political barriers developed in the Democratic administration which 
had to be overcome. President Lyndon Johnson, acting on behalf of the fed- 
eral government, used his power over the Democratic party to remove 
enough barriers to permit the government to agree to integrate with the pri- 
vate sector. The “private sector,” which theretofore had always backed the 
Republican presidential candidates, apparently became confused and 
backed Democrat Lyndon Johnson’s successful bid for re-election. 

Time and again in their short history computers have demonstrated their 
ability to reverse historically assumed-to-be-unalterable positions of both 
sides of the opposed political/economic power structure’s directorates or 
committees. Computers can remember accurately and can cope with and in- 
tegrate the vast amounts of all known, relevant information on complex 
problems, uncopeable-with prior to the computer. What we had prior to the 
computer were respected opinions and only-selfishness-conditioned reflexes 
on how to cope. Though an opinion might be wrong, there was no practical 
and convincing way to prove it. Unchallenged, the opinions became respect- 
ed precedent, then exceptionless concepts, and sometimes even civil and aca- 
demically accepted social law. 

Computers will be used more and more to produce the opinion-obsoleting 


Introduction 


xxxi 


answers to progressive crises-provoked questions about which way world so- 
ciety as a whole will enduringly profit the most. Computers will correct mis- 
informed and disadvantaged conditioned reflexes, not only of the few 
officials who have heretofore blocked comprehensive techno-economic and 
political evolutionary advancement, but also of the vast majorities of here- 
tofore-ignorant total humanity. 

Within the crises times immediately ahead — into which we have already 
entered — the computer is soon to respond: “We must integrate the world’s 
electrical-energy networks.” We must be able to continually integrate the 
progressive night-into-day and day-into-night hemispheres of our revolving 
planet. With all the world’s electric energy needs being supplied by a twen- 
ty-four-hour-around, omni-integrated network, all of yesterday’s, one-half- 
the-time-unemployed, standby generators will be usable all the time, thus 
swiftly doubling the operating capacity of the world’s electrical energy grid. 

A half-century ago I discovered with my nonvisibly distorted, one-world- 
island-in-one-world-ocean, 90° longitude-meridian-backbone, north-south- 
oriented, sky-ocean world map that a world energy network grid would be 
possible if we could develop the delivery reach. Since I was on the watch 
for it, when the 1500-mile-reach capability was technically established twen- 
ty years ago, it was immediately evident to me that we could carry our 
American electrical network grid across the Bering Straits from our Alaska 
grid to reach the extreme northeastern Russian grid, where the U.S.S.R. had 
completed a program of installing dams and hydroelectric-power-generating 
stations on all their northerly flowing rivers all the way into eastern Kam- 
chatka. About 1500 miles could interconnect the Russians’ Asiatic conti- 
nent electric integrated power grid with the Alaskan grid of the industrial 
North American electric energy grid. 

In the early years of Trudeau’s premiership of Canada, when he was 
about to make his first visit to Russia, I gave him my world energy network 
grid plan, which he presented to Brezhnev, who turned it over to his ex- 
perts. On his return to Canada Trudeau reported to me that the experts 
had come back to Brezhnev with: “feasible . . . desirable.” 

I therefore predict that before the end of the 1980s the computer’s po- 
litically unbiased problem-solving prestige will have brought about the 
world’s completely integrated electrical-energy network grid. This world 
electric grid, with its omni-integrated advantage, will deliver its electric en- 
ergy anywhere, to anyone, at any one time, at one common rate. This will 
make possible a world-around uniform costing and pricing system for all 
goods and services based realistically on the time-energy metabolic account- 
ing system of Universe. 

In this cosmically uniform, common energy-value system for all human- 


XXX11 


Critical Path 



Grid line of world’s ultra-high-voltage, 1500-mile, intergenerator 

connection reach 

Establishing electric current currency for whole world: 10=1 kwh 
B. Fuller’s Dymaxion Sky-Ocean World Map 


Introduction 


xxxiii 



PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION 

South America 

6% 

Central America 

1% 

North America 

7% 

Africa 

11% 

Europe 

16% 

Asia (54% land, 7% water) 

61% 


100 % 


XXXIV 


Critical Path 


ity, costing will be expressed in kilowatt-hours, watt-hours, and watt- 
seconds of work. Kilowatt-hours will become the prime criteria of costing 
the production of the complex of metabolic involvements per each function 
or item. These uniform energy valuations will replace all the world’s wildly 
intervarying, opinion-gambled-upon, top-power-system-manipulatable mon- 
etary systems. The time-energy world accounting system will do away with 
all the inequities now occurring in regard to the arbitrarily maneuverable 
international shipping of goods and the top economic power structure’s 
banker-invented, international balance-of-trade accountings. It will elimi- 
nate all the tricky banking and securities-markets exploitations of all the 
around-the-world-time-zone activities differences in operation today, all un- 
beknownst to the at-all-times two billion humans who are sleeping. 

The world energy network grid will be responsible for the swift disappear- 
ance of planet Earth’s 150 different nationalities. We now have 150 supreme 
admirals, all trying to command the same ship to go in different directions, 
with the result that the ship is going around in circles — getting nowhere. 
The 150 nations act as 150 blood clots in blocking the flow of recirculating 
metals and other traffic essential to realization of the design science revo- 
lution. 

In treating with the many immediate, most important survival problems, 
each question will be programmed into the computer asking which way so- 
ciety will experience the lowest-cost optimum living: by giving all humans 
handsome fellowships, with an income adequate for a high standard of liv- 
ing, or by having them go on earning their livings. The computer will show 
that 70 percent of all jobs in America and probably an equivalently high 
percentage of the jobs in other Western private-enterprise countries are pre- 
occupied with work that is not producing any wealth or life support — in- 
spectors of inspectors, reunderwriters of insurance reinsurers, Obnoxico* 
promoters, spies and counterspies, military personnel, gunmakers, etc. 

The computer will also have verified both of the important findings of the 
brilliant Denver, Colorado, oil geologist, Frangois de Chardenedes: (1) the 
script of his scenario of “Nature’s Production of Petroleum,’’ and (2) his 
economic findings regarding the amount of energy employed as heat and 
pressure, for the length of time initially that it took nature to photosyntheti- 
cally process Sun radiation into the myriad of hydrocarbon molecules that 
comprise all the vegetation and algae, which later are consumed and 
growthfully multiplied by a myriad of other biological species, a large per- 
centage of which Sun-energy-nurtured-and-multiplied molecules are ulti- 
mately processed into petroleum. 


♦See description of Obnoxico in Chapter 6, pp. 225-26. 


Introduction 


xxxv 


The script of de Chardenedes’s “Scenario of Petroleum Production” 
makes it clear that, with all that cosmic-energy processing (as rain, wind, 
and gravitational pressure) and processing time (paid for at the rates you 
and I pay for household electrical energy), it costs nature well over a million 
dollars to produce each gallon of petroleum. To say “I didn’t know that” 
doesn’t alter the inexorable energy accounting of eternally regenerative, 100- 
percent-efficient — ergo, 100-percent-concemed — physical-energy Universe. 

We find all the no-life-support-wealth-producing people going to their 
1980 jobs in their cars or buses, spending trillions of dollars’ worth of pe- 
troleum daily to get to their no-wealth-producing jobs. It doesn’t take a 
computer to tell you that it will save both Universe and humanity trillions 
of dollars a day to pay them handsomely to stay at home. 

History’s political and economic power structures have always fearfully 
abhorred “idle people*” as potential troublemakers. Yet nature never abhors 
seemingly idle trees, grass, snails, coral reefs, and clouds in the sky. 

One would hope the at-home-staying humans will start thinking — “What 
was it I was thinking about when they told me I had to ‘earn my living’ — 
doing what someone else had decided needed to be done? What do I see that 
needs to be done that nobody else is attending to? What do I need to learn 
to be effective in attending to it in a highly efficient and inoffensive-to-others 
manner?” 

Comprehensively and incisively programmed with all the relevant data 
regarding education, it will be evidenced that the physical and social costs 
will be far less for individual, at-home-initiated, research-and-development- 
interned self-teaching than having individual students going to schools, be- 
ing bused, and so on. This mass-production baby-sitting is only continued 
because of the union-organized response to the fear of the teachers about 
losing their jobs. Their political clout has for long been strong enough to 
guarantee continuance of this inefficiency to the present moment. 

The computer will make it clear that by far the most effective educational 
system for human beings — all the way from birth through early childhood 
and on — is that to be derived from the home video cassette system and its 
supporting books, the pages of which are also to be called forth on world- 
satellite-interlinked video “library” screens as published in any language. 
The computer will also make it very clear that, freed of the necessity to earn 
a living, all humanity will want to exercise its fundamental drive first to 
comprehend “what it is all about” and second to demonstrate competence 
in respect to the challenges. The greatest privilege in human affairs will be 
to be allowed to join any one of the real wealth-production or maintenance 
teams. 

Fortunately, the computer-directable design science revolution option 


XXXVI 


Critical Path 


does exist by which all looming problems can and may be effectively solved. 
Evolution does seem intent upon making humans a success. 

* * * 

Critical Path comprehensively traces all the important trends of history 
that have led to this moment of humanity’s potential first-stage success and 
its opening of a whole new chapter of humanity’s ever functioning in local 
support of the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe. 

To know now what we could never have known before 1969 — that we 
now have an option for all humanity to “make it” successfully on this planet 
in this lifetime — is not to be optimistic. It is only a validation of hope, a 
hope that had no operationally foreseeable validity before 1969. Whether it 
is to be Utopia or Oblivion will be a touch-and-go relay race right up to the 
final moment. The race is between a better-informed, hopefully inspired 
young world versus a running-scared, misinformedly brain-conditioned, old- 
er world. Humanity is in “final exam” as to whether or not it qualifies for 
continuance in Universe as mind , with the latter’s access to the design 
laws — called by science “the generalized principles” — governing eternally 
regenerative Universe. 

Human minds have a unique cosmic function not identifiable with any 
other phenomenon — the capability to act as local Universe information- 
harvesters and local Universe problem-solvers in support of the integrity of 
eternally regenerative Universe. 

At the present cosmic moment, muscle, cunning, fear, and selfishness are 
in powerful control of human affairs. We humans are here in Universe to 
exercise the Universe-functioning of mind. Only mind can apprehend, abide 
by, and be led by truth. If human mind comes into control of human affairs, 
the first thing it will do is exercise our option to “make it.” 

If you read the entire Critical Path book carefully, including its some- 
times long but essentially detailed considerations, and pay realistically close 
attention to these considerations, you will be able to throw your weight into 
the balancing of humanity’s fate. While you could be “the straw that breaks 
the camel’s back,” compressively you can also be the “straw” — straw of in- 
tellect, initiative, unselfishness, comprehensive integrity, competence, and 
love — whose ephemerally effective tension saves us. 

The invisibly tensive straws that can save us are those of individual hu- 
man integrities — in daring to steer the individual’s course only by truth, 
strange as the realized truth may often seem — wherever and whenever the 
truths are evidenced to the individual — wherever they may lead, unfamiliar 
as the way may be. 

The integrity of the individual’s enthusiasm for the now-possible success 


Introduction 


xxxvii 


of all humanity is critical to successful exercise of our option. Are you spon- 
taneously enthusiastic about everyone having everything you can have? 

For only a short time, in most countries, has the individual human had 
the right of trial by jury. To make humanity’s chances for a fair trial better, 
all those testifying must swear “to tell the truth, all the truth, and nothing 
but the truth.” But humans have learned scientifically that the exact truth 
can never be attained or told. We can reduce the degree of tolerated error, 
but we have learned physically, as Heisenberg discovered, that exactitude 
is prohibited, because most exquisite physical experiment has shown that 
“the act of measuring always alters that which is measured.” 

We can sense that only God is the perfect — the exact truth. We can come 
ever nearer to God by progressively eliminating residual errors. The nearest 
each of us can come to God is by loving the truth. If we don’t program the 
computer truthfully with all the truth and nothing but the truth, we won’t 
get the answers that allow us to “make it.” 

When we speak of the integrity of the individual, we speak of that which 
life has taught the individual by direct experience. We are not talking about 
loyalty to your mother, your friends, your college fraternity, or your boss, 
who told you how to behave or think. In speaking of truth we are not talk- 
ing about the position to take that seems to put you in the most favorable 
light. 

It was the 1927 realization of the foregoing that brought the author to 
reorganize his life to discover what, if anything, the little, penniless, un- 
known individual, with dependent wife and child, might be able to do ef- 
fectively on behalf of all humanity that would be inherently impossible for 
great nations or great corporate enterprises to do. This occasioned what is 
described in my “Self-Disciplines,” Chapter 4. 

With world-around contact with youth, generated by invitations to speak 
to the students of over 500 universities and colleges during the last half-cen- 
tury, I can conclude at the outset of 1980 that the world public has become 
disenchanted with both the political and financial leadership, which it no 
longer trusts to solve the problems of historical crisis. Furthermore, all the 
individuals of humanity are looking for the answer to what the little indi- 
vidual can do that can’t be done by great nations and great enterprises. 

The author thought that it would be highly relevant to the purpose of this 
book to enumerate those self-disciplines that he had adopted and used dur- 
ing those fifty years. Only those self-disciplines can cogently explain why he 
adopted the design science revolution and not the political revolutions (the 
strategy of all history). Only by understanding those disciplines can we un- 
derstand the strategy governing the development of the artifacts, which 
strategy is called “critical path” — ergo, the name of this book. 


Critical Path 


xxxviii 

Each year I receive and answer many hundreds of unsolicited letters from 
youth anxious to know what the little individual can do. One such letter 
from a young man named Michael — who is ten years old — asks whether I 
am a “doer or a thinker.” Although I never “tell” anyone what to do, I feel 
it quite relevant at this point to quote my letter to him explaining what I 
have been trying to do in the years since my adoption of my 1927-inaugu- 
rated self-disciplinary resolves. The letter, dated February 16, 1970, reads: 

Dear Michael, 

Thank you very much for your recent letter concerning “thinkers and 
doers.” 

The things to do are: the things that need doing: that you see need to be 
done, and that no one else seems to see need to be done. Then you will conceive 
your own way of doing that which needs to be done — that no one else has told 
you to do or how to do it. This will bring out the real you that often gets buried 
inside a character that has acquired a superficial array of behaviors induced or 
imposed by others on the individual. 

Try making experiments of anything you conceive and are intensely inter- 
ested in. Don’t be disappointed if something doesn’t work. That is what you 
want to know — the truth about everything — and then the truth about combi- 
nations of things. Some combinations have such logic and integrity that they 
can work coherently despite non-working elements embraced by their system. 

Whenever you come to a word with which you are not familiar, find it in 
the dictionary and write a sentence which uses that new word. Words are 
tools — and once you have learned how to use a tool you will never forget it. 
Just looking for the meaning of the word is not enough. If your vocabulary is 
comprehensive, you can comprehend both fine and large patterns of experi- 
ence. 

You have what is most important in life — initiative. Because of it, you wrote 
to me. I am answering to the best of my capability. You will find the world 
responding to your earnest initiative. 

Sincerely yours, 
Buckminster Fuller 

The political and economic systems and the political and economic lead- 
ers of humanity are not in final examination; it is the integrity of each in- 
dividual human that is in final examination. On personal integrity hangs 
humanity’s fate. You can deceive others, you can deceive your brain-self, but 
you can’t deceive your mind-self — for mind deals only in the discovery of 
truth and the interrelationship of all the truths. The cosmic laws with which 
mind deals are noncorruptible. 

Cosmic evolution is omniscient God comprehensively articulate. 


PARTI 




CHAPTER 1 


Speculative 
Prehistory 
of Humanity 

T he Dymaxion World Map shows one world island in one world 
ocean with no breaks in the continental contours and with no visible 
distortion of the relative size or shape of any of the cartographic patterning. 
(See map on page 169.) The coloring on the full-size map is that of the optical 
spectrum, with red representing the hottest climates and dark blue repre- 
senting the coldest climates. The borderline between yellow and green is the 
freezing line. The color shown for any area of the map represents the coldest 
conditions for that geographic area. Verkhoyansk, in northeastern Siberia, 
is the cold pole of planet Earth’s northern hemisphere. Yet, sometimes in 
August at noonday, Verkhoyansk is as hot as equatorial Africa. Frequently 
in midwinter Verkhoyansk’s temperature falls to sixty-five degrees below 
zero Fahrenheit. Equatorial Africa rarely has a temperature at midwinter 
of less than seventy degrees above zero Fahrenheit. The annual temperature 
variation between the hottest and coolest in equatorial Africa is only twenty 
degrees Fahrenheit, while the annual variation at Verkhoyansk is 120 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. 

The vital factor that determines social patterns, human preoccupations, 
and economic customs of those dwelling in different geographic envi- 
ronments depends on how cold it gets, not on how hot. With their shade- 
making artifacts humans can live nakedly under the hottest of Earth’s 
weather conditions. Consisting physically of 60 percent water, humans can- 
not live nakedly where it is cold — not below the freezing line of thirty-two 
degrees above zero Fahrenheit. 

The Dymaxion Map shows that (1) the colder an area gets, the more the 
annual temperature variation, and (2) the more the geographical tempera- 
ture varies annually, the more inventive the humans who live in those areas 


3 


4 


Critical Path 


have to be to survive. If you live by Lake Victoria in eastern Africa and you 
wish to cross it, you will invent a wooden boat. If you live beside Lake Bai- 
kal in central Siberia and you wish to cross that body of water, you will in- 
vent a wooden boat in the summer and skates and sleds in the winter. The 
people who live in the colder areas are not more inventive — they simply 
have many more environment-caused occasions in which to employ all hu- 
mans’ innate inventiveness. Move humans from a hot country into a cold 
country, and they become as inventive as those who live there — or they per- 
ish. 


* * * 

As flying insects are hit by the windshields of our speeding automobiles, 
their intricate wings, legs, sensors, and bodies splash out as flat, yellow- 
green blobs. More than 50 percent by both volume and weight of the av- 
erage physical structure and mechanics of all biological species consists of 
water. Humans’ structuring and integral organic equipping is over 60 per- 
cent water. Earthians are hydraulically designed technologies. 

All structures consist of a balanced interaction between tensive and com- 
pressive forces. Nature services all her tension functions rigidly with three 
crystalline, maximum-cohesion bonds, and services her compression-resist- 
ing functions with double-bonded, flexibly hinged, variously viscous hy- 
draulics. These are noncompressible, but being flexible, they distribute their 
loads evenly to all the surfaces of their triple-bonded, tensional-container 
systems. As long as the triple-bonded tensional crystalline’s containers are 
strong enough, the hydraulic structural system will hold its tensionally pre- 
designed, optimally extended shapes because the contained liquids, which 
entirely fill the designed container, are noncompressible. 

Because water is essential to all the biological organisms’ ecological sys- 
tem of regeneration on our planet, the major facts about it are vitally rel- 
evant. 

Vital fact number one (as already stated) is that biological life is 50 per- 
cent water. 

Vital fact number two is that we don’t know of any water in Universe oth- 
er than that on our planet Earth. Almost three-quarters of the Earth’s sur- 
face is covered with water. The water coverage averages in depth the length 
of a vertically suspended chain consisting of 2000 head-to-foot-linked hu- 
mans. The world’s oceans seem so deep to people that the amount of water 
in Universe is thought of by them as unlimited. But on a twelve-inch-diam- 
eter Earth globe the proportional depth of the ocean to Earth’s diameter 
would be only three one-thousandths of an inch, which means that the ab- 
sorption depth of the blue ink into the thin paper cover of the globe upon 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


5 


which the oceans are printed is far deeper in respect to the miniature Earth 
globe than is the real world ocean in respect to the real Earth’s globe. 

Vital fact number three is that water freezes and boils within close limits. 
Anywhere in Universe except inside Earth’s biosphere the water (of which 
we too consist) would be either frozen, boiling, evaporated, or incandescent. 

These facts integrate to tell us that our terrestrial biosphere is a unique 
environment essential to the survival of human organisms, not only on our 
planet, but anywhere within the thus-far-discovered Universe. To keep hu- 
mans alive outside our biosphere requires reproducing and maintaining our 
exact biospherical conditions within a physically powerful and superbly in- 
sulated, into-space-rocketable container. 

Before the continental networks of reinforced-concrete highways com- 
menced half a century ago, human civilization, as seen from a low-flying air- 
plane, was always strung out along the brooks, rivers, ponds, lakes, seas, 
and oceanfronts. Vast real estate developments and their underground- 
hidden, long-distance pipelines now tend to obscure this absolute depen- 
dence of humans upon water. 

Vital fact number four is that water gains and loses heat more slowly than 
any other known profusely available substance. The South Pacific and In- 
dian Ocean atolls were formed on the ocean-surface rims of both extinct and 
active volcanoes, broken through the ocean-bottom crust of the Earth. The 
volcanoes and the radiation from the Sun brought the water temperature to 
a level compatible with humans’ normal 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, and the 
tropical ocean’s temperature was maintainable thereafter by the Sun alone. 
The world ocean’s thermal stability keeps the world’s temperature changes 
at minimum. 

All humans in all history have always been born naked, helpless for 
months, hungry, thirsty, curious, and ignorant. They could not have sur- 
vived if born where they would freeze, be dehydrated, or burn to death. The 
most logically propitious place for humans to survive and prosper within 
our planetary biosphere was on the coral atolls of the South Pacific and 
North Indian oceans. Here the barrier reefs effectively intercepted the great 
seas. The temperature of the almost-still water inside the lagoons was so 
compatible with life that head-above-water humans could stay in them con- 
tinuously without any unfavorable effect. The lagoons abounded in fish, and 
there were mildly sloping, easy-to-walk-in-or-out-upon beaches of white 
sand. Crystal fresh waters poured down the mountainsides, and coconuts 
full of milk fell to the ground around the humans. Fruits were plentiful, and 
there were no wild animals threatening to eat the helpless baby humans. 

Discovering that they themselves could not drink the salt water, these 
island-atoll people soon learned that the edible vegetation and fruits grew 


6 


Critical Path 


only from fresh water and Sunlight. Noting that the fresh water came either 
from the sky or from springs, the atollers came to invent shoal, freshwater- 
paddies-filling, parallelly contoured, intertiered-one-above-the-other ter- 
races at human-waist-height distances above one another. This terraced 
water-ditching started high on the hillsides. Down and through this inter- 
dammed valving the fresh waters slowly flowed — so slowly as to usually ap- 
pear to be motionless. Ultimately they leached into the sea. 

The atollers made small and large freshwater vessels of animal skins, 
wood, and stone — vessels that held water inside and dug-out log vessels that 
excluded the water. Living half in the water, they became natural hydraulic 
inventors. 


* * * 

It is relevant to our speculative prehistory reviewing of all known clues 
that, in common only with water-dwelling mammals such as whales and 
porpoises, humans shed salt water tears, as do none of the other primates. 

Marrying a fast-running horse with another fast-running horse increases 
the mathematical probability of “concentrating” the fast-running genes — 
ergo, has high probability of producing an even faster-running horse, which 
high-bred needs much care, having lost its general capability to cope with 
the wide range of hostile environmental events. 

Through the mathematical probability consequent to sorting out and con- 
centrating special behavioral-capability genes and isolated pairing and in- 
breeding of parents manifestly rich in those special physical capabilities, we 
humans have learned how to accomplish the development of ever-more- 
highly-specialized biological species. We note that inbreeding of special, fre- 
quently employed capabilities has always been accomplished only at the cost 
of outbreeding general adaptability to cope with the infrequently occurring, 
high-energy-concentrating events. Humans geographically isolated for many 
generations (for instance, in a high-mountains-enclosed valley), inevitably 
inbreed those of their numbers most successfully and lengthily surviving un- 
der those special environmental conditions because the surviving types are 
the only ones left with which to cohabitate. This automatically concentrates 
the most favorable genes for local survival. The highly inbred progeny 
become specialists in surviving under the locally prevailing special- 
environmental conditions. 

We have no experimental evidence of successfully interbreeding highly di- 
vergent special biological species and their unique capabilities to produce 
completely effective general adaptability. If, on the other hand, we contin- 
ued successively to inbreed generation after generation of champion Olym- 
pic gymnasts, we would soon come to super-inter-tree-jumping-and- 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


1 


swinging monkeys with no more intellectual talent and general-adaptability 
usefulness than that of the bright chimpanzees. 

For this and other persuasive reasons my speculative prehistory has 
assumed (since 1927) Darwin’s evolution of life from the simple to the 
complex, accomplished through progressive agglomeration of single-cell 
amoebas, to be in reverse of the facts. 

When Darwin was a young man, at the time of the voyage of the Beagle , 
Dalton was among the world’s leading physicists. Mendeleyev’s periodic ta- 
ble of the elements had not as yet been conceived of. Dalton favored the 
concept that all atoms were produced by combinations of the hydrogen 
atoms. This concept and Darwin’s single-cell concept fitted neatly into hu- 
manity’s propensity for looking for “THE building block of the Universe” — 
people’s imagination is childishly stimulated at the idea of finding “THE 
KEY.” Spontaneously, we are simplistically inclined — it feeds the ego. “Oh, 
boy! If I had the key — what couldn’t I do?” 

Today it is eminently clear that human beings’ physiological composition 
consists of a relative abundance of the ninety-two regenerative chemical el- 
ements’ atoms similar to the relative abundance of chemical elements in 
Universe, which Universe consists of a plurality of individually unique gen- 
eralized principles. In 1922 came physics’ demonstration of a fundamental 
complementarity of inherently different components of physical phenom- 
ena. In 1956 the Nobel Prize in physics was given for the proof that the 
complementaries were not “mirror images” — one of the other. The number 
of chemical elements present in the amoeba will not accommodate the 
chemical elements’ complexity of Universe. Universe is inherently complex 
and eternally regenerative. It can have no “beginning” or “ending.” Vast 
numbers of scientists as yet labor vainly to account for the misconception 
of beginnings and endings. We have at minimum the neutron and the pro- 
ton, which always and only coexist, the electron and the positron, the neu- 
trino, antineutrino, and all. There is no single building block — there are 
only complexes of complex systems. 

As the great mathematician Leonhard Euler discovered with his topol- 
ogy, all visual experiences consist of three inherently different and unique 
phenomena: (1) lines; (2) when lines cross, we get vertexes (corners, fixes, 
points); (3) when several lines intercross, we get an area (window or face), 
or, as we call them in synergetics: (1) trajectories, (2) crossings, (3) open- 
ings. (See §§ 1007.1 1-15, Synergetics, vol. 1; §§ 1007.22-31, Synergetics, vol. 
2.) A system divides all of the Universe into (a) all of the Universe outside 
the system, (b) all of the Universe inside the system, and (c) the little bit 
of remaining Universe which comprises the system that separates the mac- 
rocosm from the microcosm. The minimum system of Universe (4) is com- 


8 


Critical Path 



(D 

Trajectories 


( 2 ) 

Crossings 




( 4 ) 

Minimum system of Universe, or structure 


Figure 2. 


plex — four corners, four windows, and six edges. “Thank you, Euler — that 
will do, Darwin.” 

We see it as highly feasible to have telescanned from elsewhere in Uni- 
verse the DNA-RNA-like coding of a complex angle-and-frequency pro- 
gramming together of terrestrially occurring chemical elements into their 
molecule-combining chemistries to successively produce a variety of species 
such as trilobites, dinosaurs, etc., as a progression of elsewhere-controlled 
Earth-landing tests. We see it as also highly feasible that these landings were 
used to discover the most suitable types of local-in-Uni verse information- 
harvesters and problem-solvers. The critical-limit experiences of the succes- 
sive creature landings we see thereafter being sent back to some cosmic 
headquarters, thereby to guide the improvement of the design of the land- 
ings of thick-skinned creatures able to cope with greater annual temperature 
ranges than are humanly tolerable. And after further millions of years have 
passed and the environmental conditions have become auspicious, we see it 
becoming feasible to telescan the assembling of humans on Earth, thereafter 
inbreeding some of them into the ape stages. 

We can comprehend how South Sea-atoll, lagoon-frolicking male and fe- 
male human swimmers gradually inbred pairs of underwater swimmers who 
held their breath in their lungs for ever-longer periods, and after many in- 
breedings of largest lungers and as many outbreedings of general adaptabil- 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


9 


ity organic equipment, the progeny evolved into porpoises and later into 
whales. 

Intimately relevant to these fundamental reorientings of our speculative 
prehistory of humans present aboard planet Earth, we have the following 
hard-fact scientific discoveries: 

1. Vitamin D from Sunlight is essential to humans because milk-provided 
calcium is essential to the human bone structure. Vitamin D functions 
in the conversion of calcium into bone structure. 

2. Humans synthesize vitamin D through the action of the Sun’s ultraviolet 
rays on the skin. This biochemical function is a zoological counterpart 
of botanical photosynthesis of Sun radiation into hydrocarbon molecules. 

3. But vitamin D is one of those vitamins of which humans can have an 
overdose . 

4. In warmer and tropical climes, where vitamin D from the Sun is ade- 
quate or excessive, humans’ subconsciously functioning organisms, em- 
ploying their chemical process options, develop Sunlight filters in the 
skin consisting of darker and darker pigments, which prevent excess ab- 
sorption of radiation and avoid the overdose of vitamin D. 

5. Where there is not much Sunlight, as in the Far North, human organ- 
isms had to progressively remove their skin pigment filters, which left 
only blond skin permitting maximum synthesis of vitamin D from the 
Sun. 

6. Vitamin D is not naturally present in most foods. The one food in which 
it is significantly present is whale blubber — a food of the Eskimos. Be- 
cause of long periods of darkness and the large amounts of clothing the 
Eskimos wear to protect them from the cold, Sunlight-synthesized vita- 
min D is not available in enough quantity to the Eskimos. 

7. The two chief, human-organism-supplied skin pigments that filter the 
Sun’s rays are: 

Melanin: brown and black skin 
Carotin: oriental (yellow) skin* 

In confirmation of all the foregoing we note the white and pink skin bottoms 
of the feet and palms of hands of otherwise dark or black-skinned individ- 
uals — white because not exposed to Sun and therefore unable to photosyn- 
thesize vitamin D from the Sun, therefore not protectively colored by 
melanin or carotin filters. 


•See W. Farnsworth Loomis, “Skin Pigment Regulation of Vitamin D Biosynthesis in 
Man,” Science (Aug. 4, 1967), vol. 157, pp. 501-506. 


10 


Critical Path 


Biology demonstrates a botanical counterpart of the foregoing zoological 
Sun-utilizing and -filtering strategies for the Sun-intensity filtering strategies 
manifest in the Earth’s hardwoods. The most northerly are white oak, 
southward of which we come to the pink oak and light-yellow birch. As we 
go farther south, we see the pink pearl maple and gray ash, then the deep 
red-yellow southern pine, south of which occur the brown mahoganies and 
dark-gray teak, and farther south the dark-brown rosewoods, with the spec- 
trum change terminating at the Equator in the black ebony. 

Compound this information with the fact that only for the last short de- 
cade in all of human history have we learned through incontrovertible sci- 
entific evidence that undernourishment of a child during its gestation in the 
womb or in its first year of life most frequently results in damage to the hu- 
man brain. The damage may often be just a mild dulling or slowness of wit 
of an otherwise seemingly healthy human. 

Throughout all known history the powerful fighting kings and noble 
stock reserved exclusively to themselves all animal flesh derived from their 
hunting. The poor people had to make do with the local roots, nuts, and 
fruits, which, due to vagaries of special environments, often contained a 
range of chemical ingredients inadequate to healthy nourishment. The ani- 
mals, on the other hand, ate of the vegetation in general and of other ani- 
mals’ flesh, sum-totally acquiring a comprehensively broad input of the full 
gamut of chemistries essential to a healthy diet. 

Karl Marx, bespeaking the workers, assumed the working class to be in- 
nately different from the noble class. He and the other defenders of the 
working class assumed that the workers and the nobles were of different or- 
ganic and blood stock. The nobles also assumed this to be true and required 
that the nobles intermarry with other nobles. Both nobles and workers as- 
sumed that experience taught them that there is a fundamental inadequacy 
of life support in this world. 

The workers’ leaders assumed that the spontaneous familiarization of the 
workers with tools and farming made them the fittest to survive. They con- 
sidered the nobles to be parasites. Finding themselves on the “top of the 
heap,” the nobles assumed that their venturesomeness, wit, courage, muscle, 
and skill at arms had obviously rendered them the “fittest to survive.” The 
workers’ leaders assumed that if the workers could successfully organize 
themselves to be the class to survive, they must exterminate all those of the 
aristocratic blood. 

Since the discovery that infantile undernourishment was alone responsible 
for the dulling of the human workers’ brains, we have discovered that there 
is no organic blood class or species differentiation of humans. Compounding 
the latter information and that governing skin pigmentation, we discover 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


11 


that, by scientific evidence, there is neither race nor class differentiation of 
humans. All humans are of the same family. 

All physiognomic and other physiological differentiations in human ap- 
pearance are the exclusive consequences of multigenerations of unplanned 
inbreeding of those types that survived most successfully under unique en- 
vironmental conditions, within which local geographies, tribes or nations 
dwelt for protracted periods. The U.S.S.R. had 146 different nations to in- 
tegrate into their republic. Those “nations” had been geographically isolated 
and inbred so long that their local survival types looked physically different 
from members of the other nations. 

* * * 

We have had four known ice ages. They average a million years apiece. 
The intervals between them average a quarter of a million years. Together 
they cover a known total of four and three-quarter million years. The Lea- 
key family’s proofs of the presence of humans on our planet for over three 
million years take us back through two ice ages and two inter-ice-age in- 
tervals to the end of the second ice age. 

As an ice age develops, more and more of the Earth’s water is frozen, 
which greatly lowers the ocean level and reveals previously hidden, inter- 
connecting land masses. At the time of the last ice age’s occurrence the 
sea-hidden, interisland connections revealed themselves as continental isth- 
muses and peninsulas. The great islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Phil- 
ippines, Sulawesi, and Bali became integral parts of the Malay Peninsula. 
New Guinea was part of continental Australia. Alaska and Siberia were 
connected. 

The expanding ice mantle drove the northern continents’ fur-skinned wild 
animals southward into the new peninsular extensions of the Asiatic main- 
land. The surprised once-islanded natives learned gradually to cope with 
these animals — hunted some, domesticated others (such as sheep and goats), 
and mounted, rode, or directed some, such as horses, mules, elephants, and 
water buffaloes. As the ice age withdrew, melting ice filled the oceans and 
seas, and the islands became once more isolated, but they were now inhab- 
ited with wild animals. Tigers as yet are found in western Bali. 

At great mountain altitudes, where the temperatures were low, the ice 
caps remained, most notably on the High Himalaya range. In the vast ice 
cap of the Himalayas water melted to produce great rivers that flowed sea- 
ward from the five-mile-high frozen reservoir. 

Because the atoll-incubated original human life had come naturally to in- 
vent rafts and boats that became their natural transport, when the waters 
receded they used those boats to bridge the increasing distance between the 


12 


Critical Path 


once-interconnected lands. Boats being their natural transport, they dug ca- 
nals into the muddy mainland coast as it became progressively uncovered. 
Flying above the coast of Thailand and Cambodia today one can see the 
myriad of geometrically neat ancient canals that penetrated their seacoast. 

These two primitive conditions, (A) ocean water covering or permeating 
the land and (B) the melted waters flowing seaward from the ice-topped 
mountains, produced in the course of history two very different kinds of hy- 
drocultures — those of the islanded sea-people and those of the inland and 
upland traveled and settled people. The sea-people’s major waters were 
salty; the inland and upland peoples’ major waters were fresh. The inland 
people frequently came to fresh water, whereas the boat and island people 
only infrequently came upon freshwater sources. The sea, boat, and island 
people tended to anticipate their freshwater needs more than the inland and 
mountain people. 

The atoll people, it must be remembered, had an absolute necessity for 
potable fresh water, and fortunately, from time to time, they found it cours- 
ing down their mountainsides from high-altitude, rain-filled lakes. We note 
that the island people were the original, planet-landed peoples who explored 
widely with their paddled canoes and gradually settled inland and upland, 
being able to cope with the mountain coldness because of their new animal- 
skin clothing and tents fashioned from the skins of wild animals that 
roamed into their peninsula-interbridged “islands” during the last ice age. 

The great architectural feature of Bali is that of the narrow vertical gap 



Bali— gateway 


Figure 3. 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


13 


in the gateways of their walled-in dwelling compounds, a gap they explain 
as representing the gap that occurred long ago between once-united Bali and 
Java. This occurred only 30,000 years ago, when the last ice age began to 
melt away and its waters once again separated the islands. The Balinese ar- 
chitectural legend-supported memory thus goes back 30,000 years. 

Whenever I fly over Cambodia and Thailand and see the canal patterns 
penetrating for hundreds of miles into the land, I cannot suppress the in- 
tuition that, in addition to being the atoll-water-people’s first entry into the 
main river mouths, these canals were also where these people began to work 
the mainlands. Having learned so much about hydraulic flows with the 
come and go of tides into island lagoons and basins, those first inland and 
upland paddlers were able to carry their hydraulic thinking up into the 
mainland hills and mountains. 

Of course, the Sun also was always elevating fresh water into the sky, first 
by evaporation and then by “condensation” at the cold heights, whereafter 
gravity pulled it again earthward, distributing it over wide areas as wind- 
propelled rain clouds. “Condensation” is electrolytic. 

The atoll-water-people learned millions of years ago that wood floated, 
that one log rolled over in the water, and that two logs with their branches 
intertwined no longer rolled in the water. From this they learned that two 
parallel logs properly boomed and tied together at a little distance not only 
produced a stable craft but one that, with the leaves of its branches sewn 
together and intuitively angled, would sail almost into the wind. In learning 
to tie their logs and spars together to withstand great strains imposed by 
winds and waves, those atoll people learned that triangles are the only struc- 
turally stable patterns for the interbracings, outriggings, and sparring of 
their sailing canoes and catamarans. 

These fishing people had great need for strong baskets to contain their 
fish and other vital supplies when trafficking between islands — and later to 
capture and secure the animals when the latter invaded them during the ice 
ages. It is historically noteworthy that amongst all the South Pacific islands 
peoples and all the coastal peoples from Japan southward to Burma, all 
their baskets, small and large, are triangularly sixty-degree (three-way) wov- 
en, while all the basketry of all the rest of the world is square, or ninety- 
degree (two-way) woven. The sole exception is the three-way woven baskets 
found at the northern end of the Andes in South America just inland from 
where the Japanese current would have carried the water-peoples’ drifting 
rafts. 

None of these same water-people (as a great Austronesian observer, Aus- 
tin Coates,* brilliantly discovered) understand the Western world’s bank- 


' Austin Coates, Islands of the South (London, Heinemann, 1974). 



Two-way weaves 
are spreadable, 
ergo distortable, 
ergo unstable. 


Figure 4. Two-way versus three-way weave. 



Figure 4a. Strip X cannot be spread above A points nor lowered below B 
points — ergo, three-way weaves are unspreadable, therefore provide stable pat- 
tern and stable structure. 




14 


I 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


15 


ing- and credit-financed business. As a consequence four Chinese families 
run all the banking businesses of Java and Sumatra and Indonesia in gen- 
eral. These Southeast Asians say the banker cannot lend them the wind be- 
fore the wind blows. They are right, as the world’s bankers are about to 
learn to the unprecedented discomfort of all humanity. 

Everyone who has visited the rice cultures of Japan and Southeast Asia 
has witnessed the vast and meticulous hydraulic engineering of the moun- 
tain- and valley-side rice paddy system flowing horizontally and multidi- 
rectionally at each level as the waters are gradually brought seaward from 
great heights with never a chance missed to make foods and flowers grow 
along the way. These beautiful levelings and infinitely delicate controllings 
of water flow must have been of the greatest importance to human survival 
over many millennia, if not for millions of years. 

* * * 

Our “speculative prehistory” identifies the terraced rice paddy develop- 
ment as the most complete in the world, occurring as a consequence of there 
being boat and island people who have learned by experience the critical 
function fresh water plays in life. Their experience has taught them to be- 
come most anticipatorily effective through artifacts (the rice paddy being an 
artifact) in avoiding lack of fresh water. This leads to our prognostication 
that the next era of important anthropological research will occur in coral 
reefs. 

Up to a decade ago archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, biologists, 
and historians of world-around affairs placed the beginnings of human life 
on Earth (and Scriptures’ Garden of Eden) somewhere east of Suez, close 
to but aeons before ancient Babylon, which itself is in the heart of the great 
valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in ancient Mesopotamia. 

The historical experts assumed that humanity’s graduation from the 
Stone Age into the Bronze Age also occurred in Asia Minor. This assump- 
tion rested largely on the copper found on the large, historically strate- 
gic island of Cyprus lying just off the eastern Mediterranean coast of Asia 
Minor. 

The name “Cyprus” comes from the Latin cuprus, meaning “copper.” 
Bronze, however, is made of copper and tin. Copper as a metal is soft and 
not very good for weapons or tools; so, too, is tin. Bronze is hard, resilient, 
and excellent for weapons and tools. Historians and archeologists seem to 
be extraordinarily poor metallurgists. Because early bronze items were 
found in Asia Minor in the vicinity of Cyprus, they misconcluded that it 
was there that the Bronze Age began. But the oldest metals-discovering, 
-developing, and -trading records known to humanity on our planet are the 
meticulously accurate data of the Phoenicians. Their detailed records tell us 


16 


Critical Path 


that they had to sail hundreds of miles westward out of the Mediterranean 
into the Atlantic and thence northward for more hundreds of miles to what 
we call today the British Isles to get the tin occurring exclusively on those 
islands, then bringing it back to Asia Minor, where it was combined with 
Cyprus copper to make bronze. 

Until 1950 there is no historical record of humanity inventing metallur- 
gical alloys. All metallurgical alloys have always been accidentally discov- 
ered. The alloys occur as symmetrically stable arrangements of atoms — 
invisible to naked human eyes — happen to come into critical proximity un- 
der the right heat conditions to produce their common liquidity. No one 
could foresee that combining soft copper with even softer tin could and 
would produce stiff, hard, resilient bronze. Tin and copper had to co-occur 
geologically in the same geographical area to be subject to accidental melt- 
ing together. 

To me it is absolutely impossible that the beginnings of the Bronze Age 
could have occurred in Asia Minor. That bronze was produced there tells 
us that some Asia Minor people learned about bronze-making from others, 
who earlier and elsewhere had discovered it accidentally. Overland caravans 
from the Orient to Asia Minor experienced the uses of bronze and learned 
that it was an alloy of copper and tin. Then, having learned from overseas 
explorers and traders that tin occurred in the British Isles, the Cyprus- 
neighboring Phoenicians set about to import it to Asia Minor. It was, in- 
cidentally, the tin in the British Isles that induced Julius Caesar to build a 
highway all the way from Rome to the English Channel and, thereafter, to 
settle Romans in England until the tin was nearly exhausted. In this con- 
nection it is importantly relevant to note that we now know that much ear- 
lier in history the Phoenicians navigated and traded the Indian Ocean and 
visited Thailand, which as we now know was where bronze was first pro- 
duced. 

Approximately seventeen years ago (1964) highly artful bronze castings 
were discovered in northeast Thailand, in an area called Ban Chiang. In that 
area tin and copper co-occur abundantly. There the two could have been 
melted together accidentally. In Ban Chiang we have found early pottery 
of unprecedented and artfully delighting design. This pottery required the 
magnitude of heat necessary to alloy copper and tin (both have low melting 
points). The same metallurgically naive historians already mentioned had 
assumed the Bronze Age civilization to have traveled eastward from Asia 
Minor all the way to China. Thereafter the Chinese, whom those mistaken 
historians admit were very smart and apparently caught on fast to the cul- 
tural attainments of Asia Minor, swiftly developed a highly cultivated civ- 
ilization of their own involving an enormous production of fine art bronzes. 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


17 


Then, said yesterday’s experts, the bronze artists of northern China found 
their way down into Southeast Asia — a region considered by them to be a 
cultural Johnnie-come-lately! 

You cannot use carbon 14 to prove the age of bronzes, but in 1977 met- 
allurgists discovered ways of dating the ages of bronzes. In 1975 the Thai 
government placed the diggings at Ban Chiang in the charge of the Museum 
of the University of Pennsylvania, with the latter’s archeologist Dr. Chet 
Gorman in command. Dr. Gorman took many of the bronzes to Philadel- 
phia and in due course developed ingenious means for arriving at the age 
of bronze objects — and did so to the satisfaction of metallurgical scientists 
in general. These proofs showed that the bronzes of Ban Chiang are the ear- 
liest known on planet Earth. This news was published on the front page of 
The New York Times in the summer of 1977. We now know that the Bronze 
Age began in Southeast Asia. This reversal of historical theory greatly en- 
hances our own speculative hypothesis that humanity originated in the Aus- 
tronesian islands and came out into the (Asian) mainland in separate stages, 
each occurring after one of the last ice ages. This reversal of the basic his- 
tory of civilization also lends further credence to my reversed Darwinian 
theory of evolution on planet Earth. 

* * * 

The last human exodus from the islands of Austronesia onto the main- 
land occurred after the last ice age, about 30,000 years ago. On the first such 
exodus, two ice ages ago (which was two and one-half million years ago), 
those humans who had mastered horses mounted them and, leaving their 
on-foot rice-growing, sheep-and-goat-herding, and on-foot hunting brethren 
behind, rode northwest to hunt wild animals, until the next ice age forced 
them to endure survival in caves of nonglaciated Western Europe. With skin 
and hair all bleached they emerged and mounted horses 30,000 years ago 
to confront the westward on-foot or on-camel caravaning of the earliest 
Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations of written history. The latter civ- 
ilization probably developed from the Indian Ocean and Austronesian is- 
land-atoll people blown westward on rafts to (A) Queen Hatshepsut’s source 
of pitches for her Egyptian shipbuilding, which source the Egyptians called 
the “Land of Pun” — which we now know to have been Somaliland (the Lea- 
keys’ Olduvai Gorge country) — and (B) to Arabia, blown by the tween- 
monsoon easterlies of the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea. (The word 
pun in South African coloreds’ language means “red” — the Red Sea is the 
Pun Sea, the Pun as the Pun of Pun-icians, or later Phoenicians, of Car- 
thage’s and Rome’s Pun-ic Wars.) 

If you look at my Dymaxion World Map (in which, as we have noted be- 


Figure 5. Dymaxion Map with 100 Population Dots 




Note: Each dot represents 44 million people 


South America 6% 

Central America 1 % 

North America 7% 

Africa 11% 

Europe 16% 

Asia (Land 54 %, Water 7%) 61% 


18 



19 


20 


Critical Path 


fore, there is no visible distortion of the relative shape or size of any of the 
land or water patterning), you will find one hundred dots, each representing 
1 percent of humanity as of 1980 a.d.; that is, each dot represents forty- 
four million human beings. Each 1 percent is carefully located in the demo- 
graphic center of each forty-four-million grouping of the Earth’s total 
people. You can see on my map that within an area that is only about 8 
percent of the Earth’s total surface, known as the Orient (which contains 
India, China, and Southeast Asia), 54 percent of humanity exists; of this 54 
percent, 8 percent are the as-yet-islanded (or peninsulaed) water-people: Ja- 
pan, 3 percent; Philippines, 1 percent; Java, Sumatra, etc., 3 percent; Sin- 
gapore and the lower Malay Peninsula, 1 percent. Going on the globe 
westward, “following the Sun” and facing into the prevailing north and 
southwesterly winds, we observe Asia Minor, Africa, and Europe with 
32 percent, and then “the West,” the Americas, with 14 percent of all hu- 
manity. 

Kipling wrote in 1900, “East is East, and West is West, and never the 
twain shall meet.” All who read him thought Kipling was obviously correct. 
No one in 1900 could foresee the as-yet-uninvented airplanes, let alone 350- 
passenger-carrying, 500-mph, intercontinental and around-the-world-flying 
jet airplanes, nor satellite-relayed intercontinental telephony, etc. 

You can see on my map the enormous concentration of humanity in Java, 
Malaysia, and the Indonesian islands, as well as along the original “water- 
front” areas of the Asian mainland. Together Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, 
Laos, and Vietnam are the beachheads of Austronesian islanders “landing” 
upon the Asian continent. Clearly that is where humanity first went inland 
and upland to the Himalayas, exploring the Mekong River toward its 
source. This extraordinary fact relates also to the last ice age and uniquely 
to the 8 percent of my world map known as the Orient, which contains the 
54 percent of humanity. 

Looking closely at this area we see the Indus River rising in the Hima- 
layas and flowing westward to Karachi and then into the Arabian Sea. 
Then, starting in almost the same High Himalayan place as the Indus, we 
see the Ganges flowing initially westward, then turning eastward and flow- 
ing south of the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal. Next we note the Brah- 
maputra River, originating within 100 miles of the sources of the Indus and 
Ganges and flowing first eastward, then southward, to penetrate the Hi- 
malayas, whence it flows also to the Bay of Bengal. Then we note the Sal- 
ween, the Mekong, the Yangtze, and the Yellow rivers, all starting from 
approximately the same geographical source atop the Himalaya Mountains 
(an area so small that my forefinger tip can cover it on my map). Thus 54 
percent of humanity (over eight times the population of North America) is 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


21 


“watered” from the same “reservoir” — the frozen Himalayan reservoir, 
which melts just fast enough to keep things growing and life going on 
through ages and ages and ages. 

As the water-people came out of the ocean-island habitats and began to 
ascend those rivers and “carried aloft” their “canoes” around and above the 
rapids and waterfalls, they could not help eventually discovering the com- 
mon regional source of this comprehensive life-support water. 

In the present critical unrest of our world, where we find the greatest 
ideologically warring powers on our planet puppeting, through Vietnam, the 
dissensions into warrings of Cambodians, Laotians, Thais, and Burmese, it 
is clearly seen that the only differences between those Southeast Asian peo- 
ples are the rivers by which they go inland and upland — to the same source 
of life-supporting water. It is easy to understand why the Dalai Lama was 
located in Tibet, at the source of all their water. That source epitomized 
God as the physical life-giver and -taker. 

* * * 

Looking at Southeast Asia on a metallurgical resource display map and 
coming north in the Gulf of Siam to the mouth of the Chao Phraya River, 
we note that in the Malay Peninsula there are vast amounts of tin ore all 
the way from Singapore to Burma and northward inland in Thailand along 
the Chao Phraya River to northern Thailand. Then, altering our direction, 
we go a short way eastward and descend from the mountains of Laos, which 
are everywhere rich in copper ore. Everywhere along the east bank of the 
Chao Phraya River lies copper ore, and everywhere along its west bank lies 
tin ore. 

At Bangkok, on the Chao Phraya River, I find the most extraordinary 
history of the development of wooden boatbuilding as yet manifest on our 
planet. I remember how back in 1958, as I went along canals leading off 
from the Chao Phraya River, I kept discovering shipyards. In all America 
there are less than fifty boatbuilding yards now in operation. But in Greater 
Bangkok alone I saw more than 100 boatyards. 

To the boatyards of the Chao Phraya River and its canals the logging 
people inland and upstream bring seaward (with the current and tides) great 
teak logs, which are towed together in enormous intertied rafts. As we get 
into the Bangkok region, we see the great teak log rafts moored wherever 
there is spare waterfront. 

The shipbuilders usually keep the logs soaking for up to 100 years before 
using them in their ships’ hulls. After a century of soaking the teak becomes 
highly stabilized structurally. They then haul out and dry the logs sufficient- 
ly for their shipbuilders to work them into long planks and frames with their 


22 


Critical Path 


metal tools. In all my boatbuilding experience — of which I have had a lot — 
I have not found any craftsman sawing out long, delicately curved ship’s 
plankings and planing them with greater accuracy than in Bangkok. They 
make their planks so carefully that they fit watertightly together without 
any caulking. They dry the teak just enough to fashion it into ship’s planks, 
but the minute the ships are launched (for instance, as great rice-freighting 
hulls), enough moisture gets back into the wood to swell the planks water- 
tightly together. (What also fascinates is the incredible amount of rice being 
brought out to feed civilization — stored sometimes for months in boats’ bel- 
lyholds, which are absolutely dry-tight and never painted.) 

The Thais have had thousands of years of such boatbuilding experience. 
The entire evolutionary history of great boatbuilding is as yet manifestly 
alive on the Chao Phraya River. Every instance of the progressive stages of 
its evolution — from watertight teak bins mounted on rafts to the big-ribbed, 
deep-belly ships found in use there today — is in live operation. 

Anyone who is a sailor knows that ships have to have powerful and en- 
during fastenings of many kinds — nails, screws, and rivets — to hold fast the 
teak planking to the ribs, and myriads of rope cleatings, chain plates, etc. 
Nothing could better serve as fastenings than nonrusting bronze. Those 
Thai sailors and boatbuilders were the first to accidentally marry copper 
and tin to produce bronze and thereafter to use it purposefully in shipbuild- 
ing. Copper’s first great structural functioning came when combined with 
tin as bronze fastenings in ships. 

I am absolutely confident that Bangkok is the center of the beginnings of 
the best ship technology and design engineering of world-around civiliza- 
tion. Prototypes of every type of hull from gondolas to barges are there, in- 
cluding the prototypes of the powerfully ribbed, deep-bellied ships that the 
Phoenicians sailed across the Indian Ocean and to Mesopotamia, where the 
“Garden of Eden’’ story is played. When they attained big-rib ships, their 
sailors went readily out to sea whence their islanded forebears came. These 
improvements allowed them to go more directly into the wind. They could 
“beat” at a twenty-two-and-one-half-degree angle either side of the wind 
and “work to windward” rapidly. 

The sea-going traffic extended at first to the Malay Straits, then spread 
out into the Indian Ocean. As the interchange between different national- 
ities increased, so also each began to copy the best features of the others’ 
craft. The ships became composites of the sum-total experience gained 
throughout that general area. The merchants moved westward into the In- 
dian Ocean (which has reverse winds during the monsoon), but by this time 
they could go counter to the breeze. 

Thus it was that the dhow of the western Indian Ocean reached the Per- 


Speculative Prehistory of Humanity 


23 


sian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa. The men who as yet 
handle these dhows are extraordinary. They assume that their trade has 
been in continuous existence for at least 10,000 years. Their navigation must 
be meticulous. Considering the period that it would of necessity take to de- 
velop such vessels as theirs and to establish such a circulation, there is no 
reason at all to doubt their estimates. 

Among ships the dhow still sails the sharpest angle into the wind. This 
is the advantage of the triangular lateen sail, with its long spar attached to 
its short mast in such a manner that their angle of incidence is forty-five 
degrees. The front of the spar is heavier than the rear end, which projects 
into the sky. The balance is so exacting, however, that the sheeting does not 
have to be very rigid and the mast can act as a fulcrum. 

The dhow enabled sailors to go against the wind to a greater degree than 
they had ever done before. They could now sail to westward over great dis- 
tances — against prevailing currents. Out of this remarkable skill came a new 
phase of “world” seafarers. No longer subject to the vagaries of the ele- 
ments, they could make headway against them. 

After many thousands of years eastbound man became westbound. The 
former gave rise to the Eastern philosophy of “acceptance,” which still per- 
sists. The latter was a new development and fundamentally altered human- 
ity’s thinking. To the sailor God seems to be the prevailing winds and 
currents that carry one in a particular direction. To go against the wind or 
current, to “beat to windward,” is therefore a deliberate act against Him. 
Here began a concept of man being contrary to his God. 

In the early drifting-with-the-current-and-prevailing-wind days a large 
migrating of humanity occurred within the Pacific. The rafting colonists 
were swept along the coast of China into the Bering Straits by the Japan 
Current. There a bridge of land between the continents contributed consid- 
erably to the overland migration from the Orient to the coast of North 
America. The Japan Current carried the rafters to Alaska. It carried them 
to Mexico and Central America. It carried them to Colombia, Bolivia, and 
Peru. Thereafter the same current swept them back westward across the Pa- 
cific back to Austronesia, as Thor Heyerdahl proved with his raft Kon Tiki . 

As sailing-into-the-wind people headed westward from the Malay Straits, 
they crossed the Indian Ocean, arriving in Mesopotamia and on the east 
coast of Africa. From there they traveled overland to the Nile. Over 10,000 
years of continuous voyaging across the Indian Ocean by the dhow sea cap- 
tains evidences the deep-bellied, heavily keeled and ribbed engineering of 
their craft and its seaworthiness — and locates the origins of sea technology 
in the area of Ban Chiang. 

All civilization had its origins in the network of maritime interlinkages 


24 


Critical Path 



Figure 6. Dhow — ship with a continuous 10,000-year history of Indian Ocean 
crossings. 

of early cultures. Tension-capability is newly manifest in seagoing-born ten- 
sional skill and intellectual capability. Compressional capability is manifest 
of the land-born stone ages and the inertia of stone walls. At sea humanity 
entered into true technology — that of powerful tension-interfastening capa- 
bility. Bangkok itself is the prototype of all canal cities developed by later 
water-people around the world — for example, Venice and Amsterdam. Sam- 
pans are prototypes of Venetian gondolas later brought, covered, by the 
Phoenicians to Venice. (See map, page 42.) Bangkok seems to be the pro- 
totyping locale of the big-keel, big-ribbed, deep-bellied ships of both the Chi- 
na Sea and the Indian Ocean. 


CHAPTER 2 


Humans In Universe 


B efore the pictorially graphic record of the presence of human- 
ity aboard our planet began, there was no way for individuals to record 
their feelings and thoughts except as manifest in their tool-inventing. People 
must have been in critical life-sustaining need to have invented words. 
Words are tools, but their sounds could not be made to last under early his- 
tory’s conditions. Individually identifiable humans had no line of commu- 
nication reaching directly to us today, other than the evidence of humanity’s 
massive group work in carving, shaping, and building with stones, plus the 
nonidentifiable individual’s profuse handicrafting of small artifacts such as 
pottery, arrowheads, and beads. 

From the beginning of the pictorially recorded history — on walls, vases, 
jewelry — we gain more and more information regarding general human ex- 
periences, capabilities, thoughts, and motivations. For instance, it is evi- 
denced that throughout all earlier times until yesterday, the ruling social 
powers assumed the human masses to be universally ignorant and accred- 
ited them with having only muscle and dexterity value. The illiteracy of the 
masses was mistakenly interpreted as meaning that the commoner was in- 
herently lacking in intellect — just a “poor wretch.” As “the exception that 
proved the rule,” once in a rare while — by command of some “god” — a 
commoner apparently was endowed with creative powers and insights. The 
ease with which the erroneous assumption could be made that the masses 
are stupid is manifest when we realize how easily present-day humans, con- 
ditioned to speak only Americanese, could deceive themselves into mistak- 
ing for an “inherently illiterate Mongol” an ill-clothed, war-bruised, 
Chinese communist Ph.D. physicist, unable to speak Americanese or the lo- 
cal dialect. 


25 


26 


Critical Path 


During only the last few decades of the three and a half million years 
within which humans now are known to have been living aboard our planet 
Earth have the behavioral clues been increasingly sufficient to suggest that 
all humans, including the assumed-to-be “illiterates , ’ and “spastics,” are 
born with a comprehensive and superb inventory of subjectively apprehend- 
ing and synergetically comprehending faculties — as well as objectively ar- 
ticulating capabilities. This has not yet been formally acknowledged to be 
the case by the present educational establishments’ “capability accrediting 
boards.” Awareness of the foregoing has not as yet dawned amongst the po- 
litico-social pressure groups such as the labor unions, veterans’ organiza- 
tions, or parent-teacher associations. 

We may soon discover that all babies are born geniuses and only become 
degeniused by the erosive effects of unthinkingly maintained false assump- 
tions of the grown-ups, with their conventional ways of “bringing up” and 
“educating” their young. We now know that schools are the least favorable 
environment for learning. The home TV is far more effective, but we are al- 
lowing the big money-making advertisers to poison the information children 
assimilate in their four to five hours a day of spontaneous turning-on, look- 
ing at and listening to the TV. 

It is possible to identify some of the known faculties that we generally as- 
sumed to be coordinate in those whom society does concede to be adult ge- 
niuses. The publicly accredited characteristics of genius consist, for 
instance, of an actively self-attended intuition. The intuition, in turn, opens 
the conceptual and perceptual doors. With those doors self-opened, the in- 
nate faculties frequently combine and employ the individual’s scientific, ar- 
tistic, philosophical, and idealistic imaginings in producing physically 
talented, logical, far-sighted, and practical articulations. Leonardo da Vinci, 
who fortunately weathered the genius-eroding susceptibilities of childhood, 
manifested and coordinatingly employed all and more of such conceptual 
faculties and articulative capabilities. 

In the graphically recorded history of the last eight millennia, as well as 
in the dim twilight of pre-Indo-Chinese, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and 
South and Central American graphic documentations of history, there have 
appeared, from time to time, individuals who grew to maturity without los- 
ing the full inventory of their innate, intuitive, and spontaneously coordi- 
nate faculties. These unscathed individuals inaugurated whole new eras of 
physical environmental transformation so important as, in due course, to af- 
fect the lives of all ensuing humanity. We shall hereafter identify such un- 
scathed, comprehensively effective, and largely unidentified individual 
articulators as the artist-scientists of history. 

Since the dawn of the most meagerly revealed human history there have 
been a number of importantly distinct periods of historical transformation 


Humans in Universe 


27 


of both the physical and cosmological environments of society. Each of 
these eras has been opened by the artist-scientist. The invisible power struc- 
tures behind-the-visible-king first patronize and help to develop the artist- 
scientists’ advanced-environment breakthroughs, but always go on, ever 
more selfishly, to overexploit the breakthroughs. 

The environment — everything that is “not me’’ — is subdivisible into two 
parts, physical and metaphysical. The metaphysical environment consists of 
human thoughts, generalized principles and customs. The artist-scientist 
types seem to have avoided attempting to reform the metaphysical environ- 
ment. They are documented only by their employment of the cosmic laws — 
generalized principles — to reorganize the physical constituents of the liv- 
ingry and the scenery. The artist-scientists apparently assumed intuitively 
that a more man-favoring rearrangement of the environment would be con- 
ducive to humanity’s spontaneous self-realization of its higher potentials. 
Human travelers coming to a river and finding a bridge across it sponta- 
neously use the bridge instead of hazarding themselves in the torrents. 

Scientist-artists originally conceived and designed the bridges. The power- 
structure-behind-the-king, seeing great exploitability of the bridge for their 
own advantaging, accredited the workers and materials to build the bridges. 

Physiology and biology make it clear that at the outset of graphically re- 
corded history a universally illiterate — but probably not unintelligent — hu- 
manity was endowed with innate and spontaneously self-regenerative drives 
of hunger, thirst, and species regeneration. The a priori chemical, electro- 
magnetic, atomistic, genetic, and synergetic designing of these innate drives 
apparently was instituted by a wisdom — a formulative capability inherent in 
Universe — higher than that possessed by any known living humans. These 
drives probably were designed into humans to ensure that human life and 
the human mind — long unacknowledged as humanity’s highest faculty — ul- 
timately would discover its own significance and would become established 
and most importantly operative not only aboard planet Earth, but also in 
respect to vast, locally evidenced aspects of Universe. As such, mind may 
come not only to demonstrate supremacy over humanity’s physical muscle 
but also to render forevermore utterly innocuous and impotent the muscle- 
augmented weapons and the latter’s ballistic hitting powers. Mind possibly 
may serve as the essential, anti-entropic (syntropic) function for eternally 
conserving the omni-interaccommodative, nonsimultaneous, and only par- 
tially overlapping, omni-intertransforming, self-regenerating scenario — 
which we speak of as “Universe.’’ 

Mind, operative aboard our planet Earth and probably elsewhere in Uni- 
verse in a myriad of effective circumstances, can and may perform the par- 
amount function of conserving the scenario “Universe.’’ If so, it will have 
to be accomplished by apprehending, comprehending, and teleologically 


28 


Critical Path 


employing the metaphysical, weightless, omni-intercooperative generalized 
principles of Universe in strategically effective degree and within a critical 
time limit. 

This can be accomplished in progressively more effective ways — for in- 
stance, by Earthians competently “fielding” all those physical energy incre- 
ments entropically broadcast by the stars, which happen to impinge 
kinetically upon our Earth as it orbits the Sun. Employing the appropriate 
biological and physiological principles, these receipts must be collected, 
sorted, analyzed, synergetically comprehended, and symmetrically com- 
bined into complex but orderly, macro-and-micro-cohering aggregates. 
Therewith, they must be added into the Earth biosphere’s resource-conserv- 
ing and -storing inventory. It is seemingly manifest by the comprehensively 
considered record that the task of metaphysical intellect is to cooperate with 
evolution as a major syntropic factor by collecting, sorting, and symmetri- 
cally combining information into ever more advantageous and orderly pat- 
terns, i.e., designs, to offset the physical Universe’s macrocosmic proclivities 
of becoming locally ever more dissynchronous, asymmetric, diffuse, and 
multiplyingly expansive. 

The kinetic intercomplementarity of finite Universe requires that what 
disassociates here must associate there — and also there. High-pressure con- 
ditions at one point are balanced by low pressures elsewhere. The stars are 
all radiantly dissipating energy. The Earth, however, is a celestial center 
where energies from the stars are being collected and photosynthetically 
combined in an orderly molecular assembly as hydrocarbons, which are 
consumed by orderly designed species, and then self-multiply to make these 
biological species grow, undergo transformations, and eventually be buried 
deeply beneath the Earth’s surface. When, after many billions of years, 
enough orderly-molecule energy has been impounded aboard our spherical 
space vehicle Earth, the Earth itself will become a radiant star, as the dis- 
cards of other burned-out and dissipated stars are concurrently aggregated 
in billions of local elsewheres — some trillions of years hence also to become 
stars. 

No factor operative aboard our planet is so effective in aggregating, re- 
organizing, concentrating, and refining the disorderly, random resource re- 
ceipts as is the human mind. Human mind has discovered a number of 
cosmic laws — generalized scientific principles. Objectively employing a plu- 
rality of the cosmic laws, human mind developed the computer, whose com- 
bined information storage and retrieval vastly augmented human brain’s 
information storing, retrieving, and formulative disclosings — ergo, magnif- 
icently augmenting human mind’s local Universe problem-solving task and 
rendering that cosmic functioning of human mind highly effective. 


Humans in Universe 


29 


Mathematics constitutes human mind’s most cosmically powerful faculty. 
How did human mind develop progressively its mathematical functioning? 

* * * 

Trigonometry had to start with sea-people. It is the conclusion of British, 
German, and U.S.A. navies’ experts that celestial — offshore — navigation be- 
gan with the South Pacific’s island peoples. Much has been published on 
this subject. What is not as well published is the fact that the navigators on 
all those islands live entirely apart from the other humans in their native 
groups. 

When the supposedly God-ordained chieftain of those islands finds his 
prestige and popular credence declining, he can go to the navigator and ask 
him to produce a miracle. The chieftain does not know of the navigator as 
such. The chieftain knows naught of navigation. He thinks of the navigator 
as a magician or miracle-maker. All the chieftain knows is that his miracle- 
producer goes off to sea sailing his catamaran out of sight on the ocean. The 
navigator, using his well remembered, unique patternings of the stars and 
the ocean currents, water temperatures, and major ‘‘old-seas” patterns, goes 
to another far-off island where there exist shells or trees or stones or other 
items such as have never been and probably never will be found on the home 
island. The navigator brings this foreign item back to the island king-chief- 
tain, who displays it before the people, who spontaneously assume that the 
chieftain has conjured the strange object into existence with his divine pow- 
ers — and the chieftain’s accreditation as being divinely instituted is restored. 

We can now comprehend the succession of events by which, generations 
later, prehistory’s successors of the ancient navigators eventually became 
the high priests of Egypt, Babylon, and other great civilizations. Both their 
evolutingly developed mathematical calculating capability and their naviga- 
tional intuiting ultimately led to their discovery that the Earth is a circum- 
navigatable sphere. This knowledge made them more powerful than the 
physically powerful fighting kings. 

Offshore, with no familiar landmarks to guide them, early water-peoples 
learned through necessity and invention how to sail their ships on courses 
running between any two well-recognized stars co-occurring diametrically 
opposite one another above the sky’s circular horizon at various given times 
of the night and reliably reappearing in the same pattern in any geograph- 
ical area on any given day of the year. Any two prominent, easy-to-recog- 
nize stars in the sky gave the unique course for the ship to follow. The point 
on the mast, B, at which the bright star in the sky toward which they sailed 
occurred at any given time of observation, and the point C, at which the 
boom of their sail contacted the mast, and the point A, at which the stem- 


30 


Critical Path 


standing or -sitting helmsman’s eye occurs, gave the three corner points of 
a right triangle whose three angles, A, B, and C, always sum-totalled 180 
degrees. This 180-degree sum-total angular constancy of any plane triangle 
formed the basis of all plane trigonometry. 

If one of the three angles of a triangle is a right angle, then all the vari- 
ation takes place only between the two other angles, whose angular sum will 
always equal that of the constant right angle (ninety degrees). 

With their ship’s (or raft’s) masts mounted perpendicularly (at right an- 
gles, vertically) to their ship’s or hull’s waterline, they steered the ship at 
night by keeping the mast always lined on the approached star — as long as 
the Earth’s rotation allowed the sight of that star to remain in a usable 
line of sight. The angle of elevation of the approached star could be sight- 
ingly measured by the helmsman observing, from the stern, the star’s ever- 
changing height on the mast as sightingly identified, for instance, by the 
mast’s sail-luff rings, which elevation altered as the Earth revolved during 
the night within the spheric array of Universe stars. With days, months, 
years, and lifetimes of such observing, measuring, and calculating, the sea- 
people gradually evolved trigonometry. (See Fig. 7.) 

Their ten fingers and ten toes, the ankles of their two legs, the slender 
wrists of their two arms and their necks served as rods on which to slide 
bracelets or necklaces or rings of bone, rope, bent wood, or dried seaweed. 
The number of bracelets on their right-side ankles, wrists, and fingers could 
be made to correspond to the human-foot-length-spaced-apart vertical inter- 
vals on their masts occurring between the rings holding their sails to the 
mast, and the number of bracelets on their left-side ankles, wrists, and fin- 
gers could be made to correspond to the number of ribs of their ship, which 
also occurred horizontally a foot-length apart, between the foot of the mast 
and where the observing helmsman sat in the stern of the ship or raft. That’s 
one of the ways in which sailors learned how to calculate the relative lengths 
of the two right-angle-forming edges of their triangular sail. The right angle 
of their triangle occurred between the mast and the ship’s horizontal plane. 
The vertical and horizontal lines represented the two measurable sides a and 
b of the right triangle. 

You and I learned at school that if we multiply a number by itself we ob- 
tain the second power of that number (N X N = N 2 ). We also learned that 
the sum of the second power of sides a and b of our right triangle always 
equals the second power of the third side c — the hypotenuse of our right tri- 
angle. 

With this information and the ankle, wrist, and finger rings with which 
to multiply and divide, the sailor-navigator could learn the exact lengths of 
all three edges of his right triangle, and he soon learned that the angles op- 
posite each edge of the triangle were proportioned to the angles opposite 


Humans in Universe 


31 


We are not suggesting that the craft herewith 
illustrated was an ancient rig . It is a fairly 
modern rig. What we say about B (some point aloft 
in the rigging), A (the position of the 
steering man’s eye), and C (the position on deck 
or foot of a mast at the same level as the steering 
man’s eye) would apply to any rig of sailing ship 



Figure 7. Using Ship Mast for Navigational Trigonometry. 

them (A/a = B/b = C/c). Thus, these sailor-navigators learned of the con- 
stancy of the angle above the horizon of any given observed star as seen 
from any given geographical position at any given time of any given night 
of the year. From these crude beginnings they gradually evolved formalized 
frames of shell beads mounted slidably on wooden rods with which to re- 
cord their observed measurement numbers and to carry out the calculations. 
These devices eventually developed into the abacus, with which they could 
swiftly multiply and divide. 

The earliest sailor-navigators also made complex ocean maps by super- 
imposing straight bamboo sticks on one another, horizontally in a flat plane, 
each stick representing the North-Star-referenced ocean-course direction 
running between any two known geographical points as progressively ref- 
erenced to the prominent star points visible at the beginning of their voyage. 
The complex of sticks showed the relative angular interrelationships of the 
different ocean courses running between the well-known stars sightable 
above the circular horizon and opposite one another. 

In its westward voyaging-trendings from its South Pacific and Indian 


32 


Critical Path 


Ocean beginnings (among water-peoples) to overland traveling in India and 
caravaning in China and Southeast Asia, mathematics gradually lost much 
of its earlier natural cosmic grandeur and that grandeur’s intuition-inspiring 
discovery of relevant environment interrelationships. 

Subsequently the abacus provided a facile means of accumulating pro- 
gressive products of multiplication by moving those products ever further 
leftward, column-by-column, as the operator filled the available bead spaces 
one by one and moved the excess over ten into the successive right-to-left- 
ward columns. 

Obviously, number products in even tens (such as the number 20) leave 
the first right-hand column empty. When the expert abacus-user lost his 
abacus overboard or by accidental burial in the desert sand, he could re- 
member and visualize its operation so clearly that all he needed to know was 
the problem-developed content of each column in order to develop any mul- 
tiplication or division. He then invented symbols for the content of each col- 
umn to replace drawing a picture of the number of beads — the symbol 3 Was 
quicker than making three pictures. Having developed symbols to express 
the contents of each column, he had to invent a symbol for the numberless 
content of the empty column — that symbol became known to the Arabs as 
the sifr; to the Romans as cifra; and to the English as cipher (our modern 
zero). 

Prior to the appearance of the cipher, Roman numerals had been invented 
to enable completely illiterate servants to keep “scores” of one-by-one oc- 
curring events — for example, a man would stand by a gate and make a mark 
every time a lamb was driven through the lamb-size gate. The more complex 
Roman numerals were those used by the supervisors, keeping count by their 
fingers — a V for five (the angle between his thumb and the other four fin- 
gers) and X for ten (representing the supervisor’s crossed index fingers.) 
Since one cannot see “no sheep” and cannot eat “no sheep,” the Roman 
world seemingly had no need for a symbol for nothing. Only an abacus’s 
empty column could produce the human experience that called for the in- 
vention of the ciphra — the symbol for “nothing.” 

When I first attended school, the older tradespeople in my town — the 
drugstore man, the butcher, the hardware man — who had known me since 
my babyhood and were my natural friends, each asked me, “Have you 
learned to do your ciphers yet?” The discovery of the symbol for nothing 
became everything to humanity. The cipher alone made possible humanity’s 
escape from the 1700-year monopoly of all its calculating functions by the 
power structure operating invisibly behind the church’s ordained few. 

The from-the-Indian-Ocean-landed navigator-priests’ 3000 B.c. Babylo- 
nian geometry is spherical — omnidirectional. Apparently seeking to 


Humans in Universe 


33 


discover nature’s time-inclusive, four-dimensionally comprehensive, mathe- 
matical coordinate system, the Babylonians failed only in their early attempt 
to correlate their 360-degree great circle’s central-angle-determined arcs’ 
subdivisions into degrees, minutes, and seconds with time’s hours, minutes, 
and seconds, but they did discover that the cosmically generalized, closed- 
spherical-surface system was maximally divisible into 120 spherical right tri- 
angles, 60 positive and 60 negative. This greatest-common-denominator 
sixtyness probably occasioned the Babylonians’ adoption of 60 minutes and 
60 seconds as the arithmetically absolute, numerically maximum common 
divisor of all finite systems and of their subsystems. It was factorable by all 
four of the first prime numbers, 1, 2, 3, 5. 

For reasons unknown to us a retrogression in mathematical conception- 
ing emerges, possibly as a consequence of the navigator-priests foreseeing 
that their power would deteriorate if the kings or other people caught on 
to too much of their calculating capability. Egypt’s artists visually portrayed 
all humans and animals only as one-plane, flat silhouettes. In a similar way 
the Greek and Egyptian geometers — as, for instance, Euclid in 300 B.c. — 
retrogressed into two-dimensional plane geometry from the Babylonians’ 
omnidimensional, finite-system, experience-invoked time dimension. The 
Greeks and Egyptians became concerned only with omnilaterally, infinitely 
extensible plane geometry and its “square”-unit of areal subdivision. Super- 
imposed upon this plane, two-dimensional base the Greek and Egyptian ge- 
ometers subsequently developed a timeless, weightless, temperatureless, 
three-dimensional, cubical coordinate system whose squares and cubes were 
geometrically irreconcilable with a spherical Earth and all the other radia- 
tionally and gravitationally divergent-convergent, inherently nucleated, fi- 
nite, spherical systems’ growths and shrinkages — electromagnetic and 
acoustical, spherically gradient wave propagations. 

All geometrical proofs of the Euclidean Greeks had to originate in the 
two-dimensional plane geometry and not in the three-dimensional configu- 
ration or four-dimensional temperatured, weighted, and lengthed reality. 

While some individual scholars were evolving their geometry, others were 
evolving nongeometrical methods of communication. 

The ability of humans to write in vertical or horizontal lines of symbolic 
forms — i.e., Tartarian picto-linguistic, hieroglyphics, cuneiform, Linear A, 
Linear B, and so on — required great expertise and was not commonly use- 
ful. In 1500 B.c. the Phoenicians invented letters for each known mouth- 
and-lungs-articulated sound. Having developed phonetic pronunciation of 
each letter, they therefrom evolved combined pronunciation of each word. 
Five hundred years later, in 1000 B.C., the Greek language, employing the 
Phoenician phonetic spelling concept, developed the twenty-four pro- 


34 


Critical Path 


nounceable letters which are the same as those used in the Greek writing 
of present-day — late-twentieth-century-A.D. — Greece. This phonetic form 
made practical the individual scientists’ own recording of their own 
thoughts as well as the thoughts of others. 

As yet convergently-divergently omniconsiderate, in the manner of the 
Babylonians, and thinking microcosmically, the Greek Democritus in 460 
B.c. was the first known human to conceive of a smallest cosmic entity. He 
named it the “atom.” 

Thinking macrocosmically, the Greek Pythagorean scientists of 600 to 
400 B.C., situated to the north of Athens, were the first people known and 
recorded to think of our world as a spherical entity. In 410 B.c. the Pythag- 
orean Philolaeus was the first to describe the Earth as a spherical body in 
motion around a central cosmic fire. He also conceived of the stars, the Sun, 
the Moon, and five planets — Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn — 
as spherical bodies. His Sun was not at the center of the planetary system’s 
motion. There is a possibility that he was thinking in galactic, rather than 
in solar-centered, terms. 

In 350 B.c. the latter-day Pythagorean Heraclides was the first to con- 
ceive of the Earth sphere as spinning west to east. But Heraclides’ cosmos 
was as yet geocentric. His Earth spun at the center of the fixed-stars Uni- 
verse. 

Another Greek, Aristarchus, conceived around 200 B.c. of the spherical 
Sun as the center of the spherical planets’ orbital system as each planet re- 
volved individually around its own axis at its own unique rate while also or- 
biting the Sun in greater orbital time periods. For him all the stars were 
fixed, and the Moon revolved around the Earth. His unprecedented 
thoughts almost got him killed. 

Eratosthenes, in 200 B.C., measuringly calculated the circumference of 
Earth within 1.5-percent accuracy. He also made a map of the world run- 
ning from clearly identifiable England on the northwest to the (not so con- 
vincingly identified) mouth of the Ganges in the southeast. His map 
included all of Africa on the south (with a reasonably accurate foreshort- 
ened profiling of South Africa, which outline could not have been included 
by him had not such an around-Africa-voyaging been already accomplished 
and reported). 

It was also around 200 b.c. — as we learned authoritatively only five years 
ago — that the Phoenicians sailed from the Aegean Sea to both the east and 
west coasts of South America. Because of the prevailing winds the west 
coast of South America would be much more naturally reached from the 
Mediterranean by first sailing southward, rounding the southern tip of Af- 
rica, crossing the Indian Ocean northeastwardly on its main current to pass 
just north of Australia, then turning northward with the Japan Current and 


Humans in Universe 


35 


the prevailing winds to transit China, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands to 
Alaska, and then on the same current southwardly to the west coasts of 
both North and South America, where the most recent deciphering of the 
prephonetic Phoenician code makes clear that the Phoenicians had landed. 
Locally documented in stone carving, this occurred circa 200 B.c. — ergo, 
was contemporary with Eratosthenes’ map-making. Then, after stopping on 
the west coast of South America, the Phoenicians probably followed the 
coast southward until the “Roaring Forties” winds and current swept them 
around the Horn into the South Atlantic, whence the northerly current took 
them along South America’s east coast. Here they made another stone-carv- 
ing-recorded stop. Thereafter the Atlantic Gulf Stream swept them north- 
wardly, then westwardly, along the northern coast of South America, 
through the Lesser and Greater Antilles, all the way westward to the Pan- 
ama Isthmus, then north from Yucatan into the Gulf of Mexico, then south- 
ward north of Cuba around Florida, then with the Gulf Stream, diverted 
northward by the Virgin and Bahama islands into the swiftly flowing North 
Atlantic Gulf Stream, past Cape Hatteras, Nova Scotia, south of Greenland, 
Iceland, and Spitzbergen, where the ice forced them to go westward until 
they discovered their familiar Scandinavia, British Isles, etc., from which 
they returned home to the Mediterranean and to Carthage on the north 
coast of Africa or to their capital port of Biblos on the eastern Mediterra- 
nean shore. 

I feel confident that Eratosthenes had knowledge of their circumnaviga- 
tion. Without a magnetic compass, sextant, or chronometer the Phoenicians 
were guided only by their familiarity with star constellations and driven by 
prevailing ocean currents, trade winds, and angular-pattern-informative-fol- 
lowing-of-coastlines. They kept recorded accounts of all changes in their 
course angularly as plotted against the star pattern and of the whole sky. 

The Phoenicians obviously had to subsist on fish and rainwater. 

As a sailor-navigator myself, I am confident that Eratosthenes would not 
have closed his map along its top edge if he had no knowledge of the fact 
that the Earth had been circumnavigated. The almost-closed, circular bay 
shown along the top edge of his map, which showed that such an experience 
occurred midway on the trips, is probably occasioned by the fact that the 
South and North Atlantic Gulf Stream sweeps deeply into the Caribbean 
Sea all the way to the isthmus of Panama and then through the Gulf of 
Mexico, as already recounted. (See Figs. 8 and 9.) 

Around the same year, 200 b.c., the Stoic philosopher Crates developed 
the first terrestrial globe — celestial globes preceded it. 

It is clear that a special chain of Greek scientist-philosopher-cosmologists 
consisting of Philolaeus (410 B.c.), Heraclides (350 B.c.), and Aristarchus 
(200 B.c.) had successively evolved a concept of the solar system that was 


Figure 8. Eratosthenes’ map, 200 b.c. 



Gulf Stream 


Humans in Universe 


37 


in fair agreement with that of Copernicus and Kepler 1700 years later (1543 
a.d.) and even with our late-twentieth-century conceptioning. 

It is also clear that beginning with Plato’s pupil Aristotle (384-322 B.c.) 
and the latter’s practical philosophy, the geocentric concept of the celestial 
system was, after 200 B.c., becoming more and more formally adopted by 
the “world’s” flat-minded power-structure “authorities,” despite contradic- 
tory complexities. The difficultly explained geocentric cosmic systems’ plan- 
etary behaviors and Sun motion was not considered by the authorities to be 
an objection since, as they rationalized it, these matters seemingly had no 
“practical” bearing on everyday affairs. It seems almost equally clear that 
between 200 B.c. and 200 a.d. a deliberately planned policy was adopted 
by the combined supreme political and religious power structure of that pe- 
riod, which undertook the conditioning of the human reflexes to miscon- 
ceive and mis-see (or mostly not see at all) the macro-micro-cosmic systems 
in which we live. Their success drew the curtains on science for 1700 
years — until 1500 a.d. That curtain would never again have been raised had 
it not been for the discovery of that something-called-nothing — the cipher. 
Because it was “nothing,” the information-monopolizing, physical-property- 
coveting power structure had overlooked it. 

Only the learned-from-others knowledge of the unlimited multiplying and 
dividing — and thereby ratioing — and the relative-experiences-evaluating ca- 
pability provided exclusively by the cipher and its leftward positioning of 
numbers in increments of ten integers, could make possible individual hu- 
man’s knowledge of how to escape from the prison of ignorance successfully 
established by the church-state hierarchy. If you have never been taught 
about the cipher and its functioning, there is almost no possibility of your 
accidentally discovering the computationally operative functioning of 
“nothing” — much less feel the necessity of inventing a symbol for that in- 
visible, senseless nothingness. If the positioning of numbers and its compu- 
tation-facilitating capability had been known by the Alexandrian Greeks, all 
chances that you might discover this were seemingly banished when the em- 
perors of the Roman Empire usurped and amalgamated the vast religious 
priesthood power with their already-established military supremacy. 

It was the Asiatic, 800 A.D. publishing of the function of the cipher by 
al-Khwarizmi the Arab that ultimately saved the day when, in about 1200 
A.D., knowledge of it reached northern Italy and southern Germany by way 
of Carthage in North Africa. 

Following the death of Christ and the preaching by his disciples, the 
promised prospect of salvation for all believers raised the Christian priest- 
hood to unprecedentedly powerful popularity. The combined religious and 
martial emperorship found its authoritarianly formulated credo (meaning “I 


Figure 9. Probable voyage in 200 B.c. of Phoenicians going with prevailing 
ocean currents and trade winds before days of magnetic compass-using, using 
only interstar lines of interrelationships. 



Atlantic 


Gulf / Stream 


,.yr • 



39 


Figure 10. Possible if not probable voyaging of Phoenicians in 250 b.c. to 
both west and east coasts of South America from Levantine Biblos. 



41 


Figure 11 . Early Circumnavigations 



42 


Humans in Universe 


43 


believe”) threatened by the b.c. Greek scientists’ ever-unorthodox thinking 
and discovering. “Science,” as Sir James Jeans said two millennia later, “is 
the earnest attempt to set in order the facts of experience.” Scientific think- 
ing constantly discovered experimental evidence of the erroneous concep- 
tioning of nonscientific authority. The emperor-pope did not want any of his 
subjects “attempting to set in order the facts of their own experiences.” 

To cope with the scientists’ persuasive, experience-supported logic, the 
emperor needed popularly plausible divine authority. Though all acknowl- 
edged the emperor to be the unquestioned military leader, with absolute 
physical power, he needed also the only-by-God-to-be-given metaphysical 
dispensation assertedly relayed to the ordained priests by the succession of 
popes, an authority that was originally received from the disciples and by 
the disciples from the son of God and his direct authority from God. Thus 
“officially authorized,” the pope-emperor could require all believers to se- 
cretly confess their sins to his officials. He could also ordain universal adop- 
tion of the most-useful-to-him explanations of the causality of all human 
experiences. The emperor-pope could tell his people how to behave, how to 
gain God’s favor. 

If the emperor-pope accredited the Alexandrian Greeks’ development of 
the Sun-centered planetary system, he obviously could not maintain the log- 
ic of the concept of a two-dimensional, flat-out world sandwiched in parallel 
between Heaven above and Hell below. The concept of God in Heaven 
above, with a seat beside Him to which Christ had ascended, could not be 
maintained except in a world of commonly parallel-to-one-another, up-and- 
down, perpendicular trees and people on an infinitely, omnilaterally extend- 
ed, flat-world plane — around which the Sun and stars set and rose. This 
cosmology put the emperor-pope and his God at the center of Universe. 

The total overall evolutionary events of 400 to 200 b.c. in the eastern 
Mediterranean world saw all the extraordinary Greek intellectual activity 
transpiring almost exclusively in the city of Alexandria — founded by Alex- 
ander the Great in 332 B.c. on the delta at the westernmost mouth of 
Egypt’s River Nile. In 100 B.c. the Alexandrian library was said to have 
contained 700,000 volumes, or manuscript scrolls. Fortunately some of 
those volumes in Alexandria were meticulously copied and distributed to li- 
braries around the civilized world of that time, for over 40,000 volumes of 
the Alexandrian library were burned in 47 B.c. during a siege in the war 
between Caesar and Pompey. 

In the second century a.d. Ptolemy conceived his conic, latitude-and-lon- 
gitude world map, reading from the British Isles in the west to China in the 
east. His Almagest publication contained a storehouse of navigational data. 
In the Almagest Ptolemy published his catalog of over 1000 stars. 


44 


Critical Path 


In 272 a.d. a Roman emperor burned the Alexandrian library for a sec- 
ond time. The third burning of the Alexandrian library was accomplished 
by a later Roman emperor in 391 a.d. In 529 a.d. all the Mediterranean 
universities were closed. In 642 a.d. occurred the final complete burning of 
the library of Alexandria by Muslims. 

As we have already described, the earliest known world maps are Era- 
tosthenes’ surprisingly informative 200 B.c. map and the 200 a.d., latitude- 
and-longitude-divided, fanlike, cylindrical stretch-out of Ptolemy, which 
dropped out the south African territory of Eratosthenes but included China, 
Arabia, and India. 

We have studied Eratosthenes’ world map of 200 B.c. in connection with 
the fact that we now know reliably that the Phoenicians reached both coasts 
of South America at about that time and that the Phoenicians sailed from 
and returned to Carthage on the north coast of Africa, or to their sover- 
eign’s eastern Mediterranean port just north of Beirut, Lebanon. From there 
cedars were shipped to Eratosthenes’ Alexandria in Egypt, to build the big- 
bellied, stoutly ribbed sailing ships. It is quite evident to us that Eratosthe- 
nes had great confidence that his world had been circumnavigated. He knew 
that we live on a spherical planet. Why else would he have been inspired 
to make his remarkably accurate measurement of the Earth’s circumference, 
etc.? 

The 200 b.c. coincidence of Eratosthenes’ world map, Crates’ world 
globe, and the Phoenicians’ sky-star-globe-advantaged circumnavigation is 
highly visible only when using my Dymaxion world map. Using Mercator’s, 
the polyconics, or other world projections, it would never have been logi- 
cally revealed. Of course, neither Eratosthenes nor the Phoenicians used the 
geographical names I employ. 

With the exception of the B.c. Greek, spherically informed world map- 
ping, all the post-Roman emperor-pope’s and pre-1500 a.d. comprehensive 
maps show the world as a flat-out system surrounded by an infinitely ex- 
tendable, planar wilderness. 

All the great pre-sixteenth-century empires — such as those of Genghis 
Khan, Alexander the Great, and Rome — employed that flat concept, with 
civilization centered around the Mediterranean, which means “sea in the 
middle of the land.” The people, in the times of Alexander the Great or of 
Caesar or of Saladin, all thought in that flat way. As yet today “simple, el- 
ementary, plane geometry” is used by and taught to beginners; “solid” is 
considered more difficult, and “spherical trig” even more advanced and 
difficult. 

The real consequences of that — psychologically, philosophically, and 
mathematically — are devastating. It means that “inside” the empire we have 


Figure 1 2 . Ptolemy Map, 200 b.c. 



45 


Tf 



46 


Critical Path 


something we call civilization, while “outside” the empire begins the un- 
known wilderness peopled with brutes and worse, and outside of that, live 
dragons, and beyond the dragons, flat infinity. What we have in flat-land 
is an only local definability, surrounded by flat-outward infinity — undefin- 
ability. 

This meant, then, that the Greeks, in attempting to communicate their 
mathematical conceptioning, defined the circle as “an area bound by a 
closed line of equal radius from one point,” the triangle as “an area bound 
by a closed line of three angles, three edges, and three vertices.” The Greeks 
talked only of the area that was “bound” as having validity and identity, 
while outside (on the other side of the boundary) existed only treacherous 
terrain leading outward to boundless infinity — an unknown and unknow- 
able wilderness. The feedback from this world view has ingrained funda- 
mental biases into our present-day thinking. We can conceive only of one 
side of a line as definable, organized, and valid. “Our side” is natural and 
right — “God’s country” — and vice versa. All humanity has thought of its 
own local area as being familiar, organized, and a priori, with all else remote 
and unthinkable. The Greeks oversimplified conceptioning with their mis- 
assumption that geometry could begin with plane geometry which they said 
employed only three tools: the straightedge, the scribe, and dividers. They 
failed altogether to include the surface on which they scribed as constituting 
an equally essential component of their otherwise experimentally demon- 
strated proofs of their various propositions. Because the earth of the Earth 
on which they scribed was so large and its limits were unknown to them, 
they concluded that it was an infinitely extended surface. They failed alto- 
gether to recognize the fact that you cannot have a surface of nothing. Any 
surface on which they scribed had to be a topological feature of a system. 
They obviously knew naught of Euler’s topology nor of my systems geom- 
etry (see Chapter 4, Synergetics , vol. 1). Systems always divide all Universe 
outside the system from all of the Universe inside the system. All systems 
are finite subdividers of macro- and micro-Universe. Not knowing that they 
were always scribing on a closed, finite system, the Greeks defined a plane 
geometrical polygon as “an area bound by a closed line of so many angles 
and edges.” They assumed that the area on the “outer” side of the line con- 
tinued laterally to infinity and was therefore undefinable. What their closed 
lines always did was to divide all the finite surface area of the polyhedronal 
system on which they scribed into two finite areas both of which were ex- 
actly bound by the surface-drawn polygon’s perimeter. Draw a triangle on 
the sand of a beach. You inadvertently divide all the surface of planet Earth 
into two areas, A and B — “A” the triangle which you consciously and vi- 
sually drew and “B” the enormous area on the “outside” of the consciously 


Humans in Universe 


47 


drawn triangle, consisting of all the rest of the surface of our spherical plan- 
et Earth. All that remaining surface of our spherical-surface Earth is bound 
by the closed-perimeter figure of “three angles and three edges” which you 
scribed in the sand. Unbeknownst to them, the Greek Euclideans were al- 
ways dealing in polyhedra of “system geometry.” Humans could not make 
a local Earth-surface triangle without inherently making a vast terrestrial- 
size triangle. The two terrestrial triangles, little A and vast B, in turn 
brought inherently into play the almost spherical, vastly high-frequency-tri- 
angulated polyhedronal system on whose surface they were scribing. This 
in turn and unbeknownst to them affected the rest of the Universe — the 
macro-Universe outside the system upon which they scribed and the micro- 
Universe inside the system upon which they scribed. Thus humans have al- 
ways unknowingly affected all Universe by every act and thought they 
articulate or even consider. 

Fortunately the unrealistic thinking of humans has had little effect on 
Universe and evolution whereas realistic thinking has cosmic effectiveness 
in pure principle. Realistic, comprehensively responsible, omnisystem-con- 
siderate, unselfish thinking on the part of humans does absolutely affect hu- 
man destiny. If the realistic thinking can conceive of technically feasible 
options facilitating satisfactorily effective human fulfillment of its designed 
functioning as local Universe information inventorying and local Universe 
problem-solving in support of the integrity of eternally regenerative Uni- 
verse, then the accomplishment of that realistic conceptioning is realistically 
effective in satisfying Universe that human mind is accomplishing its de- 
signed evolutionary role. 


* * * 

In our comprehensive reviewing of published, academically accepted his- 
tory we continually explore for the invisible power structure behind the vis- 
ible kings, prime ministers, czars, emperors, presidents, and other official 
head men, as well as for the underlying, hidden causes of individual wars 
and their long, drawn-out compaigns not disclosed by the widely published 
and popularly accepted causes of those wars. 

There may be great significance in the fact that Pythagoras in Greece and 
Buddha in the Orient occur at the same time — in the sixth century B.c. Both 
are powerfully, perceptively thinking and acting human individuals who, 
coming out of a past in which only the mystically ordained kings counted 
and humans were omniexpendable pawns, produced mathematical tools and 
philosophic breakthroughs for individual humans forever thereafter to em- 
ploy. Their scientific and philosophic gifts to humanity were in marked con- 
trast to the self-advantaging military conquests of kings. Pythagoras, in a 


48 


Critical Path 


little town north of Athens in the Near East, and Buddha, in the Far East, 
utterly unknown to one another, co-occur as a vast amount of moral and 
spiritual thinking is taking place in the Near East as recorded in the Old 
Testament of the “prophets.” Historical research indicates a succession of 
“Isaiahs” starting at about the same time as Pythagoras and Buddha and 
as the Greek school of scientists and scientific thinkers, running to 200 B.c. 
Isaiah the Second speaks of “turning the swords into plowshares and spears 
into pruning knives” and “leopard lying down with the lamb” and proph- 
esies “a little child shall lead them.” 

Nonrural, nonmilitary humans had words and mathematical tools and 
writing ability with which to initiate a breakthrough toward ultimate eman- 
cipation of all humans. 

Such individuals as Pythagoras and Buddha were unanticipated by the 
behind-the-scenes physical power structures. They were probably unnoticed 
at first. The ever-advancing scientific conceptioning of the Greeks between 
600 B.c. and 200 B.C., as well as the comprehension and thoroughness of 
the scriptural writers, suggest that not until about 200 B.c. did the great 
power structures operating behind the official states’ officers begin to find 
ways of putting brakes on the individual’s metaphysical breakthrough. The 
power structure then began to enter into the cosmological formulations and 
began to cut the ramifications of human conceptioning and cope-with-able 
magnitude. Humans had found that each one had a private “hotline” to 
God. What the power structures needed was a way to put in a control 
switchboard so that the individuals would have to “call up” God only 
through officialdom’s censor-supervised switchboard. 

For example, the Roman Catholic church, fortifying its proclaimed “di- 
vine mandate” as intermediary between the individual and God, attacked 
technology because it could eliminate the stresses of poverty, and much of 
Roman Catholic business and prosperity was founded on the exploitation 
of misery. The business strategists of the Vatican were inherently against 
abortion — pregnancy being the single greatest source of confessional and 
donation money to the Church. Herein lies the source of the Church’s per- 
sistent maintenance of its dogma and authority in the face of a technologi- 
cally emergent and potentially powerful humanity. 

* * * 

As described, before recording graphically its presence aboard our planet, 
humanity had no line of communication reaching directly to us today other 
than the physical sea and land building arts and handicrafting of small arti- 
facts, as well as their “designed” interrelationships to be read in the burial 
positions of the skeletons and their artifacts, etc. 


Humans in Universe 


49 


Everyone “knows” that as one goes inland from the sea, one comes to 
ever-higher mountains. It was thought that if one went far enough inland, 
one would come to a mountain reaching to Heaven — and occupied at its 
highest point by God. More and more durable cosmological models of this 
world view were built — with living god-kings assumedly to occupy the lesser 
heights after their death. How strong the king might be would govern the 
height of his mountain as surmounted by ever-higher central “mountain” 
pinnacles. These square-based cosmological models are the gats and wats of 
Southeast Asia, the pyramids of Central American Mayas and Incas, the 
Babylonian ziggurats and Egyptian pyramids. 

The design authority for the wats was probably that of the priest-navi- 
gators, whose architectural skills derived from their knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of boatbuilding. The world-around priest-navigator’s cosmological 
authority was responsible for the astronomical observatory structures as yet 
standing in India, Mesopotamia, Crete, Egypt, England, and Central 
America. 

In the early dawning of graphically chronicled civilization the wats in- 
volve gods of the sea and gods of the sky as well as gods of the underground 
land. The fire, smoke, and lava of volcanoes, well known to men, indicated 
that “down” led through the horizontal plane of the world into a Hell of 
brimstone and fire, just as “up” led everywhere exclusively toward the se- 
rene blue Heaven of the highest God. These cosmological-symbol edifices — 
the wats and gats — had no interior spaces for religious or royal-court cere- 
monies or for occupation by any living human except as an astronomer. 
They were developed by designer-priests and constructed by slaves only for 
the convenience of the livingly visible god-king’s after-death physical reas- 
cension from Earth to become once more an invisible god of Heaven, ca- 
pable of returning at any future time to resume human or any other 
convenient form. Like animals, ordinary humans (and human life) were ab- 
solutely expendable (either as slaves or as sacrifices). 

As recorded in the stone carvings of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the history 
of world society begins with humanity at large knowing nothing of physics, 
chemistry, or biology. Humans recognized but few safe edibles. Humans 
had witnessed many lethal poisonings by superficially attractive items 
plucked from the mysterious scenery. Infection was rampant. Average sur- 
vival was in the neighborhood of twenty-two years, or about one-third of 
the once-in-a-rare-while-demonstrated, biblically mentioned “three score 
and ten”-year life-span. Life was so fundamentally awful that no logic could 
persuade humanity to believe that the living experience was intended by the 
great God of Universe to be desirable in its own right. The only tenable as- 
sumption was that life on Earth was suffered only in preparation for a life 


50 


Critical Path 


hereafter. It was reasoned that the worse life on Earth proved to be, the bet- 
ter would be the suffering-earned life hereafter. Experience seemed to show 
that adequate sustenance in general was so fundamentally scarce that even 
in the hereafter none could conceive of there being adequate life support for 
other than the pharaoh. 

This being evident to all, it was commonly assumed that if the pharaoh — 
the people’s leader — could be safely delivered into the next world with all 
his sovereign equipment, thereafter he might be able to get all his people 
safely delivered to him in the afterlife paradise. 

Because life in this world was so torturously devoid of life support, des- 
peration drove humans to thievery and vandalism as a general way of life. 
To get the pharaoh and all his equipment and riches safely into the next 
world involved building a stone mountain on top of his burial chamber in 
the superstable form of the pyramid. This called for supreme engineering, 
designing, and large-scale building capability. Thus it came about that the 
economic-authority /patronage that employed and subsidized the pyramid- 
designing, architectural, engineering, and building efforts of the intuitive 
artist-scientist, poet, inventor, engineer, and initiator of the early Egyptian 
pyramid was exclusively the life hereafter of the pharaoh . 

The authority — to employ whatever technological capabilities he could 
muster from the nonobvious but intellectually conceptual resources hidden 
in the scenery — went to the artist-scientist-inventor to support his reorga- 
nization of environmental potentials for the advantage of the life hereafter 
of the pharaoh — and his most faithful servants. 

With all building there is a temporary, “make-ready,” structural scaffold- 
ing. The artist-scientist-inventors existing in the times of the earliest pha- 
raoh needed to elevate and move gargantuan, rectilinearly chiseled stone 
blocks into place. They could readily see that the thousands of slaves avail- 
able could shovel together great-approach hills of rock and sand, upon 
which they could first lay parallel tracks of delimbed tree trunks and there- 
after, with other tree trunks, could pry forward the wood-roller-mounted 
blocks of stone. The pharaoh’s creative architect may have been the first hu- 
man in history to conceive of the principle of the lever and its ability to 
move great rocks. Whoever he was, he proved that with ever longer and 
stouter levers he could vastly augment the musclework of whole armies of 
slaves; moreover, he discovered that the degree of work-advantage to be re- 
alized with various-size levers could be mathematically calculated. The pha- 
raoh died. They entombed him, and he supposedly went to the world of 
eternal hereafter accompanied by all his riches. When the pharaoh died, his 
artist-scientist-inventor was rewarded by being entombed with the pharaoh 
(along with the other most faithful servants) so that they could be the first 


Humans in Universe 


51 


of the pharaoh’s people to enjoy the blessings of the “hereafter.” But knowl- 
edge of the levering effectiveness remained in this world. 

The next architect-engineer genius for the next pharaoh, using the levers, 
wood-log rollers, and wood-log tracks invented by his predecessors, discov- 
ered that many of his army of slave workers were dying or unable to work 
for lack of adequate food. To correct this condition he conceived of shunting 
the waters of the Nile into slave-produced irrigation ditches, which led the 
Nile into the potentially fertile floodlands bordering the river. The artist- 
scientist rearranged the living environment in ways that technologically in- 
creased the human advantage of the “antechamber,” make-ready for the 
hereafter world. 

After each pharaoh’s entombment the principles first discovered and ob- 
jectively employed by the succession of Leonardo-type architect-engineers 
of the pyramids, the “scaffold”-phase tools such as the lever, were not for- 
gotten amongst the as-yet-living people. The departed architect-engineers 
left behind the irrigation ditches, which continued to irrigate and grow more 
food in this “antechamber-to-Heaven” world. The irrigation ditches did not 
disappear by going over into the hereafter. Use of these physical “scaffold- 
ing” capabilities in this pre-Heaven world by the living society persisted and 
multiplied, pharaoh by pharaoh. The technological inventiveness of the pha- 
raohs’ respective scientist-artist-architects became evolution’s comprehen- 
sive environment advancers. 

Finally, the inventory of technological “scaffolding equipment” employed 
in this rearranged-environment world in the predeath days of the pharaoh 
altered the spontaneous thinking of the living. The work effectiveness of the 
living slaves, as inventively led by the era’s artist-scientists, became so pro- 
digious that it became obviously possible not only to prepare magnificently 
for the most favorable afterlife of the living pharaoh but also to prepare 
magnificent, vandal-thwarting, stone-edifice-covered tombs for guarding the 
sub-pharaoh nobles’ entry into the afterlife. During the next succession of 
dynasties the progressively ever more prodigious inventory of environment- 
controlling technology, currently available in this world to serve as scaffold- 
ing for enshrinement of the eternal afterlife of the pharaoh and nobles, 
multiplied to such accelerating degree that in due course it became spon- 
taneously apparent to all concerned that the total of now-workable technol- 
ogy made possible accommodating the safe entry into the afterlife of the 
rich, middle-class society. 

The afterlife enshrinement of the prosperous middle class that occurred 
in the Greek and early Roman B.c. period brought about the development 
of carved marble mausoleums and burial urns. 

Eventually the environment-altering technological capability in this (for- 


52 


Critical Path 


99-percent-of-humanity-miserable) temporal activity, being conducted in 
this life to ensure the exclusive afterlife enjoyment only of kings, nobles, and 
middle-class-wealthy, became so vast that new human perception inspired 
the prophets Buddha, Christ, and Mohammed and probably vast numbers 
of other unknown, intelligent, and inspired humans to assume that there 
now existed adequate technical know-how and materials to build in-this- 
world-physical-“scaffolding” structures that would provide for safe entry 
into the afterlife not only of the king, nobles, and middle class, but also of 
all humanity, including the most lowly commoners and slaves. 

This did not occur in one day. There was a gradual dawning awareness 
on the part of a few that the changing technological capability vis-a-vis the 
environment promised a vast change in human affairs. This bred an era of 
prophets and thinkers heralding general human qualifications in this life for 
entry into the next life. The Old Testament is dramatic manifest of this 
period. 

For millennia, the progeny of the South Pacific island navigators, the 
navigator-priests of the Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia and Egypt had only the 
pharaohs to ferry over into Heaven. For another millennium they had only 
the nobles and the rich middle class to prepare for safe entry into the after- 
life. The priests’ beneficiaries constituted less than 1 percent of humanity. 
But, when everybody had potential entry into Heaven, we see the long-ago 
South Seas navigator-priests’ successors becoming very powerful popular 
authorities. 

The by-word-of-mouth news swiftly went round that all humanity could 
now be accommodated in the next world and would be welcomed there if 
individually qualifying in this world through devout acts and thoughts. The 
officially accredited representatives of God in this world gained enormous 
power through their function of tutoring for and passing on the qualifica- 
tions of individual humans in this world for passage into Heaven — the al- 
ternative being Hell. This power became swiftly annexed by the Holy 
Roman emperor-pope and, as we earlier described, gave rise to the vast Eu- 
ropean church-state empire and 1500 years of the Dark Ages. 

During the Dark Ages those individuals endowed with creative powers 
and insights seem by and large to have carefully avoided attempting to re- 
form the political, religious, or scientific status quo. The record shows the 
original thinkers and skilled artists to have employed only architecture, 
painting, sculpture, poetry, music, and dance to express their inspiration by 
their intuitively conceived, metaphysically generalized principles. The in- 
ventive individuals seem to have confined their inventiveness to technically 
facilitating the accepted customs — for instance, the development of movable 
type to augment the religious publishing. 

The highly organized physical-resource capabilities — to house the priests’ 


Humans in Universe 


53 


activities of getting everyone worthy into the next world — witnessed the 
construction of chapels, churches, cathedrals, synagogues, mosques, tem- 
ples, and vast monasteries in Europe and Asia Minor. Eventually the mag- 
nitude of in-this-life-physical-‘‘scaffolding’’ ’s technological development 
proliferated to such an extent that society began to realize that not only the 
afterlife of the king, the nobles, the rich middle class, and all the people, but 
also the living life of the king in this world, could be accommodated — and 
thus developed the divine-right-of-kings time. 

Next, the accommodation of living-life enjoyment, as well as of a glorious 
afterlife, was extended to certain invisible behind-the-throne-power-struc- 
ture individuals as well as the king. 

Next, the bounteous this-life as well as guaranteed next-life glory was ex- 
tended to the nobles — the Magna Carta time. 

With ever-accelerating technological development in preparing for every- 
one’s next life as well as the king’s and nobles’ this-life enjoyment, the time 
arrived when it became evident and was spontaneously realized that in ad- 
dition to attending to getting everyone but the unfortunate “to-Hell-bound 
sinners” into Heaven and providing the enjoyment of this life by both the 
king and the nobles, it was possible to take care of the enjoyment of this 
life by the rich middle-class society. This gave rise to the Victorian Age. 
Sometimes spoken of as the Industrial Revolution, this technological advan- 
taging of the rich middle class was enormously advantaged by the circa- 
1500 a.d. introduction of the cipher-permitted-engineering-and-scientific 
calculation. 

All the foregoing human-mind-invented scaffolding, technological advan- 
taging, and the all-history recording of the total accumulated inventory of 
artifacts and scientific discoveries, led to the opening of the twentieth cen- 
tury, when a handful of perceptive individuals, such as Henry Ford, saw 
that the total environment-advantaging technology had become so effective- 
ly developed that it made possible the advantaging not only of the afterlives 
but also of the lives of all humanity. Through the use of inanimate-power- 
driven industrial tools and mass-production techniques, the end products of 
these perceptive individuals’ designing could be made to advantage all hu- 
manity. 

Henry Ford, inspired by the farmer’s transportation needs, inaugurated 
the mass use of the invisible and ever-higher-performance-per-pound alloys 
and the invisible controls of ever-closer measuring of invisibly operating 
parts of the machinery, structure, and production tooling of his auto- 
mobiles. Ford developed the use of moving assembly lines. He concerned 
himself directly as the prime designer not only of his end product — the 
automobile — but also of his evolving machinery and structural technology 
and all the other supporting activities of final pertinence to the success of 


54 


Critical Path 


the massively reproductive industry — factories, tools, mining, transporting 
of raw materials all around the world, his own railroads and ships, massive- 
objects-loading equipment, communications, and information handling. 

All the foregoing physical-environmental rearrangements — advantaging 
both the afterlife and the living lives of all humanity — occurred under the 
conditions of humanity’s thinking of reality as consisting only of the phe- 
nomena that could be apprehended directly by humanity’s senses of sight, 
touch, hearing, smelling, and tasting. All invisible occurrences and phenom- 
ena were considered to be either mystical, magical, or trickery. 

Then came man’s discovery of electromagnetics, atomic physics, metal- 
lurgy, and chemistry, and the whole new world of invisible, nonsensorially 
contactable — ergo, only instrumentally or only mathematically apprehensi- 
ble — reality. Thereby, all of previous time’s mysteries were either logically 
explained or dismissed. Technology expanded reality 999-fold to include the 
whole range of the invisible events of Universe. These had been held pre- 
viously by humans to be magical and superstitiously mystical. Now they 
had become the realities of everyday pure and applied science. With the in- 
clusion of this 99-percent invisible world of reality, along with its as yet 
myriad of unsolved problems, into our everyday strictly sensual reality came 
the radio-introduced concepts of tuning-in and tuning-out. In yesterday’s 
two-universe — (1) life and (2) Heaven — thinking we had things and noth- 
ings. Things and space. “Life” and “Death.” Now we have tuned-in and 
tuned-out. “Tuned-out” does not mean dead. Without anyone saying so hu- 
manity’s need for two universes, “This Life” and “The Afterlife,” began to 
fade out as it realized that this life and its vast mysteries were all one. 

* * * 

In all the cosmological models of early civilizations, a wide, four-cornered 
planar Earth was surrounded by infinitely extensive waters, surmounted by 
ever-higher central “mountain” pinnacles. This discloses how the early hu- 
mans explained to themselves the sum of their experiences regarding the 
structure and operating scheme of their real world from out of whose east- 
ern watery extremity the Sun and stars rose, passed over, descended, 
plunged in under and out — then repeated. Because the Sun and stars quite 
obviously passed “over,” and returned “under,” it, the world was implied 
to be a thick but penetrable watery slab extending horizontally to infinity 
in all planar directions. All the perpendiculars then were extended in only 
two directions in relation to man’s erroneously conceived flat Earth. Those 
two exactly opposite, positive and negative, exclusively perpendicular direc- 
tions in respect to the horizontal Earth plane were the seemingly obvious 
concepts of “up” and “down.” 


Humans in Universe 


55 


This flat conceptioning is manifest right up to the present in such every- 
day expressions as “the wide, wide world” and “the four corners of the 
Earth.” As mentioned before, “up” and “down” are the parallel perpendicu- 
lars impinging upon this flat-out world. Only a flat-out world could have 
a Heaven to which to ascend and a Hell into which to descend. Both Christ 
and Mohammed, their followers said, ascended into Heaven from Jerusalem. 

Scientifically speaking (which is truthfully speaking), there are no direc- 
tions of “up” or “down” in Universe — there are only the angularly specifi- 
able directions “in,” “out,” and “around.” Out from Earth and into the 
Moon — or into Mars. IN is always a specific direction — IN is point-to-able. 
OUT is any direction. 

Don’t let these facts of comprehensive, human misorientation give you a 
personal inferiority complex. My own direct questioning of many large sci- 
entific audiences proves that all scientists as yet realistically “see” the Sun 
going “down” in the evening — though science has known for 500 years that 
this is untrue. Around the world nothing has ever been formally instituted 
in our educational systems to gear the human senses into spontaneous ac- 
cord with our scientific knowledge. In fact, much has been done and much 
has been left undone by powerful world institutions that prevents such re- 
orientation of our misconditioned reflexes. Our own misconditioned reflexes 
are powerful deterrents to our successful self-reorientation of our appre- 
hending faculties to accord with the emerging truths. Though I have been 
trying for fifty-three years to rid myself of the words up and down, I find 
them popping out in my speech. 

We now know that we do not live on a flat-slab Earth. We do live on 
board an 8000-mile-in-diameter spherical spaceship speeding around the 
Sun at 60,000 miles per hour, spinning axially as it orbits. None of the per- 
pendiculars to a sphere are parallel to one another. The first aviators flying 
completely around the Earth within its atmospheric mantle and gravitation- 
ally cohered to the planet, having completed half their circuit, did not feel 
“up-side-down.” They had to employ other words to correctly explain their 
experiences. So, aviators evolved the terms “coming-/>z” for a landing and 
“going -out,” not “down” and “up.” Those are the scientifically accreditable 
words — in and out. We can go only in, out, and around. 

The Astrodome of Houston has a spherical diameter of 800 feet. The 
planet Earth has a diameter of about 8000 miles. A nautical mile is approxi- 
mately 6000 feet. So, the Earth’s diameter is forty-eight million feet, which 
is 60,000 times the diameter of the sphere of which the Astrodome’s spheri- 
cal roof is a segment. The height of the Earth’s highest mountain, Mt. Ev- 
erest, is only one sixteen-hundredths the diameter of the real Earth. 

Houston’s Astrodome may be considered to be a one sixty-thousandth — 


56 


Critical Path 


1/60, 000th — scale model of a corresponding spherical segment of the real 
Earth. Mount Everest at the same 1/60, 000th scale would make only a six- 
inch-high mound on the Astrodome. At the same scale a human being 
standing on the Astrodome would be only one two-thousandths of an inch 
high — i.e., .002 inch. The smallest dimension you and I can see (with our 
naked eye) is one one-hundredth, .01, of an inch. So you and I are only one- 
fifth of the height necessary to be visible at the scale of the Astrodome, used 
as a 1/60,000 scale model of a corresponding central-angle spherical section 
of the planet Earth’s surface. It would require a dome five times the diam- 
eter of the Astrodome to make a scale model of the Earth on which you 
and I would appear as the smallest speck you and I can see. The Earth is 



Rectilinear Greek 
marble blocks and 
today’s rectilinear 
bricks are I aid- “up” 
in so locally tiered 
a manner as seeming to 
“prove” the Earth to be 
flat and that rectilinear 
blocks or cubes could 
fill allspace. 


Figure 13. 


Bridge, Trade Center, Parthenon 


Humans in Universe 


57 


San Francisco Hilton 



Figure 14. The around-the-world Hilton Hotels are clearly not parallel to one 
another. 


so big in comparison to you and me that it is physically impossible for hu- 
mans to see their Earth as other than flat. 

I have now flown entirely around the Earth forty-seven times by many 
different airline routes, and looking out the plane’s windows at the circular 
horizon and having never felt myself to be upside-down, I am beginning to 
realistically feel our Earth to be a sphere — but a very, very big sphere. 

* * * 

I clearly remember New Year’s Eve, December 31, 1899. I was four and 
a half. I had just received my eyeglasses and was deeply excited at all that 
I could now see. At 1 1:45 P.M. my father opened a window of our New En- 
gland home to let in the twentieth century. I remember with what earnest 
thinking he tried to envision the coming years in which I would live beyond 
his time. The British Empire was at its height of power and splendor. The 
“world,” as we know of it in 1980 after two official world wars and a third 
much more prolonged and ruthlessly vicious, unofficial world war, was ut- 
terly inconceivable. H. G. Wells was writing about a war in the air but he 


58 


Critical Path 


did not conceive of automobiles or electrons. About 99 percent of humanity 
was illiterate. Few, if any, individuals thought in world terms because the 
conceptual world of humanity at large was “infinite” — ergo, realistically un- 
think-about-able. Everyone “knew” that humans would never reach the 
Moon. Any who wasted their time thinking about doing so were dismissed 
as luna-tics. 

The British Empire was commanded from the British Isles by great busi- 
ness venturers — the world men who ruled the world’s oceans. The British 
Isles were found to be the most easily defendable shipbuilding bases and 
were conveniently positioned to rule the whole waterfront of all the Euro- 
pean customers of the venturers’ Oriental booty. Observing so many ships 
loaded with so many British sailors (shanghaied out of the British pubs), the 
world came to identify history’s most successful world-outlaw organization 
as “the British Empire.” 

This was the first empire of man to occur after we knew that the Earth 
was a sphere. A sphere is a mathematically finite, omnisymmetrical, closed 
system. A sphere is finite unity. (See §§ 224.07 Synergetics ; vol. 1.) 

As we described in our Introduction, Thomas Malthus, professor of po- 
litical economics of the East India Company College, was the first econo- 
mist ever to receive all the vital statistics and economic data from a closed- 
system world. Once the world is conceived of as a sphere — a finitely closed 
system — there was no longer an infinite number of possibilities, such as ac- 
companied the misconception of the infinitely extended flat-out world. In 
an infinite world, with its infinity of possibilities, praying was felt to be 
“worthwhile.” 

Because Earth had been discovered by its high-seas masters to be a closed 
and finite system, the great pirate venturers who controlled the seas took 
their scientists around the world to discover and disclose to them its exploit- 
able resources. Only because the Earth constituted a closed system could the 
scientists inspect, in effect, all the species, and only thus was Charles Dar- 
win able to develop the closed-system theory of “evolution of species.” Such 
a theory could not have existed before that. It would have had to include 
dragons and sea serpents. All the people in all the previous open-edged em- 
pires lived in a system within whose infinity anything could happen or exist. 
Paganism (or peasantism) wasn’t illogical. Geometrically speaking, the pa- 
gans could have an infinite number of gods. There were also an infinite 
number of chances of upsetting the local pattern, which was a most satis- 
fying idea if it happened that the individual didn’t like the prevailing local 
pattern. 

It seems strange that we were not taught about the historical, philosophi- 
cal, and economic significance of the foregoing transition from an open-flat 


Humans in Universe 


59 


to a closed-sphere world system. Because the churches were strong and the 
great pirates wished to obscure both their monopoly of the riches of the now 
limited system and their grand world ocean strategy for its control, the sig- 
nificance of the concept of a closed world system was popularly unrealized. 
The power structure and its patronized educational systems “let well 
enough alone.” 


CHAPTER 3 


Legally Piggily 


I ’m going to review my prehistory’s speculative assumptions regarding 
the origins of human power structures. 

In a herd of wild horses there’s a king stallion. Once in a while a young 
stallion is born bigger than the others. Immediately upon his attaining full 
growth, the king stallion gives him battle. Whichever one wins inseminates 
the herd. Darwin saw this as the way in which nature contrives to keep the 
strongest strains going. This battling for herd kingship is operative amongst 
almost all species of animal herds as well as in the “pecking order’’ of flock- 
ing bird types. 

I’m sure that amongst the earliest of human beings, every once in a while 
a man was born much bigger than the others. He didn’t ask to be — but there 
he was. And because he was bigger, people would say — each in their own 
esoteric language — “Mister, will you please reach one of those bananas for 
me, because I can’t reach them.’’ The big one obliges. Later the little people 
would say, “Mister, people over there have lost all of their bananas and they 
are dying of starvation, and they say they are going to come over here and 
kill us to get our bananas. You’re big — you get out in front and protect us.” 
And he would say, “OK,” and successfully protect them. 

The big one found his bigness continually being exploited. He would say 
to the littles, “Between these battles protecting you, I would like to get 
ready for the next battle. We could make up some weapons and things.” 
The people said, “All right. We’ll make you king. Now you tell us what to 
do.” So the big man becomes king quite logically. He could have become 
so in either a bullying or good-natured way, but the fact is that he was king 
simply because he was not only the biggest and the most physically powerful 
but also the most skillful and clever big one. 


60 


Legally Piggily 


61 


Every once in a while along would come another big man. “Mr. King, 
you’ve got things too easy around here. I’m going to take it away from you.” 
A big battle ensues between the two, and after the king has his challenger 
pinned down on his back, he says, “Mister, you were trying to kill me to 
take away my kingdom. But I’m not going to kill you because you’d make 
a good fighter, and I need fighters around here to cope with the enemies 
who keep coming. So I’m going to let you up now if you promise to fight 
for me. But don’t you ever forget — I can kill you. OK?” The man assents, 
so the king lets him up. 

But instinctively the king says secretly to himself, “I mustn’t ever allow 
two of those big guys to come at me together. I can lick any one of them, 
but only one by one.” The most important initial instinct of the most pow- 
erful individual or of his organized power structure is, “Divide to conquer, 
and to keep conquered, keep divided.” 

So our special-case king has now successfully defended his position 
against two or more big guys who are all good fighters. He makes one the 
“Duke of Hill A,” the second “Duke of Hill B,” and the third “Duke of 
Hill C,” and tells each one to “mind your own business” because “only the 
king minds everybody’s business,” and he has his spies watch them so that 
they can’t gang up on him. Thus, our considered king is doing very well in 
his tribe-defending battles. 

However, there are a lot of little nonfighting people who are not obeying 
the king regarding preparations for the next fighting period. The king says 
to his henchmen, “Seize that mischievous little character over there who is 
really being a nuisance around here.” To the prisoner the king says, “I’m 
going to have to cut your head off.” The man says, “Mr. King, you’d make 
a big mistake to cut my head off.” The king asks, “Why?” “Well, I’ll tell 
you, Mr. King, I understand the language of your enemy over the hill, and 
you don’t. And I heard him say what he is going to do to you and when 
he’s going to do it.” “Young man, you’ve got a good idea at last. You let 
me know every day what my enemy over the hill says he is going to do and 
so forth, and your head is going to stay on. In addition, you’re going to do 
something else you’ve never done before. You’re going to eat regularly right 
up here in the castle near me. And I’m going to have you wear a royal pur- 
ple jacket (so that I can keep track of you).” The king now has that little 
man under control and useful. Then another little man makes trouble for 
the king. As he is about to be beheaded, he shows the king that he under- 
stands metallurgy and can make better swords than anybody else. The king 
says, “You better make a good sword in a hurry.” The man makes a beau- 
tiful, superstrong, and sharp sword — there’s no question about that. So the 
king says, “OK, your head stays on. You, too, are to live here at the castle.” 


62 


Critical Path 


Next, under the threat of beheadment, another man making trouble for 
the king says, “The reason I am able to steal from you is because I under- 
stand arithmetic, which you don’t. If I do the arithmetic around here, peo- 
ple won’t be able to steal from you.’’ The king makes him court 
mathematician. 

As each of these men are given those special tasks to do for life, the king 
says to all of them, “Each of you mind only your own business. You, Mr. 
Languageman, mind only your own business; and you, Mr. Swordmaker, 
mind only your own business; and you, Mr. Arithmetic, mind only your 
own business. Each one minds only his own business. I’m the only one that 
minds everyone’s business. Is that perfectly clear?’’ “Yes sir.’’ “Yes sir.” 
“Yes sir.” 

The king now has his kingdom operating very well. He has great fighters, 
superior metallurgy, better arithmetic and logistics, better spying and intel- 
ligence. His kingdom is growing ever bigger. Years go by, and these experts 
are getting old. The king says, “I want to leave this kingdom to my grand- 
son. Mr. Languageman, I want you to pick out and teach some younger per- 
son about language. You, Mr. Swordmaker, I want you to pick out and 
teach somebody about metallurgy. You, Mr. Arithmetic, I want you to pick 
out and teach someone about arithmetic.” And his total strategy became the 
pattern for the ultimate founding of Oxford University. 

The way the power structure keeps the wit and cunning of the intelligent- 
sia — who are not musclemen, who cannot do the physical fighting — from 
making trouble for the power structure (if the intelligentsia are too broadly 
informed, unwatched, and with time of their own in which to think) is to 
make each one a specialist with tools and an office or lab. That is exactly 
why bright people today have become streamlined into specialists. 

Nobody is born a specialist. Every child is born with comprehensive in- 
terests, asking the most comprehensively logical and relevant questions. 
Pointing to the logs burning in the fireplace, one child asked me, “What is 
fire?” I answered, “Fire is the Sun unwinding from the tree’s log. The Earth 
revolves and the trees revolve as the radiation from the Sun’s flame reaches 
the revolving planet Earth. By photosynthesis the green buds and leaves of 
the tree convert that Sun radiation into hydrocarbon molecules, which form 
into the bio-cells of the green, outer, cambium layer of the tree. The tree 
is a tetrahedron that makes a cone as it revolves. The tree’s three tetrahedral 
roots spread out into the ground to anchor the tree and get water. Each year 
the new, outer-layer, green-tree cone revolves 365 turns, and every year the 
tree grows its new tender-green, bio-cell cone layer just under the bark and 
over the accumulating cones of previous years. Each ring of the many rings 
of the saw-cut log is one year’s Sun-energy impoundment. So the fire is the 
many-years-of-Sun-flame-winding now unwinding from the tree. When the 


Legally Piggily 


63 


log fire pop-sparks, it is letting go a very sunny day long ago, and doing so 
in a hurry.” Conventionally educated grown-ups rarely know how to answer 
such questions. They’re all too specialized. 

If nature wanted humans to be specialists, she would, for instance, have 
given them a microscope on one eye, which is what nature has done with 
all other living organisms — other than humans. Each has special, organical- 
ly integral equipment with which to cope successfully with special condi- 
tions in special environments. The low-slung hound to follow the Earth-top 
scent of another creature through the thickets and woods . . . the little vine 
that can grow only along certain stretches of the Amazon River ... the bird 
with beautiful wings with which to fly, which bird however, when landed 
and in need of walking, is greatly hampered by its integral but now useless 
wings. 

Humans are not unique in possessing brains that always and only are co- 
ordinating and storing for later retrieval the integrated information coming 
in from each and all the creature’s senses — visual, aural, tactile, and olfac- 
tory. Humans are unique in respect to all other creatures in that they also 
have minds that can discover constantly varying interrelationships existing 
only between a number of special case experiences as individually appre- 
hended by their brains, which covarying interrelationship rates can only be 
expressed mathematically. For example, human minds discovered the law 
of relative interattractiveness of celestial bodies, whose initial intensity is the 
product of the masses of any two such celestial bodies, while the force of 
whose interattractiveness varies inversely as the second power of the arith- 
metical interdistancing increases. 

The human mind of Bernoulli discovered the mathematical expression of 
the laws of intercovarying pressure differentials in gases under varying con- 
ditions of shape and velocity of gas flow around and by interfering bodies. 
The Wright brothers’ wing foils provided human flight, but not the infor- 
mation controlling the mathematics of varying wing foil conformations. 
Bernoulli’s work made possible the mathematical improvement in speed and 
energy efficiency of various wing designs. Human mind’s access to the 
mathematics of generalized scientific laws governing physical phenomena in 
general made possible humanity’s production of its own detached-from-self 
wings to outfly all birds in speed and altitude, while being able to loan one 
another those wings and modify them to produce even better wings. 

* * * 

I’m sure our human forebears went through quite a period of giants and 
giant-affairs evolution. These probably led to all sorts of truth-founded leg- 
ends from which fairy stories were developed, many of which are probably 
quite close to the facts of unwritten history. Then humans developed to the 


64 


Critical Path 


point at which a small man made a weapon, a stone-slinger, such as in the 
story of David and Goliath, with which the little man slays the big man by 
virtue of a muscle-impelled missile. At the U.S. Naval Academy “ballistics” 
is defined as: the art and science of controlling the trajectory of an explo- 
sively hurled missile. After the sling and spear we got the bow and arrow 
with which a small man could kill a big man at much greater distance than 
with spear or sling. So skill and human-muscle-impelled weapons ended the 
era of giants. 

Discovery of energetic principles, and human inventiveness in using those 
principles, such as the invention of catapults and mechanically contracted, 
steel-spring-coil arrow impelment, advanced the art of weapons. The human 
power structures that could best organize and marshal the complex of in- 
teressential “best” weapons and support an army of best-trained people with 
each of the special types of weapons were the ones who now won the battles 
and ran the big human “show.” The discovery of gunpowder by 
the Chinese and the invention of guns introduced the era of ballistics, or as 
the Navy terms it, “explosively hurled missiles.” 

Going back to the stone-sling, bow-and-arrow, spear, club, and knife era 
of weapons, we find that territorial battles between American Indian nations 
were fought over the local hunting and fishing rights, but the land itself al- 
ways belonged to the Great Spirit. To the Indians it was obvious that hu- 
mans could not own the land. There was never any idea that the people 
could own land — owning was an eternal, omniscient omnipotence unique to 
the greatness, universality, and integrity of the forever-to-humans-mysteri- 
ous Great Spirit. Until a special human-produced change in the evolution 
of power structures occurred, the ownership of anything being unique to the 
Great Spirit — in whatever way that might be designated by local humans — 
was held by all people around our planet. 

In 1851 Seattle, chief of the Suquamish and other Indian tribes around 
Washington’s Puget Sound, delivered what is considered to be one of the 
most beautiful and profound environmental statements ever made. The city 
of Seattle is named for the chief, whose speech was in response to a pro- 
posed treaty under which the Indians were persuaded to sell two million 
acres of land for $150,000. 

How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange 
to us. 

If we do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how 
can you buy them? 

Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, 
every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clearing and humming 
insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people. The sap which 
courses through the trees carries the memories of the red man. 


Legally Piggily 


65 


The white man’s dead forget the country of their birth when they go to walk 
among the stars. Our dead never forget this beautiful earth, for it is the mother 
of the red man. We are part of the earth and it is part of us. The perfumed 
flowers are our sisters; the deer, the horse, the great eagle, these are our broth- 
ers. The rocky crests, the juices in the meadows, the body heat of the pony, 
and man — all belong to the same family. 

So, when the Great Chief in Washington sends word that he wishes to buy 
our land, he asks much of us. The Great Chief sends word he will reserve us 
a place so that we can live comfortably to ourselves. He will be our father and 
we will be his children. 

So we will consider your offer to buy our land. But it will not be easy. For 
this land is sacred to us. This shining water that moves in the streams and riv- 
ers is not just water but the blood of our ancestors. If we sell you land, you 
must remember that it is sacred, and you must teach your children that it is 
sacred and that each ghostly reflection in the clear water of the lakes tells of 
events and memories in the life of my people. The water’s murmur is the voice 
of my father’s father. 

The rivers are our brothers, they quench our thirst. The rivers carry our ca- 
noes, and feed our children. If we sell you our land, you must remember, and 
teach your children, that the rivers are our brothers and yours, and you must 
henceforth give the rivers the kindness you would give any brother. 

We know that the white man does not understand our ways. One portion 
of land is the same to him as the next, for he is a stranger who comes in the 
night and takes from the land whatever he needs. The earth is not his brother, 
but his enemy, and when he has conquered it, he moves on. He leaves his fa- 
ther’s grave behind, and he does not care. He kidnaps the earth from his chil- 
dren, and he does not care. His father’s grave, and his children’s birthright are 
forgotten. He treats his mother, the earth, and his brother, the sky, as things 
to be bought, plundered, sold like sheep or bright beads. His appetite will de- 
vour the earth and leave behind only a desert. 

I do not know. Our ways are different from your ways. The sight of your 
cities pains the eyes of the red man. There is no quiet place in the white man’s 
cities. No place to hear the unfurling of leaves in spring or the rustle of the 
insect’s wings. The clatter only seems to insult the ears. And what is there to 
life if a man cannot hear the lonely cry of the whippoorwill or the arguments 
of the frogs around the pond at night? I am a red man and do not understand. 
The Indian prefers the soft sound of the wind darting over the face of a pond 
and the smell of the wind itself, cleansed by a midday rain, or scented with pi- 
non pine. 

The air is precious to the red man for all things share the same breath, the 
beast, the tree, the man, they all share the same breath. The white man does 
not seem to notice the air he breathes. Like a man dying for many days he is 
numb to the stench. But if we sell you our land, you must remember that the 
air is precious to us, that the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports. 

The wind that gave our grandfather his first breath also receives his last sigh. 
And if we sell you our land, you must keep it apart and sacred as a place where 
even the white man can go to taste the wind that is sweetened by the meadow’s 
flowers. 

You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes 


66 


Critical Path 


of our grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that 
the earth is rich with the lives of our kin. Teach your children that we have 
taught our children that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth 
befalls the sons of the earth. If men spit upon the ground, they spit upon them- 
selves. 

This we know: the earth does not belong to man; man belongs to the earth. 
All things are connected. We may be brothers after all. We shall see. One thing 
we know which the white man may one day discover: our God is the same 
God. 

You may think now that you own Him as you wish to own our land; but 
you cannot. He is the God of man, and His compassion is equal for the red 
man and the white. This earth is precious to Him, and to harm the earth is 
to heap contempt on its creator. The whites too shall pass; perhaps sooner than 
all other tribes. Contaminate your bed and you will one night suffocate in your 
own waste. 

But in your perishing you will shine brightly fired by the strength of the God 
who brought you to this land and for some special purpose gave you dominion 
over this land and over the red man. 

That destiny is a mystery to us, for we do not understand when the buffalo 
are all slaughtered, the wild horses are tame, the secret corners of the forest 
heavy with scent of many men and the view of the ripe hills blotted by talking 
wires. 

Where is the thicket? Gone. Where is the eagle? Gone. 

The end of living and the beginning of survival.”* 

* * * 

In my prehistory accounting I talk about the time when each ice age is 
engaging an enormous amount of the oceans' water, lowering the waterfront 
and bringing together the islands of Borneo, the Philippines, and others, all 
to become part of the Malay Peninsula. I also spoke of the ice cap pushing 
the furry animals southward until they were suddenly pushed into the land 
of the previous islands now formed into the new peninsula — into land they 
could never before reach. This is how animals like tigers got out to now- 
reislanded places like Bali. Human beings suddenly confronted with these 
wild animals learned how to cope, hunting some and taming others. In fol- 
lowing the evolution of human power structures we are now particularly in- 
terested in the humans who found themselves confronted with a tidal wave 
of wild animals. Those who were overwhelmed became aggressive hunters, 
and those who were not overwhelmed became peaceful domesticators of the 
animals. Some of the most aggressive men mounted horses, moved faster 
than all others, and went out to seek the beasts. 


♦Chief Seattle’s speech was submitted by Dr. Glenn T. Olds at Alaska’s Future Frontiers 
conference in 1979. 


Legally Piggily 


67 


We have learned in the last decade from our behavioral science studies 
that aggression is a secondary behavior of humans — that when they get 
what they need, when they need it, and are not overwhelmed, they are spon- 
taneously benevolent; it is only when they become desperate that they be- 
come aggressive because what they have relied on is no longer working. 
There are two kinds of social behavior manifest today around the world — 
the benign and the aggressive. It is probable that this dichotomy occurred 
in the human-versus-animal confrontation in the ice age time. 

When an ice age starts to recede, the horsemen start north — hunting with 
clubs and spears. At the same time, moving much more slowly, we have the 
beginnings of great tribes of humans following their flocks of goats and 
sheep as the latter lead them to the best pastures — sometimes high on 
mountainsides, sometimes on great plains. With the big man as king — the 
head shepherd — we have humanity migrating off into a wilderness that 
seemed to have no limits. The land belonged to the Great Spirit. The people 
lived on the flesh of their animals and the encountered fruits, berries, nuts, 
and herbs. They kept themselves warm with clothing made of the skins of 
the animals and also with environment-controlling tents made of local sap- 
lings and the animal skins. 

We have a king shepherd, from the day of the giants, tending his people 
and his flock, when along comes a little man on a horse, with a club hanging 
by his side. He rides up to the king shepherd and, towering above him, says, 
“Well, Mr. Shepherd, those are very beautiful sheep you have there. You 
know, it’s very dangerous to have such beautiful sheep out here in the wil- 
derness. The wilderness is very dangerous.’’ The shepherd responds, “We’ve 
been out in the wilderness for generations and we’ve had no trouble at all.” 

Night after night thereafter sheep begin to disappear. Each day along 
comes the man on the horse. He says, “Isn’t that too bad. I told you it was 
very dangerous out here. Sheep disappear out in the wilderness, you know.” 
Finally, there is so much trouble that the shepherd agrees to accept and pay 
in sheep for the horseman’s “protection” and to operate exclusively within 
the horseman’s self-claimed land. 

No one dared question the horseman’s claim that he owned the land on 
which the horseman said the shepherd was trespassing. The horseman had 
his club with which to prove that he was the power structure of that locale; 
he stood high above the shepherd and could ride in at speed to strike the 
shepherd’s head with his club. This was how, multimillennia ago, twentieth- 
century racketeers’ “protection” and territorial “ownership” began. For the 
first time little people learned how to become the power structure and how 
thereby to live on the productivity of others. 

Then there came great battles between other individuals on horses to de- 


68 


Critical Path 


termine who could realistically say, “I own this land.” Ownership changed 
frequently. The ownership-claiming strategy soon evolved into horse- 
mounted warfare as each gang sought to overwhelm the other. Then the 
horse-mounted gangs, led by a most wily leader, used easily captured hu- 
man prisoners to build them stone citadels at strategic points. Surrounded 
by prisoner-built moats rigged with drawbridges and drawgates, they would 
come pouring out to overwhelm caravans and others crossing their domains. 
“Deeds” to land evolved from deeds of arms. Then came enormous battles 
of gangs of gangs, and the beginning of the great land barons. Finally we 
get to power-structure mergers and acquisitions, topped by the most wily 
and powerful of all — the great emperor. 

This is how humans came to own land. The sovereign paid off his prom- 
ises to powerful supporters by signing deeds to land earned by the physical 
deeds of fighting in shrewd support of the right leader. Thereafter emperors 
psychologically fortified the cosmic aspect of their awesome power by hav- 
ing priests of the prevailing religions sanctify their land-claiming as account- 
ed simply either by discovery or by arms. 

In another set of events that opportuned the power structure the land bar- 
ons discovered the most geographically logical trading points for caravan- 
ing: a place where one caravan trail would cross another caravan trail; 
where, for instance, the caravaners came to an oasis or maybe to a seaport 
harbor and transfer some of their goods from the camel caravans to the 
boats. The caravaners would say, “Let’s exchange goods right here. Fine. 
You need something; I have it.” 

One day they’re exchanging goods when along comes a troop of armed 
brigands on horseback. The head horseman says, “It’s pretty dangerous ex- 
changing valuable things out here in the wilderness.” The caravaners’ leader 
says, “No, we never have any trouble out here. We have been doing this for 
many generations.” Then their goods begin to be stolen nightly, and finally 
the merchants agree to accept and pay for “protection.” That was the be- 
ginning of the walled city. The horse-mounted gangsters brought prisoners 
along to build the city’s walls and saw to it that all trading was carried on 
inside the walls. The lead baron then gave each of his supporters control of 
different parts of that city so that each could collect his share of the “taxes.” 

This is how we came to what is called, archeologically, the city-state, 
which was to become a very powerful affair. There were two kinds: the 
agrarian-productivity-exploiting type and the trade-route-confluence- 
exploiting type. These produced all the great walled cities such as Jericho 
and Babylon. 

The agrarian-supported city-state works in the following manner: For ex- 
ample, we have Mycenae in Greece, a beautiful and fertile valley. It is ringed 


Legally Piggily 


69 


around with mountains. You can see the mountain passes from the high hill 
in the center of the valley. At the foot of the high central hill there is a very 
good well. So they build a wall around the citadel on the top of that mid- 
valley hill and walls leading down to and around the well so that they can 
get their water. When they see the enemy coming through the passes, the 
Mycenaeans bring all the food inside their walls and into their already-built 
masonry grain bins. What they can’t bring inside the walls, they burn — 
which act was called “scorching the fields.’’ The enemy enters the fertile 
valley, but there’s nothing left for them to eat. The enemy army has to “live 
on its belly” — which means on the foods found along their route of travel — 
and is hungry on arrival in the valley. The people inside have all the food. 
The people outside try to break into the walled city, but they are over- 
whelmed by its height and its successfully defended walls. Finally the people 
outside — only able to go for about thirty days without food — get weaker 
and weaker, then the people inside come out and decimate them. 

This was the city-state. It was a successful invention for a very long pe- 
riod in history. At the trade-route convergences city-states operated in 
much the same way but on a much larger scale with the siege-resisting sup- 
plies brought in by caravans or ships. The city-states were approximately in- 
vincible until the siege of Troy. Troy was the city-state controlling the 
integrated water-and-caravaning traffic between Asia and Europe near the 
Bosporus. It had marvelous walls. Everything seemed to be favorable for its 
people. 

Meanwhile in history, we have millennia of people venturing forth on the 
world’s waters — developing the first rafts, which had to go where the ocean 
currents took them; then the dugouts, with which they paddled or catama- 
raned and sailed in preferred directions; and finally the ribbed-and-planked 
ship, suggested to them by the stout spine and rib cage of the whales, seals 
and humans — stoutly keeled and ribbed, deep-bellied ships. With their large 
ships made possible by this type of construction, sailors came to cross the 
great seas carrying enormous cargoes — vastly greater cargoes than could be 
carried on the backs of humans or animals. Ships could take the short 
across-the-bay route instead of the around-the-bay mountain route. 

The Phoenicians, Cretans, and the Mycenaeans, together, in fleets of 
these big-ribbed and heavily planked ships, went to Troy and besieged it. 
Up to this time the besiegers of Troy had come overland, and they soon ran 
out of food. But the Troy-besieging Greeks and Cretans came to Troy in 
ships, which they could send back for more supplies. This terminally- 
turned-around voyaging back to the supply sources and return to the line 
of battle was called their “line of supply.” The new line-of-supply masters — 
the Greeks — starved out the Trojans. The Trojans thought they had enough 


70 


Critical Path 


food but had not reckoned on the people besieging them having these large 
ships. The Trojan horse was the large wooden ship — that did the task of 
horses — out of whose belly poured armed troops. 

At this time the power structure of world a ffairs shifts from control by the 
city-state to the masters of the lines of supply. At this point in the history 
of swiftly evolving, multibanked, oar- and sail-driven fighting ships, the 
world power-structure control shifts westward to Italy. While historians 
place prime emphasis on the Roman legions as establishing the power of the 
Roman Empire, it was in fact the development of ships and the overseas line 
of supply upon which its power was built — by transporting those legions 
and keeping them supplied. Go to Italy, and you will see all the incredibly 
lovely valleys and great castellos commanding each of those valleys such as 
you saw in the typical city-states, and you can see that none of those walls 
has ever been breached. Also in Italy — in the northeastern corner — is Ven- 
ice, the headquarters of the water-people. The Phoenicians — phonetically 
the Venetians — had their south Mediterranean headquarters in Carthage in 
northern Africa. In their western Mediterranean and Atlantic venturings 
the Phoenicians became the Veekings. The Phoenicians — Venetians — in 
their ships voyaged around the whole coast of Italy and sent in their people 
to each castello , one by one. The Venetians had an unlimited line of supply, 
and the people inside each castello did not. The people inside were starved 
out. Thus, all of the regional masters of the people in Italy hated the Ve- 
netians-Phoenicians- Veekings who were able to do this. 

There being as yet no Suez Canal, the new world power structure cen- 
tered in the ship mastery of the line of supply finally forcing the Roman 
Empire to shift its headquarters to Constantinople some ten centuries 
after the fall of Troy. The Roman emperor-pope’s bodyguards were the 
Veekings-Vikings, the water-peoples’ most powerful frontier fighters. The 
line of supply from Asia to Constantinople was partially caravan-borne and 
partially water-borne via Sinkiang-Khyber Pass-Afghanistan or via the Sea 
of Azov, the Caspian and the Black seas. From Constantinople, the western 
Europe-bound traffic was rerouted from overland to waterway routes. Be- 
cause the Asia-to-Constantinople half of the trading was more land-borne- 
via-caravans, whose routes were dominated by the city-state-mastering 
Turks, Constantinople in due course was taken over by the Turks who es- 
tablished the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor. 

Before leaving the subject of the great power-structure struggle for con- 
trol of the most important, greatest cargo-tonnage-transporting, most prof- 
itable, Asia-to-Europe trade routes, we must note that the strength of the 
Egyptian Empire was predicated upon its pre-Suez function as a trade route 
link between Asia and Europe via the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, overland 


Legally Piggily 


71 



Figure 15 . Water and caravan routes between Asia and Europe 


caravan to the Nile, and then water-borne to Alexandria, or via Somaliland, 
overland to the headwaters of the Nile, and thence to Alexandria. The latter 
route was not economically competitive but was the route of travel of the 
ship-designing and -building arts that in due course brought the stoutly 
keeled, heavily ribbed, big-bellied ships into the Mediterranean. 

We have seen the Greek Alexander the Great crossing Persia and reach- 
ing the Indian Ocean, thus connecting with the Phoenician trading to Asia. 
A thousand years later the Crusaders — ostensibly fighting for holy rea- 
sons — were the Indian Ocean-Phoenician-Venetian-Veeking water-borne 
power structure fighting the older overland-Khyber Pass power structure 
over mastery of the trade route between Asia and Europe. 

In our “Humans in Universe” chapter we spoke about the 600-200 B.c. 
Greeks' discovery that our Earth is a sphere and a planet of the solar sys- 
tem. This was the typical scientific product of a water-navigation people. 


72 


Critical Path 


We witnessed also the originally horse-mounted Roman Empire’s destruc- 
tion of such knowledge, as their earlier grand strategy sought to reestablish 
the Asia-to-Europe trade pattern via Constantinople and the inland, over- 
land, Khyber Pass route. This explains why the power structure saw fit to 
Dark-Age-out the mariners’ spherical concept. It explains Ptolemy’s 200 
a.d. conic map’s cutting off the around-Africa route mapped by Eratosthe- 
nes 400 years earlier. 

With the world three-quarters water the bigger ship-producing capability 
was the beginning of a complete change in the control of human affairs. Big- 
ger and better engineering was developed. The rival power structures were 
focused on the water supply lines. The Romans’ overland road to England 
became obsolete. The Phoenician ships sailing out through Gibraltar into 
the Atlantic outperformed them. This shifted the battles among the world 
trade-route power structures from on-the-land popular visibility to popular- 
ly unwitnessed seascape. Long years of great battles of the corsairs, the pi- 
rates of the Barbary Coast, and so forth were unwitnessed and unknown to 
the land people. Who the power structures might be became popularly in- 
visible. 

Finally, bigger ships got out of the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic, 
around Africa to the Orient, and then around the world. Thus, “those in 
the know” rediscovered that the world is a sphere and not an infinitely ex- 
tended lateral plane. Great battles ensued — waged under the flags of En- 
gland, France, and Spain — to determine who would become supreme master 
of the world’s high-seas line of supply. These great nations were simply the 
operating fronts of behind-the-scenes, vastly ambitious individuals who had 
become so effectively powerful because of their ability to remain invisible 
while operating behind the national scenery. Always their victories were in 
the name of some powerful sovereign-ruled country. The real power struc- 
tures were always the invisible ones behind the visible sovereign powers. 

Because the building of superior fleets of ships involved a complex of ma- 
terials to produce not only the wooden hulls but the metal fastenings and 
the iron anchors and chains and the fiber ropes and cloth sails, and because 
woods from many parts of the world excelled in various functions of hull, 
masts, spars, oars, etc., large money credits for foreign purchase of these 
and other critical supplies brought control of the sea enterprising into the 
hands of international bankers. 

The building of invisible world-power-structure controls operates in the 
following manner. Suppose you know how and have the ambition, vision, 
and daring to build one of these great ships. You have the mathematics. 
You have the positioning of numbers that enables you — or your servants — 
to calculate the engineering data governing the design of hulls, spars, rig- 


Legally Piggily 


73 


ging, etc., and all the other necessary calculations for the building of a ship 
capable of sailing all the way to the Orient and returning with the incredible 
treasures that you have learned from travelers are to be found there. One 
trip to the Orient — and a safe return to Europe — could make you a fortune. 
“There are fabulous stores of treasures in the Orient to be cashed in — if my 
ship comes in!” 

The building of a ship required that you be so physically powerful a fight- 
ing man — commanding so many other fighting men as to have a large reg- 
iment of people under your control — that you must have the acknowledged 
power to command all the people in your nation who are carpenters to work 
on your ship; all your nation’s metalworkers to work on the fastenings, 
chain plates, chains, and anchors of your ship; all those who can make rope 
and all the people who grow fibers for your rope; all the people who grow, 
spin, and weave together the fabrics for your sails. Thus, all the skilled peo- 
ple of the nation had to be employed in the building and outfitting of your 
ship. In addition you had to command all the farmers who produced the 
food to feed not only themselves but also to feed all those skilled people 
while they built the ship — and to feed all your army and all your court. So 
there was no way you could possibly produce one of these great ships unless 
you were very, very powerful. 

Even then, in building ships, there were many essential materials that you 
didn’t have in your own nation and so had to purchase from others. You 
also needed working cash — money to cope with any and all unforeseen 
events that could not be coped with by use of muscle or the sword — money 
to trade with. It was at this stage of your enterprise that the banker entered 
into the equation of power. 

Up until 1500 B.c. all money was cattle, lambs, goats, or pigs — live money 
that was real life-support wealth, wealth you could actually eat. Steers were 
by far the biggest food animal, and so they were the highest denomination 
of money. The Phoenicians carried their cattle with them for trading, but 
these big creatures proved to be very cumbersome on long voyages. This was 
the time when Crete was the headquarters of the big-boat people and their 
new supreme weapon — the lines-of-supply-control ship. Crete was called the 
Minoan civilization, the bull civilization, worshippers of the male fertility 
god. 

The pair of joined bull’s horns symbolized that the particular ship carried 
real-wealth traders — that there were cattle on board to be exchanged for lo- 
cal-wealth items. The Norsemen with their paired-horn headdress were the 
Phoenician, Veenetian, Veeking (spelled Viking but pronounced “Veeking’’ 
by the Vikings). Veenetians, Phoenicians. (Punitians, Puntits, Pundits. Pu- 
nic Wars. Punt = boat = the boat people. Pun in some African Colored 


74 


Critical Path 


languages means “red,” as in Red Sea.). The Veekings were simply the 
northernmost European traders. The Veekings, Veenitians, Feenicians, 
Friesians — i.e., Phoenicians, Portuguese — were cross-breeding water-world 
people. 

Graduating from carrying cattle along for trading in 1500 B.c. the Phoe- 
nicians invented metal money, which they first formed into iron half-rings 
that looked like a pair of bull’s horns. (Many today mistake them for brace- 
lets.) Soon the traders found that those in previously unvisited foreign coun- 
tries had no memory of the cattle-on-board trading days and didn’t 
recognize the miniature iron bull horn. If metal was being used for trading, 
then there were other kinds of metal they preferred trading with people — 



Viking 



Figure 16. 


Legally Piggily 


75 


silver, copper, and gold were easy to judge by hefting and were more aes- 
thetically pleasing than the forged iron bull horn symbols. 

This soon brought metal coinage into the game of world trading, with the 
first coin bearing the image of the sovereign of the homeland of the Phoe- 
nicians. 

This switch to coinage occurred coincidentally at just about the same time 
as the great changeover from city-state dominance to line-of-supply domi- 
nance of the power-structure group controlling most of world affairs. This 
was the time when the Phoenicians began trading with people of so many 
different languages that, in need of a means of recording the different word 
sounds made by people around the world, the Phoenicians invented phonet- 
ic spelling — Phoenician spelling — which pronounced each successive sound 
separately and invented letter symbols for each sound. With phonetic spell- 
ing human written communication changed very much — from the visual- 
metaphor-concept writing of the Orient, accomplished with complex idea- 
graphics (ideographs), several of which frequently experienced, generalized 
cartoons told the whole story visually. It was a big change from ideographs 
to the Phoenicians’ phonetic spelling, wherein each letter is a single sound — 
having no meaning in itself — and whereby it took several sounds to make 
a whole word and many such words to make any sense — i.e., a sentence. 
This is the historical event that Ezra Pound says coincides with the story 
of the Tower of Babel. Pound says that humanity was split into a babble 
of individually meaningless sounds while losing the conceptual symbols of 
whole ideas — powerful generalizations. You had to become an expert to un- 
derstand the phonetic letter code. The spelling of words excluded a great 
many people from communicating, people who had been doing so success- 
fully with ideographs. 

This gradual alteration of world trading devices from cattle to gold 
brought about the world-around development of pirates who, building small 
but swift craft, could on a dark night board one of the great merchant ships 
just before it reached home, richly laden after a two-year trip to the Orient, 
and take over the ship and, above all, its gold. With the gold captured, the 
pirates often burned the vanquished ship. 

As already mentioned in our Introduction, it was in 1805, 200 years after 
the founding of the East India Company, that the British won the Battle of 
Trafalgar, giving them dominance of all the world’s lines of supply. They 
now controlled the seas of the world. It was said by world people that the 
British Empire became the first empire in history upon which “the sun nev- 
er set.” In order to get their gold off the sea and out of reach of the pirates, 
the British made deals with the sovereigns of all the countries around the 
world with whom they traded, by which it was agreed from then on to keep 


76 


Critical Path 


annual accounts of their intertrading and at the end of the year to move the 
gold from the debtor’s bank in London to the creditor’s bank in London to 
balance the accounts. In this way they kept the gold off the ocean and im- 
mune to sea pirate raiding. This brought about what is now called the “bal- 
ance of trade’’ accounting. 

The international trading became the most profitable of all enterprises, 
and great land-“owners” with clear-cut king’s “deeds” to their land went 
often to international gold moneylenders. The great land barons underwrote 
the building of enterprisers’ ships with their cattle or other real wealth, the 
regenerative products of their lands, turned over to the lender as collateral. 

If the ship did come back, both the enterpriser and the bankers realized 
a great gain. The successful ship venturer paid the banker back, and the 
banker who had been holding the cattle as collateral returned them to their 
original proprietor. But during the voyage (usually two years to the Orient 
and back to Europe) the pledged cattle had calves, “kind” (German for 
“child”), and this is where the concept of interest originated, which was 
payable “in kind” — the cattle that were born while the collateral was held 
by the banker were to belong to the banker. 

When the Phoenicians shifted their trading strategy from carrying cattle 
to carrying metal money, the metal money didn’t have little money — 
“kind” — but the idea of earned interest persisted. This meant that the in- 
terest was deducted from the original money value, and this of course de- 
preciated the capital equity of the borrower. Thus, metallic equity banking 
became a different kind of game from the original concept. 

In twentieth-century banking the depositors assume that their money is 
safely guarded in the vaulted bank, especially so in a savings bank, whereas 
their money is loaned out, within seconds after its depositing, at interest 
payable to the banker which is greater than the interest paid to the savings 
account depositor and, since the metal or paper money does not produce 
children — “kind” — the banker’s so-called earned share must, in reality, be 
deducted from the depositor’s true-wealth deposit. 

The merchant bankers of Venice came to underwrite the Venetians’ (the 
Phoenicians’) voyaging ventures. Such international trade financing swiftly 
became the big thing in the banking game. The “Merchant of Venice” — 
Shylock and his “pound of flesh forfeit” of the debtor — was Shakespeare’s 
way of calling attention to the fact that the bankers’ “interest” was in reality 
depleting the life-support equity of both the depositors and the borrowers. 

It was the financing of such international voyaging, trading, and individ- 
ual travel as well as of vaster games of governmental takeovers that built 
the enormous wealth-controlling fortunes of early European private banking 
families. It was under analogous circumstances of financing inter- American- 
European trade that, in the late nineteenth century, J. P. Morgan became 


Legally Piggily 


77 


a man of great power. By having his banking houses in Paris and London, 
Philadelphia and New York, he was able not only to finance people’s foreign 
travel, all their intershipment of goods, and to give letters of credit, but also 
to finance and control major “new era” railroading, shipbuilding, mining, 
manufacturing, and energy-generating enterprises in general. 

Such powerful banking gave insights regarding the degrees of risks that 
could be taken. The people doing the risking came to the banker for advice. 
In such a manner J. P, Morgan developed the most powerful financing po- 
sition in America, as society went from wooden ships to steel ships and the 
concomitant iron mining, blast furnace building, and steel rolling mill de- 
velopment, as well as the making of boilers and engines, electric generators, 
and air conditioning systems. 

To better understand the coming of world power structure into North 
American affairs, we will switch back from the nineteenth to the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, to the opening up of North America and 
the American socioeconomic scene. The European colonization occurred in 
several major ways. 

The Spanish way was accomplished with vast haciendas — grants from the 
king to powerful supporters. The hacienda development began in Central 
America and Mexico and expanded northward into California. 

The British king also gave vast plantation grants to royal favorites on the 
North American southeastern coast, below the freezing line. 

The French came to two parts of North America: (1) to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico-Mississippi delta, where exiled prisoners were dumped, and (2) to the 
St. Lawrence area of Canada, whence they moved westward via the Great 
Lakes, then southward on the Mississippi to join with these lower Missis- 
sippi colonists exploring northward and westward on the Mississippi. 

British sovereign grants were also being given on the northeastern coast, 
where it was much colder and where existence was much more difficult. Be- 
cause it was much more difficult to colonize, the royal favorites who re- 
ceived large land grants from the British king in the north did everything 
they could to encourage colonization of any kind by others, who bought 
their land from their landlords. The Pilgrims and other people of religious 
conviction found the freedom of thought-and-act to warrant hazarding their 
lives in that cold-winter wilderness. On the northeast coast of North Amer- 
ica the individuals who did the colonizing were not the landowners, who re- 
mained safely in Europe. In the south the royal-favorite landowners 
themselves occupied and personally operated many of the great plantations. 

Though motivated by distinctly different northern and southern reasons 
for doing so, we have the east-coast North American British-blood people 
breaking away from the Old World through the American Revolution. 

In our tracing of the now completely invisible world power structures it 


78 


Critical Path 


is important to note that, while the British Empire as a world government 
lost the American Revolution, the power structure behind it did not lose the 
war. The most visible of the power-structure identities was the East India 
Company, an entirely private enterprise whose flag as adopted by Queen 
Elizabeth in 1600 happened to have thirteen red and white horizontal 
stripes with a blue rectangle in its upper lefthand corner. The blue rectangle 
bore in red and white the superimposed crosses of St. Andrew and St. 
George. When the Boston Tea Party occurred, the colonists dressed as In- 
dians boarded the East India Company’s three ships and threw overboard 
their entire cargoes of high-tax tea. They also took the flag from the mast- 
head of the largest of the “East Indiamen” — the Dartmouth. 

George Washington took command of the U.S. Continental Army under 
an elm tree in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The flag used for that occasion 
was the East India Company’s flag, which by pure coincidence had the thir- 
teen red and white stripes. Though it was only coincidence, most of those 
present thought the thirteen red and white stripes did represent the thirteen 
American colonies — ergo, was very appropriate — but they complained 
about the included British flag’s superimposed crosses in the blue rectangle 
in the top corner. George Washington conferred with Betsy Ross, after 
which came the thirteen white, five-pointed stars in the blue field with the 
thirteen red and white horizontal stripes. While the British government lost 
the 1776 war, the East India Company’s owners who constituted the invisi- 
ble power structure behind the British government not only did not lose but 
moved right into the new U.S. A. economy along with the latter’s most pow- 
erful landowners. 

By pure chance I happened to uncover this popularly unknown episode 
of American history. Commissioned in 1970 by the Indian government to 
design new airports in Bombay, New Delhi, and Madras, I was visiting the 
grand palace of the British fortress in Madras, where the English first es- 
tablished themselves in India in 1600. There I saw a picture of Queen Eliz- 
abeth I and the flag of the East India Company of 1600 A.D., with its 
thirteen red and white horizontal stripes and its superimposed crosses in the 
upper corner. What astonished me was that this flag (which seemed to be 
the American flag) was apparently being used in 1600 a.d., 175 years before 
the American Revolution. Displayed on the stairway landing wall together 
with the portrait of Queen Elizabeth I painted on canvas, the flag was paint- 
ed on the wall itself, as was the seal of the East India Company. 

The supreme leaders of the American Revolution were of the southern 
type — George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Both were great land- 
owners with direct royal grants for their lands, in contradistinction to the 
relatively meager individual landholdings of the individual northern Puritan 
colonists. 


Legally Piggily 


19 


With the Revolution over we have Alexander Hamilton arguing before 
the Congress that it was not the intention of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence that the nation so formed should have any wealth. Wealth, 
Hamilton argued — as supported by Adam Smith — is the land, which is 
something that belonged entirely to private individuals, preponderantly the 
great landowners with king-granted deeds to hundreds and sometimes thou- 
sands of square miles, as contrasted to the ordinary colonists’ few hundreds 
of acres of homestead farms. 

Hamilton went on to argue that the United States government so formed 
would, of course, need money from time to time and must borrow that mon- 
ey from the rich landowners’ banks and must pay the banks back with in- 
terest. Assuming that the people would be benefited by what their 
representative government did with the money it borrowed, the people glad- 
ly would be taxed in order to pay the money back to the landowners with 
interest. This is where a century-and-a-half-long game of “wealth”-poker 
began — with the cards dealt only to the great landowners by the world pow- 
er structure. 

Obviously, very powerful people had their land given to them by the king 
and not by God, but the king, with the church’s approbation, asserted it was 
with God’s blessing. This deed-processing produced a vast number of court 
decisions and legal precedent based on centuries and centuries of deed in- 
heritances. Thus, landlord’s deeds evolved from deeds originally dispensed 
from deeds of war. Then the great landlords loaned parcels of their lands 
to sharecropping farmers, who had to pay the landlord a tithe, or rent, and 
“interest” out of the wealth produced by nature within the confines of the 
deeded land. The landlord had his “tithing” barn within which to store the 
grains collected in the baskets (fiscus is Latin for “basket”; thus the fiscal 
year is that which winds up within the basketed measuring of the net grains 
harvested). The real payoff, of course, was in regenerative metabolic incre- 
ments of the botanical photosynthetic impoundment of Sun radiation and 
hydrocarbon molecules’ structuring and proliferation through other hydro- 
genic and biological interaccommodations. Obviously none of this natural 
wealth-regenerating and -multiplying process was accreditable to the land- 
lords. 

When I was young, there were people whom everybody knew to be very 
“wealthy.” Nobody had the slightest idea of what that “wealth” consisted, 
other than the visible land and the complex of buildings in which the 
wealthy lived, plus their horses, carriages and yachts. The only thing that 
counted was that they were “known to be” enormously wealthy. The 
wealthy could do approximately anything they wanted to do. Many owned 
cargo ships. However, the richest were often prone to live in very unosten- 
tatious ways. 


80 


Critical Path 


Of course, money was coined and the paper equivalents of metallic coin- 
age were issued by the officers of banks of variously ventured private- 
capital-banking-type land systems. Enterprises were underwritten by 
wealthy landowners, to whom shares in the enterprises were issued and, 
when fortunate, dividends were paid. “Rich” people sometimes had their 
own private banks — as, for instance, J. P. Morgan and Company. Ordinary 
people rushed to deposit their earnings in the wealthy people’s banks. 

For all the foregoing reasons nobody knew of what the wealth of the 
wealthy really consisted, nor how much there was of it. There were no in- 
come taxes until after World War I. But the income tax did not disclose 
capital wealth. It disclosed only the declared income of the wealthy. The 
banks were capitalized in various substantial amounts considered obviously 
adequate to cover any and all deposits by other than the bankers involved 
in proclaiming the capital values. These capital values were agreed upon pri- 
vately between great landowners based on equities well within the market- 
able values of small fractions of their vast king-deeded landholdings. 

“The rich get richer and the poor get children” was a popular song of 
the early 1920s. Wages were incredibly low, and the rich could get their 
buildings built for a song and people them with many servants for another 
song. But, as with uncalled poker hands, nobody ever knew what the 
“wealthy” really had. I was a boy in a “comfortably off” family, not a 
“wealthy” family — not wealthy enough to buy and own horses and car- 
riages. To me the wealthy seemed to be just “fantastically so.” 

This brings us to World War I. Why was it called the First World War? 
All wars until this time had been fought in the era when land was the pri- 
mary wealth. The land was the wealth because it produced the food essential 
to life. In the land-wealth era of warring the opposing forces took the farm- 
ers from the farms and made soldiers of them. They exhausted the farm- 
produced food supplies and trampled down the farms. War was local. 

In 1810, only five years after Malthus’s pronouncement of the fundamen- 
tal inadequacy of life support on planet Earth, the telegraph was invented. 
It used copper wires to carry its messages. This was the beginning of a new 
age of advancing technology. The applied findings of science brought about 
an era in which there was a great increase of metals being interalloyed or 
interemployed mechanically, chemically, and electrolytically. Metals greatly 
increased the effectiveness of the land-produced foods. The development of 
nonrusting, hermetically sealed tin :ans made possible preservation and dis- 
tribution of foods to all inhabited portions of our planet Earth. All the new 
technology of all the advancing industry, which was inaugurated by the pro- 
duction of steel in the mid-nineteenth century, required the use of all the 
known primary metallic elements in various intercomplementary alloyings. 


Legally Piggily 


81 


For instance tin cans involved tin from the Malay straits, iron from West 
Virginia mines, and manganese from southern Russia. 

The metals were rarely found under the farmlands or in the lands that 
belonged to the old lords of the food-productive lands. Metals were found — 
often, but not always, in mountains — all around the world, in lands of coun- 
tries remote from one another. Mine ownerships were granted by govern- 
ments to the first to file claims. 

It was the high-seas, intercontinental, international trafficking in these 
metals that made possible the life-support effectiveness of both farming and 
fishing. The high-seas trafficking was mastered by the world-around line-of- 
supply controllers — the venturers and pirates known collectively as the Brit- 
ish Empire. This world-around traffic was in turn financed, accounted, and 
maximally profited in by the international bankers and their letters of credit, 
bills of exchange, and similar pieces of paper. International banking greatly 
reduced the necessity for businessmen to travel with their exported goods 
to collect at the importer’s end. Because the world-around-occurring metals 
were at the heart of this advance in standards of living for increasing num- 
bers of humans all around the world, the struggle for mastery of this trade 
by the invisible, behind-the-scenes-contending world power structures ul- 
timately brought about the breakout of the visible, international World 
War I. 

The war was the consequence of the world-power-structure “outs” be- 
coming realistically ambitious to take away from the British “ins” the con- 
trol of the world’s high-seas lines of supply. The “outs” saw that the British 
Navy was guarding only the surface of the sea and that there were proven 
new inventions — the submarine, which could go under the water, and the 
airplane, which could fly above the water — so the behind-the-scenes world- 
power-structure “outs” adopted their multidimensional offensive strategy 
against the two-dimensional world-power-structure “ins.” The invisible- 
power-structure “outs” puppeted the Germans and their allies. The invisi- 
ble-power-structure “ins” puppeted Great Britain and her allies. With their 
underwater strategies the “outs” did severely break down the “ins’ ” line of 
supply. 

J. P. Morgan was the visible fiscal agent for the “in” power structure, op- 
erating through Great Britain and her allies. The 1914 industrial produc- 
tivity in America was enormous, with an even more enormous amount of 
untapped U.S. metallic resources, particularly of iron and copper, as 
backup. 

Throughout the nineteenth century all the contending invisible world 
power structures invested heavily in U.S. A. -enterprise equities. Throughout 
that nineteenth century, the vast resources of the U.S.A. plus the new array 


82 


Critical Path 


of imported European industrial tooling, the North American economy es- 
tablished productivity. The U.S.A. economy took all the industrial machin- 
ery that had been invented in England, Germany, France, and Europe in 
general and reproduced it in America with obvious experience-suggested 
improvements. 

In 1914 World War I started in the Balkans and was “joined” in Belgium 
and France on the European continent. The British Isles represented the 
“unsinkable flagship” of the high-seas navy of the masters of the world 
oceans’ lines of supply. The “unsinkable flagship” commanded the harbors 
of the European customers of the high-seas-line-of-supply control. If the line 
of supply that kept the war joined on the European continent broke down 
completely, then the “outs” would be able to take the British Isles them- 
selves, which, as the “flagship” of the “ins,” would mean the latter’s defeat. 

In 1914, three years before the U.S.A. entered the war, J. P. Morgan, as 
the “Allies’ ” fiscal agent, began to buy in the U.S.A. to offset the line-of- 
supply losses accomplished by the enemy submarines. Morgan kept buying 
and buying, but finally, on the basis of sound world-banking finance, which 
was predicated on the available gold reserve, came the point at which Mor- 
gan had bought for the British and their allies an amount of goods from the 
U.S.A. equaling all the monetary bullion gold in the world available to the 
“ins’ ” power structure. Despite this historically unprecedented magnitude 
of the Allied purchasing it had only fractionally tapped the productivity of 
the U.S.A. So Morgan, buying on behalf of England and her allies, exercised 
their borrowing “credit” to an extent that bought a total of goods worth 
twice the amount of gold and silver in the world available to the “ins.” As 
yet the potential productivity of the U.S.A. was but fractionally articulated. 
Because the “ability to pay later” credit of the Allied nations could not be 
stretched any further, the only way to keep the U.S.A. productivity flowing 
and increasing was to get the U.S.A. itself into the war on the “ins’ ” side, 
so that it would buy its own productivity in support of its own war effort 
as well as that of its allies. 

By skillful psychology and propaganda the “ins” persuaded America that 
they were fighting “to save democracy.” I recall, as one of the youth of 
those times, how enthusiastic everyone became about “saving democracy.” 
Immediately the U.S.A. government asked the British and their allies, 
“What do you need over there?” The “ins” replied, “A million trained and 
armed men, and the ships to carry them to France, and many, many new 
ships to replace the ships that have been sunk by submarines. We need them 
desperately to keep carrying the tanks and airplanes, weapons, and muni- 
tions to France.” The “ins” also urgently requested that the U.S. Navy be 
increased in strength to equal the strength of the British Navy and therewith 


Legally Piggily 


83 


to cope with the German submarines, “while our British Navy keeps the 
German high-seas fleet bottled up. We want all of this from America.” 

America went to work, took over and newly implemented many of the 
U.S. industries, such as the telephone, telegraph, and power companies, and 
produced all that was wanted. For the first time in history, from 1914 to 
1918, humanity entered upon a comprehensive program of industrial trans- 
formation and went from wire to wireless communications; from tracked to 
trackless transportation; from two-dimensional transport to four-dimension- 
al; from visible structuring and mechanical techniques to invisible — atomic 
and molecular — structuring and mechanics. 

Within one year the million armed and trained U.S. A. soldiers were safely 
transported to France without the loss of one soldier to the submarines. Ar- 
rived in France, they entered the line of battle. With the line of supply once 
more powerfully re-established by the U.S. Navy and its merchant fleet, it 
became clear that the “ins” were soon going to win. 

J. P. Morgan, now representing the “allied” power structures’ capitalist 
system’s banks as well as serving as the Allies’ purchasing agent, said to the 
American Congress, “How are you going to pay for it all?” The American 
Congress said, “What do you mean, pay for it? This is our own wealth. This 
is our war to save democracy. We will win the war and then stop the ar- 
maments production.” Morgan said, “You have forgotten Alexander Ham- 
ilton. The U.S. government doesn’t have any money. You’re going to pay 
for it all right, but since you don’t have any money, you’re going to have 
to borrow it all from the banks. You’re going to borrow from me, Mr. Mor- 
gan, in order to pay these vast war bills. Then you must raise the money 
by taxes to pay me back.” 

To finance these enormous payments Mr. Morgan and his army of law- 
yers invented — for the U.S. government — the Liberty Loans and Victory 
Loans. Then the U.S. Congress invented the income tax. 

With the U.S. Congress’s formulating of the legislation that set up the 
scheme of the annual income tax, “we the people” had, for the first time, 
a little peek into the poker hands of the wealthy. But only into the amount 
of their taxable income, not into the principal wealth cards of their poker 
game. 

During World War I, U.S. industrial production had gone to $178 billion. 
With only $30 billion of monetary gold in the world, this monetary mag- 
nitude greatly exceeded any previously experienced controllability of the be- 
hind-the-scenes finance power structure of the European “Allies.” 

World War I over, won by the Allies, all the countries on both sides of 
the warring countries are deeply in debt to America. Because the debt to 
the U.S.A. was twice that of all the gold in the “ins’ ” world, all the coun- 


84 


ai ncAL Path 


tries involved in World War I paid all their gold to the U.S.A. Despite those 
enormous payments in gold all the countries were as yet deeply in debt to 
the U.S.A. Thereafter all those countries went off the gold standard. 

All the monetary gold bullion paid to the U.S.A. was stored in the moun- 
tain vaults of Fort Knox, Kentucky. International trade became completely 
immobilized, and the U.S.A. found itself having unwittingly become the 
world’s new financial master. Swiftly it arranged vast trading account loans 
to the foreign countries. This financing of foreign countries’ purchasing by 
the U.S.A. credit loans started an import-export boom in the U.S.A., fol- 
lowed by an early 1920s recession and another boom; then, the Great Crash 
of 1929. 

The reasons for the Great Crash go back to the swift technological evo- 
lution occurring in the U.S.A. between 1900 and the 1914 beginning of 
World War I and the U.S.A.’s entry into it in 1917. Most important 
amongst those techno-economic evolution events are those relating to elec- 
trical power. Gold is the most efficient conductor of electricity, silver is the 
next, and copper is a close third. Of these three gold is the scarcest, silver 
the next, then copper. Though relatively scarce, copper is the most plentiful 
of the good electrical conductors. Copper is also nonsparking and therefore 
makes a safe casing for gunpowder-packed bullets and big gun shells. As a 
consequence of these conditions, in the one year, 1917, more copper was 
mined, refined, and manufactured into wire, tubing, sheet, and other end 
products than in the total cumulative production of all the years of all hu- 
man history before 1917. 

With the war over all the copper that had been mined and put into gen- 
erators and conductors did not go back into the mines nor did it rot. 

World War I was not an agrarian, but an inanimate-energy and power- 
driven, industrial-production war — with the generating power coming from 
Niagara and other waterfalls as well as from coal and petroleum. For the 
first time the U.S.A. was generating power with oil-burning steam turbines. 

When the war was over, all this power-production equipment was still in 
prime operating condition. There was enormous potential productivity — a 
wealth of wealth-producing capability that had never before existed, let 
alone as a consequence of war. The production capacity that had been es- 
tablished was so great as to have been able to produce, within a two-year 
span, all those ships, trucks, and armaments. What was the U.S.A. economy 
going to do with its new industrial gianthood? It was the vastness of this 
unexpected, government-funded production wealth and its ownership by 
corporate stockholders that generated many negative thoughts about the 
moral validity of war profiteering. 

There were many desirable and useful items that could be mass-produced 
and successfully marketed. Young people wanted automobiles, but auto- 


Legally Piggily 


85 


mobiles were capital equipment. In 1920 capital equipment was sold only 
for cash. There were enough affluent people in post-World-War-I U.S.A. to 
provide an easy market for a limited production of automobiles. In 1920 
there were no bank-supported time payment sales in the retail trade. The 
banks would accept chattel mortgages and time payments on large mobile 
capital goods, such as trucking equipment, for large, rich corporations. 
Banks would not consider risking their money on such perishable, run- 
away-with-able capital equipment as the privately owned automobile. 

Because the banks would not finance the buying of automobiles and so 
many money-earning but capital-less young people wanted them, shyster 
loaners appeared who were tough followers of their borrowers when they 
were in arrears. Between the ever-increasing time-payment patronage and 
the affluent, a market for automobiles was opening that could support mass 
production. 

In 1922 there were about 125 independent automobile companies. They 
were mostly headed by colorful automobile-designing and -racing individ- 
uals for whom most of the companies were named. They survived by indi- 
vidually striving each year to produce an entirely new and better 
automobile, most of which were costly. Many accepted orders for more than 
they had the mechanical capability to produce. Their hometown financiers 
would back these auto-designing geniuses so that they could buy better pro- 
duction tooling and build larger factories. Wall Street sold swiftly increasing 
numbers of shares in auto companies. More and more of them went broke 
for lack of production, distribution, and maintenance experience on the part 
of the auto-designer managements. 

In 1926 the Wall Street brokerage house of Dillon, Read and Co. made 
a comprehensive cost study of the auto-production field. They found that 
130,000 cars a year was, in 1926, the minimum that could be accounted as 
mass production and sold at production prices. Any less production had to 
carry a much higher price tag. To warrant the latter, the cars had to be su- 
perlatively excellent. The English-built Rolls-Royce brought the highest 
price on the American market. There was fierce competition among Pack- 
ard, Peerless, Cadillac, Pierce-Arrow, Locomobile, Lozier, Leland, and oth- 
ers for the top American car. All of those premium cars’ frames, bodies, 
engines, and parts were manufactured within their own factories. There 
were several in-between classes, such as that of the Buick. Most of the 100 
or so cars in this intermediate range were assembled from special engines, 
frames, and other parts made by independent manufacturers. 

The mortality in auto companies was great. Dillon, Read led Wall Street 
out of its dilemma by buying several almost bankrupt companies, closely lo- 
cated to one another, such as those of the Dodge family, whose joint pro- 
duction capacity topped the 130,000 units per year mass-production figure. 


86 


Critical Path 


They named their new venture the Chrysler Company. Dillon, Read fired 
the auto company presidents, who were primarily interested in new-car- 
designing, and replaced them with production engineers. Wall Street fol- 
lowed suit and put in production engineers as presidents of all the auto 
companies — except Ford, who owned his company outright and had no ob- 
ligation to Wall Street and its legion of stock buyers. Old Henry himself was 
already the conceiver, initiator, and artist-master of mass production. 

Because the American public was in love with the annual automobile 
shows, the Wall Street financiers who had thrown out all the colorful auto- 
designer presidents started a new game by setting up the Madison Avenue 
advertising industry, which hired artists who knew how to use the new 
(1920) airbrush to make beautiful drawings of only superficially — not me- 
chanically — new dream cars. They made drawings of the new models, which 
required only superficial mudguard and radiator changes with no design 
changes in the hidden parts. Parts were purchased by the big companies 
from smaller, highly competitive parts manufacturers operating in the vicin- 
ity of Detroit. 

This was the beginning of the downfall of the world-esteemed integrity 
of Yankee ingenuity, which was frequently, forthrightly, and often naively 
manifest in American business. Big business in the U.S.A. set out to make 
money deceitfully — by fake “new models’’ — and engineering design advance 
was replaced by “style” design change. 

In the late twenties first Ford and then General Motors instituted their 
own time-financing corporations. The bankers of America said, “Let them 
have it, they’ll be sorry — autos, phew! We don’t want to go around trying 
to recover these banged-up autos when the borrower is in default.’’ The 
bankers said, “It is very immoral to buy automobiles ‘on time.’ They are just 
a luxury.’’ 

What the bankers did like to support in the new mass productivity was 
tractor-driven farm machinery. Farm machinery was easy to sell. As the 
farmer sat atop the demonstration plowing or harvesting equipment, with 
its power to go through the fields doing an amount of work in a day equal 
to what had previously taken him weeks, he said to himself, “I can make 
more money and also take it a little easier.’’ So the bankers approved the 
financing of the production and marketing of the farm machinery. They 
held a chattel mortgage on the machinery and a mortgage on the farmland 
itself and all its buildings. The bankers loved that. There was enthusiastic 
bank acceptance of the selling of such equipment “on time’’ to the farmers. 
The bankers did not consider this “immoral.’’ The farmer was “producing 
food wealth.’’ The automobilist was “just joy riding.’’ 

Then there came a very bad hog market in 1926. Many farmers were un- 
able to make the payments on their power-driven equipment. The local 


Legally Piggily 


87 


country banks foreclosed on the delinquent farmers’ mortgages and took 
away their farms and machinery. The bankers had assumed that the farms 
were going to be readily saleable. It turned out, however, that there were 
not so many nonfarmers waiting to become farmers, and most of the real 
farmers had been put out of business by the bank foreclosures so they 
couldn’t buy back their own farms. There were no city people eager to go 
out and buy one of those farms. “How you gonna keep them down on the 
farm, after they’ve seen Paree?’’ were the words of a popular World War 
I song. 

So the dust bowls developed as the upturned, unsown soil began to blow 
off the farms. It is relevant to note that, in 1900, 90 percent of U.S.A. citi- 
zens were living and working on the farms; in 1979 only 7 percent were on 
the farms, mostly as local supervisors for big, absent-ownership corpora- 
tions. The owners of the farmlands today are no longer “farmers’’ or even 
individual humans — they are the great business conglomerates. What began 
in 1934 as government subsidies and loans to farmers for farm machinery, 
later to keep acreage out of production, would by 1978 result in President 
Carter making enormous payments to appease big corporations for cutting 
off vital grain and other strategic shipments to Russia. Next, the U.S. gov- 
ernment would make enormous subsidies to bail out large corporations such 
as Lockheed and Chrysler, which as basic military suppliers the U.S. gov- 
ernment could not allow to go bankrupt. Eventually the U.S. taxpayers will 
be asked to make “free-of-risk” bail-outs of “private’’ enterprises, corpora- 
tions with initial physical assets worth over a billion dollars classifed as risk 
enterprises. 

We now return to the 1926-’27-’28-’29 sequence of events developing 
from selling the farmers’ machinery on the bankers’ drop-dead terms (< mort- 
gage means “on death terms’’). In 1927 and 1928 the bigger Western city 
banks began to foreclose on their local country banks that had financed the 
farm machinery sales and had been borrowing from the bigger city banks 
to cover their unprecedentedly expanded loaning. First the little and then 
the successively bigger banks found that they had foreclosed on farmhouses 
that had no indoor toilets, many with roofs falling in, barns in poor con- 
dition, with the replevined farm machinery rusting out in the open — and no 
customers. 

Word of the bad news gradually went around; small bank “runs’’ began; 
and in 1929 came the Great Crash in the stock market. All business went 
from worse to worser. Unemployment multiplied. Prices steadily dropped. 
Nobody had money with which to buy. Bigger and bigger banks had to fore- 
close on smaller banks, until finally in early 1933 there came one day in 
which 5000 banks closed their doors to stop “the run’’ on their funds. 

People were dismayed and both individually and collectively helpless to 


88 


Critical Path 


do anything to combat the economic collapse. The economy had gone to 
pieces. People did not parade and protest. They became so low in spirit and 
listless that they just sat around silently in their homes or in public places. 
The New York subway stations were filled with people sleeping on the con- 
crete platforms and stairways. No religious organizations were willing to let 
people sleep in their churches. 

There came a “pecking-order” point when the central Chicago banks 
foreclosed on all the other big Western city banks — followed by the big New 
York City central banks foreclosing on Chicago’s central banks. Finally 
came the denouement, when the big New York banks found themselves 
about to close because they were already behind-the-scenes insolvent. This 
occasioned the U.S. Congress voting to accelerate by four months the presi- 
dential inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt who, minutes after tak- 
ing his oath of office, signed the Bank Moratorium, which momentarily 
suspended the acknowledgment of the death of the wealthy landowners’ 
banking system that had lost all or much of its depositors’ money. About 
a month later Congress voted to the President of the U.S. A. the ability to 
control all money. Months later again the U.S. Supreme Court upheld that 
legislation. The U.S. A. citizens themselves and their government had be- 
come the wealth resource “of last recourse.’’ The underwriting wealth be- 
longs to all the people and not to the few. That happened also to be the 
description of socialism. 

The 150-year-long “infinite wealth’’ poker hand and its uncalled bluffing 
was over. The called hands were suddenly down. It turned out that the 
“wealthys’’’ wealth was nonexistent. Their marble-walled, steel-barred, vis- 
ibly vaulted banks had been psychologically attractive to the depositors, 
who preferred to have their earnings and savings deposited along with the 
wealth of the powerfully rich. What the banks had been doing was to loan 
the people’s deposits to other people. The banks had no money themselves. 
What they had done was to capitalize their land at their self-asserted value 
and had been credited with that value of stock in the bank’s ownership. 

In 1933, for the first time ever, the hands of the U.S. American wealthy 
were exposed (and by inference, all land-based capitalism everywhere 
around the world) — most were money empty. Their land and multiservant- 
ed mansion values dropped to almost nothing. Nobody had the almost-noth- 
ing amount of money to buy those richly housed estates. There was one 
exception to the last statement — the Vatican-administered Roman Catholic 
Church’s world organization, which for a pittance acquired many extraor- 
dinary properties at that time, which it converted into monasteries and con- 
vents, colleges and schools. 

The game of “deedable land wealth’’ had been a bluff from its very be- 


Legally Piggily 


89 


ginning — multimillennia ago, when that little man on a horse, armed with 
a club, first rode up to the giant shepherd leader of a tribe and said, bluff- 
ingly, “It’s very dangerous out here in the wilderness for beautiful sheep 
such as yours,” and the shepherd leader’s ultimate coercion into accepting 
“protection” from the claiming and proclaiming “owner” of the land. 

Landownership did not go back to an act of God. All the kings always 
had their priests present when the land claimage was made by their explor- 
ers. The priests planted their crosses to confirm that the king’s ownership 
was blessed by God. The Roman Catholic Church, starting in its emperor- 
pope days, has been in the deeded-land business for “going on” 2000 years. 
It is as yet the world’s largest real estate owner. Real, a Spanish word, 
means “royal” — the succession of king-deeded estate lands. 

With the bluff of wealth over in March 1933, almost all business in Amer- 
ica stopped. On the inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt the emer- 
gency was so absolute that Congress voted unanimously for whatever 
corrective measures the New Deal administration prescribed. 

Roosevelt and his advisors said, “One thing is clear. Despite the emer- 
gency America abhors socialism. Americans don’t like the assumption that 
everybody is equal. Americans are so independent, they don’t feel at all 
equal. They don’t like socialism, but,” said the New Deal leaders, “the fact 
is that we, the American people, are going to have to guarantee our own 
bank accounts. People don’t like to keep their money under their mattresses 
and prefer to put it into a bank, so we will have to do what we can to re- 
habilitate the banks. We the people acting unanimously through our gov- 
ernment are going to have to guarantee the safety of each deposit in the 
banks to a convincingly substantial amount — $5000. We will leave the bank 
in ownership of the management of the stockholders of those banks that, 
by virtue of the presidential moratorium, are as yet theoretically alive, and 
hope that, with our guaranteeing, regulation, and supervising, many of them 
will reopen and will be able to progressively accredit their depositors with 
some percentage of their original deposits. 

“But let us not deceive ourselves. With the government of the people 
guaranteeing the bank accounts, it becomes, in operating fact, socialism. On 
the other hand people themselves know so little about banking, credit con- 
cepts, and the history of power structures that they will not know that they 
have adopted socialism, since the government has not taken ‘possession’ of 
the banks. Society will think well of ‘we the people’ as the government, 
guaranteeing the new deposits in the banks up to $5000,” 

Society likes the idea of a bank as a safekeeping device. People have al- 
ways believed that when they put their money in the bank, it stayed there. 
They had no idea it went out on loan within minutes after it came in. They 


90 


Critical Path 


were completely hoodwinked by the appearance of the banks as safe, fire- 
proof, and robberproof depositories of their earnings. Even today, in the last 
twenty years of the twentieth century, people know little more about banks 
than they did during the 1929 Crash or at the depth of the Depression in 
1932, when all they knew was that they had lost their deposits in most of 
them. 

In 1933, ’34, ’35, and ’36 the New Deal and the U.S. Congress diligently 
investigated the banking system and the practices of its most powerful lead- 
ers. They found many malpractices, which we will discuss later. Most 
prominently they found the banks loaded with worthless mortgages on 
properties that were unsaleable because uninhabitable — mortgages on build- 
ings without roofs, bathrooms, etc. 

The government said, “The first thing we must do is make those mort- 
gages we’ve inherited worth something.” At this point the American gov- 
ernment dictated the banking strategy and started refinancing of the 
building industry. The so-called building “industry” was already 2000 years 
behind the arts of building ships of the sea and sky, which ships of the sea 
and sky are, in fact, environment-controlling structures in exactly the same 
sense that land buildings are environment-controlling structures. 

While the design of the seagoing and airgoing environment controls are 
floatably and flyably weight-considerate and semiautonomous because they 
generate their own power, desalinate their own water, etc., there is no 
weight consideration in the designing of the land-anchored environment 
controls. They don’t have to float or fly. They are utterly dependent on sew- 
ers, waterlines, electric lines, highway maintenance. They are utterly con- 
trolled by the prime landowners, their building codes and readily imposable 
legal restrictions — all based on the real estates’ ownership and control of the 
highways-sewers-waterlines — the metabolic “guts” of all U.S.A. towns and 
cities. 

When the government owns the wealth and controls the issuance of its 
money, it is socialism. The New Deal was not trying to deceive the people 
but was engaged in a rescue operation of the first order and was hopeful of 
not irritating the people psychologically by what it seemed was critically 
mandatory to accomplish. 

Paradoxically, the first people they irritated — greatly — were yesterday’s 
rich, in particular those who were as yet living on the dividends and interest 
of as yet solvent industrial corporations’ stocks and bonds. In fear of the 
New Deal they sought to discredit Roosevelt by a word-of-mouth campaign. 
From 1933 to 1940 individual members of rich gentlemen’s clubs of New 
York were ostracized from membership in the rudest manner by “the mem- 
bers” if they were not heard to speak frequently of “that son-of-a-bitch in 
the White House.” 


Legally Piggily 


91 


Franklin Roosevelt and his advisors said, in effect, “We’ve got to do what 
we feel is best for the people by whatever name the ‘best’ may bear. We’ve 
got them depositing again in the banks and are rehabilitating all those mort- 
gaged properties which we have inherited by loaning the new owners of the 
properties funds at negative interest provided they will rehabilitate the prop- 
erty — reroof or put in a bathroom, etc.” 

To those who understood some of its intricacies, everything was now out 
in the open about the world of banking. The New Deal said it was going 
to prohibit usurious rates of interest — “the banks must earn enough to keep 
themselves going, but only can charge V/ 2 percent for interest.” Banks were 
regulated just like the Post Office. No banker had authority beyond that of 
a postmaster. The New Deal completely separated from banking what Mor- 
gan and many of the private banks had been doing — taking deposit money 
and putting it into common stocks and even into the bankers’ own highly 
speculative private ventures. Thus came the New Deal’s Securities and Ex- 
change Commission and the complete separation of banking and initial risk 
financing — or, at least, supposedly so. Banks’ trust departments could as yet 
buy and sell corporate venture stocks for clients’ accounts however. 

There were a number of individual bankers who went far beyond unwise 
banking practices and who, as individuals, took personal advantage of the 
information they had of individual depositors’ affairs and of their privilege 
as top bank officers to do truly inimical things to enrich their own positions. 
Few today remember that a half-century ago a number of New York and 
Chicago’s top bankers were sentenced into penitentiaries — the New Yorkers 
into Sing Sing — the senior partner of J. P. Morgan and Company, the presi- 
dent of the National City Bank, the president of Chase Bank. Every one of 
them had been found to be doing reprehensible financial tricks. They were 
selling their own friends short. They were opening their friends’ mail and 
manipulating the stock market. They were manipulating everybody. They 
were way overstepping the moral limits of the privileges ethically existent 
for officers in the banking game, so a great housecleaning was done by the 
New Deal. 

The banking story is best told by a poem that was, at that time, allegedly 
composed by Ogden Nash but was never to my knowledge formally pub- 
lished and copyrighted. It was, however, memorized and widely recited 
from copies often typewritten by those who remembered it: 

“BUTCHER, BAKER, CANDLESTICK MAKER” 

I'm an autocratic figure in these democratic states, 

A dandy demonstration of hereditary traits. 

As the children of the baker bake the most delicious breads, 

As the sons of Casanova fill the most exclusive beds, 


92 


Critical Path 


As the Barrymores and Roosevelts and others I could name 
Inherited the talents that perpetuate their fame, 

My position in the structure of society I owe 

To the qualities my parents bequeathed me long ago. 

My father was a gentleman and musical to boot. 

He used to play piano in a house of ill repute. 

The Madam was a lady and a credit to her cult, 

She enjoyed my father's playing and I was the result. 

So my Daddy and my Mummy are the ones I have to thank 
That I'm Chairman of the Board of the National Silly Bank. 

CHORUS: Oh, our parents forgot to get married. 

Our parents forgot to get wed. 

Did a wedding bell chime, it was always a time 
When our parents were somewhere in bed. 

Then all thanks to our kind loving parents. 

We are kings in the land of the free. 

Your banker, your broker, your Washington joker, 
Three prominent bastards are we, tra la, 

Three prominent bastards are we! 

In a cozy little farmhouse in a cozy little dell 
A dear old-fashioned farmer and his daughter used to dwell. 

She was pretty, she was charming, she was tender, she was mild, 
And her sympathy was such that she was frequently with child. 
The year her hospitality attained a record high 
She became a happy mother of an infant which was I. 

Whenever she was gloomy, I could always make her grin, 

By childishly inquiring who my daddy could have been. 

The hired man was favored by the girls in Mummy's set, 

And a traveling man from Scranton was an even money bet. 

But such were Mother's motives and such was her allure, 

That even Roger Babson wasn 't absolutely sure. 

Well, I took my mother's morals and I took my daddy's crust, 
And I grew to be the founder of the New York Blankers Trust. 

CHORUS: Oh, our parents forgot, etc. 

In a torrid penal chain gang on a dusty southern road 
My late lamented daddy had his permanent abode. 

Now some were there for stealing, but my daddy's only fault 
Was an overwhelming tendency for criminal assault. 

His philosophy was simple and quite free from moral taint; 


Legally Piggily 


93 


Seduction is for sissies , but a he-man wants his rape. 

Daddy's total list of victims was embarrassingly rich , 

And one of them was Mother ; but he couldn't tell me which. 

Well I didn 't go to college but I got me a degree. 

I reckon I'm the model of a perfect S.O.B. , 

I'm a debit to my country but a credit to my Dad ' 

The most expensive senator the country ever had. 

I remember Daddy's warning — that raping is a crime , 

Unless you rape the voters, a million at a time. 

CHORUS: Oh, our parents forgot, etc. 

I'm an ordinary figure in these democratic states, 

A pathetic demonstration of hereditary traits. 

As the children of the cop possess the flattest kind of feet, 

As the daughter of the floozie has a waggle to her seat, 

My position at the bottom of society I owe 

To the qualities my parents bequeathed me long ago. 

My father was a married man and, what is even more, 

He was married to my mother — a fact which I deplore. 

I was born in holy wedlock, consequently by and by, 

I was rooked by every bastard who had plunder in his eye. 

I invested, I deposited, I voted every fall, 

And I saved up every penny and the bastards took it all. 

At last I've learned my lesson, and I'm on the proper track, 

I'm a self-appointed bastard and I'M GOING TO GET IT 
BACK. 

CHORUS: Oh, our parents forgot to get married. 

Our parents forgot to get wed. 

Did a wedding bell chime, it was always a time 
When our parents were somewhere in bed. 

Then all thanks to our kind loving parents. 

We are kings in the land of the free. 

Your banker, your broker, your Washington joker, 

Three prominent bastards are we, tra la, 

Three prominent bastards are we! 

* * * 

To accomplish their restartings in all areas of the U.S.A. economic system 
the New Deal also set up the Works Progress Administration (to get people 
jobs) and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (to get the big industries 
going). 


94 


Critical Path 


Amongst the first of the New Deal’s emergency acts of 1933 was the es- 
tablishment of the Works Progress Administration, which provided jobs for 
approximately anyone who wanted them — artists, mathematicians, etc., as 
well as all white- and blue-collar workers and, of course, all day laborers 
and such. 

Then, pressed by the labor unions and the political urge to avoid the char- 
acteristics of socialism and get the heretofore unemployed millions off 
WPA — the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration — the government 
financed new buildings and granted mortgages for longer and longer periods 
to encourage people to undertake the production of much-needed homes 
and other buildings. It must be noted that the rejuvenated building industry 
was reset in motion as a concession to the building trades and a move to 
increase employment, not as a much-needed evolutionary advance in the art 
of human environment controlling. The unions were so strong as to be able 
to push the New Deal very hard in the direction of resuming only yester- 
day’s multifoldedly inefficient “one-off’ building design techniques and ma- 
terials as the activity in which they could establish maximum employment. 
Technically ignorant bank officers became the authorities who alone judged 
the design validity of the structures and architectural acceptability of the 
building projects, funds for the building of which they authorized as mort- 
gage-secured loans of their bank depositors’ money. 

The New Deal went on to rationalize its strategic acts by arguing to itself, 
“In order to continue as a nation we must have our national defense. Since 
it is established that there is nowhere nearly enough life support to go 
around in this world, if we don’t have a formidable national defense, we’re 
going to be successfully attacked by hungry enemies. Our national defense 
can’t carry on without steel and the generation of electricity, the production 
of chemicals, and other imperative industrial items.’’ 

The FDR team soon concluded that the industries producing those ab- 
solute “defense” necessities were to be called our “prime contractors.” The 
prime contractors must be kept going at any cost. “So we’ll give war-pro- 
duction orders to the prime contractors to produce such-and-such goods. 
The contractors with signed government contracts can then go to the banks 
and borrow the money to pay their overhead and to buy the materials and 
power and to pay the wages to produce the goods. Then we the government 
will pay the producers for those finished goods and services, and they can 
pay off their loans from the bank. The money paid by the prime contractors 
as wages will give people buying power, which will allow them to start other 
economic production systems going.” This became a monetary irrigation 
system (still in use today in 1980 U.S.A. affairs), which works at a rate pro- 
viding about ten recirculations in a year following upon each major war or- 
der initiated by and paid for by the government. 


Legally Piggily 


95 


In the depths of the Depression in 1932, when you could buy a meal for 
five cents and the finest of shirts for one dollar, the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation went much further. It gave U.S. Steel $85 million worth of new 
rolling equipment (in 1980 U.S. currency that would be close to a billion 
dollars), etc., etc. 

The U.S.A.’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation had a secondary gov- 
ernment machinery-owning outfit that loaned all these prime contracting 
companies new equipment with which to fill their government orders. What 
the New Deal did in fact was to socialize the prime contractor corporations 
instead of the people. This hid the fact of socialism from the world in gen- 
eral. Socializing the prime contractor corporations indirectly benefited the 
people themselves. In this way the New Deal seemingly didn’t give money 
to the corporations — just orders. The U.S.A.-established and -financed RFC 
loaned the prime contractors all the money they needed to buy all the equip- 
ment. But in the end the government rarely collected on the loans and fi- 
nally just forgave the machinery borrowers altogether, selling them the 
equipment for very low “nominal” sums. 

The New Deal had also pledged itself at outset to take care of the “for- 
gotten man.” The government voted minimum-wage limits of a substantial 
magnitude. The economy was going again. People were getting more and 
more jobs — how many depended upon how many prime contracts the gov- 
ernment gave out. World War II was clearly looming ahead. The New Deal 
said, “We have to be prepared” . . . and their “preparedness” ordering in- 
creased. Jobs increased rapidly. Empty buildings filled. 

There were a number of great corporations whose businesses had prac- 
tically stopped by 1933, but those businesses had now been set in healthy 
motion once more under the New Deal’s socializing of the prime contrac- 
tors. Franklin Roosevelt said to the heads of the great corporations that had 
not gone “bust,” “Every one of you has a large surplus that you held on 
to, in fear, through the Depression. We want you to spend your surpluses 
in research and development of new equipment. Since the early clipper ship 
days, it has always been a function of a ‘fundamental risk enterprise’ that 
the enterprise use some of its profits to buy itself new and better equip- 
ment — a new and better ship — with the enterprise that is doing the prime 
risk-taking by investing in the new equipment, thereby requalifying for the 
privileges and rewards granted by governments for wise risking, daring ex- 
ecution, and good management .” 

FDR said, “We want you enterprisers to ‘modernize.’ ” But U.S.A. big 
corporate management said, in unison, “We won’t do that. It is much too 
risky a time to use any of our surplus.” They knew the oncoming World 
War II was forcing the government to see that their plants were modern- 
ized, so by holding out they forced the government to take over both the 


96 


Critical Path 


risk and cost of modernizing. Heretofore in the history of private enterprise 
research and development — of more efficient new plants and equipment — 
had been funded from the enterprise’s “surplus” earnings — i.e., from earn- 
ings prudently withheld from distribution to stockholders to ensure the con- 
tinuing strength of the enterprise. 

Then FDR’s U.S.A. Treasury, with all FDR’s lawyers’ advice, ruled that 
the large private-enterprise corporations could make their new plant expan- 
sion and equipment improvements and charge the costs to operating expenses, 
which expenses were then to be deducted from new earnings before calcu- 
lating income taxes. This amounted, in fact, to an indirect subsidy to cover 
all new-equipment acquisition. The U.S.A. Treasury next ruled that all re- 
search and development — “R and D” — was thereafter also to be considered 
by the U.S.A. Treasury Department as “an operating expense” and also to 
be deducted from income before calculating income taxes. The U.S.A. there- 
by eliminated almost all the “risks” of private enterprise. 

Next Henry Luce, representing news publishers in America — the news- 
papers and magazines — went to Roosevelt and said, “Your democracy 
needs its news. You have to have some way for the people to know what’s 
going on.” “Yes,” said FDR. Luce went on, “We publishers can’t afford to 
publish the news. The prices people are willing to pay for the news won’t 
pay for the publications. The newspapers and magazines are only paid for 
by advertising, and the New Deal has no allowance for advertising in its op- 
erating procedures.” The New Deal then ruled that advertising was hence- 
forth to be classified as research and development, therefore deductible from 
gross income as an operating expense before calculating taxes. Thus adver- 
tising became a hidden subsidy of very great size — about $7 billion a year 
at that time — hidden in tax-calculation procedures. The subsidy was so 
great as to cover the founding of what has come to be known as “Madison 
Avenue.” 

While the government was doing all this, the Congress passed strict and 
comprehensive rent controls, bank-loan-interest controls, and price controls 
of every kind. It was pure socialism. It had to be done that way. There was 
no question. 

The Securities and Exchange Commission reforms removed J. R Mor- 
gan’s two directors from the boards of almost every one of the U.S.A.’s 
great corporations — except Henry Ford’s — whose interlocking directorships 
had formerly given Morgan prime control over U.S.A. industry. With the 
termination of Morgan’s control of all the major corporation boards such 
as those of U.S. Steel and General Motors, these great corporations’ man- 
agements found that they were no longer beholden to J. P. Morgan, and 
only to their stockholders. “All we have to do now to hold our jobs is to 
make money for the stockholders.” 


Legally Piggily 


97 


At this moment the U.S.A. had evolved into a managerial capitalism , in 
contradistinction to the now-defunct, invisible “finance capitalism” of 
which J. P. Morgan had been the master. 

What became noticeable at this time was the uniformity of position taken 
by all the great corporation managements in respect to actions taken by the 
New Deal — for instance, the great corporations’ across-the-board refusal to 
expend surplus on research and development. 

To discover how that came about it first must be realized that the indus- 
trial-enterprise underwriting and expansion-financing of the private banking 
houses of Wall Street could not have been carried on without the advice, 
contract-writing services, and legal planning of the world’s most powerful 
and most widely informed legal brains. As a consequence the corporation 
law firms of Wall Street, New York, were peopled with the most astute 
thinkers and tacticians of America — if not of the whole world. When the 
Great Crash of 1929 came and events of the Depression occurred, as already 
related (and the great poker hands were called, and the New Deal had pros- 
ecuted the guilty and housecleaned the system and socialized the prime con- 
tractors, etc.), it was the counsel of Wall Street lawyers that governed the 
positions taken by the new, self-perpetuating, industrial-giants’ manage- 
ments. It was the former J. P. Morgan’s and other financiers’ lawyers who 
now counseled all the as-yet-solvent big-industry managements to guard 
their surplus and refuse to cooperate with the New Deal. 

Furthermore the Wall Street lawyers could see clearly what the public 
couldn’t see — i.e., that while the New Deal was unilaterally socializing the 
system, it was doing so without exacting any contractual obligation on the 
corporations to acknowledge the government’s economic recovery strate- 
gies. The corporations gave no legal acknowledgment of their socialized sta- 
tus. It was clear to the Wall Street lawyers that without such contractual 
acknowledgment the government socializing was a one-sided, voluntary 
commitment on the part of the political party in power. Therefore, in fact, 
none of the big corporations had lost their free-enterprise independence by 
accepting the enormous government rehabilitation expenditures. 

Since the Wall Street lawyers and brethren in other parts of the country 
were called upon to fill the Supreme Court bench from which body they 
could determine the province of “free enterprise,” the lawyers reasoned 
somewhat as follows: “A socialized system — as clearly manifest by the 
U.S.S.R. — cannot tolerate free enterprise’s freedom of initiative. There is no 
lucrative law practice in socialized states — ergo, if we are to survive, we law- 
yers on Wall Street had best figure out how to go about keeping the fun- 
damentals of capitalism alive amongst the few great industrial corporations 
that as yet remain solvent despite the 1929 and 1933 Depression events.” 

The Wall Street lawyers saw clearly that it was those surviving corpora- 


98 


Critical Path 


tions’ undistributed surplus which certified that capitalism had not gone en- 
tirely bankrupt despite its banking system’s failure. 

Operating invisibly behind the “skirts” of the as-yet-live corporations, the 
Wall Street lawyers very informally, but very seriously, organized far-ahead- 
in-time research-and-study teams consisting of the most astute corporation 
lawyers to be found in America. From these teams’ realistic conceptioning 
they formulated a grand strategy that would keep capitalism’s private en- 
terprise alive and prospering indefinitely as run invisibly but absolutely le- 
gally by the lawyers . 

The latter’s research discovered that they would not soon be able to pop- 
ularly and legally overthrow the New Deal. It was clear that not until 
World War II was over might they find conditions suitable for untying all 
the economic controls established by the New Deal. 

It is appropriate at this point to do some reviewing of evolutionary 
changes that had been transpiring in the nature of capitalism. 

It all starts with the land-based capitalism, a capitalism maintained by 
whoever seized, successfully defended, and controlled the land — ergo, 
owned the land. Those producing food and life support on the lands were 
all subservient to, and paid tribute to, the great landowners. In land cap- 
italism whoever owned the fertile fields controlled all the wealth to be made 
from that land. Land capitalism dealt with nature’s own metabolic produc- 
tivity. 

Then private enterprise and finance capitalism came to discover what 
could be done with mass-produced metals to multiply the value of the land- 
produced, life-support metabolics. 

In the mid-nineteenth century mass production of steel, for the first time 
in history, suddenly gave humans the capability of producing long-span 
beams, whereby they were able to produce large-enough, semifireproof, and 
powerful structures to move more and more wealth-production work under 
cover. Western-world capitalism began to produce wealth under cover in 
addition to that produced out in the field. To make the tin cans in the fac- 
tory to can the food produced in the fields, or to take the cotton produced 
in the fields and mass-produce cotton cloth, became known as “value-add- 
ed-by-manufacture.” Value-added-by-manufacturing was accomplished pri- 
marily with metals — metal buildings, metal machinery, metal tools, metal 
sea and land transportation systems, and, ofttimes, metal end products. 

As already mentioned, it was the new, world-around, metals sources that 
brought about the name World War I. 

Suddenly we had a completely new form of capitalism, which required 
both the large-scale financing and integration of metals, mines and mine- 
owners, metals refining and shaping into wholesaleable forms, all to be es- 


Legally Piggily 


99 


tablished around the world by the world masters of the great line of supply. 
The world line of metals-and-alloy supply was essential in producing all the 
extraordinarily productive new machinery and that machinery’s delivery 
system, as was the generation and delivery of the unprecedentedly vast 
amounts of inanimate energy as electricity. 

This new form of the world power structure’s capitalism — by ownership 
of the mines and metals working all around the world — we call the metals 
and mining capitalism. Whoever owned the mines had incredible power, but 
never as great as those who controlled the line of their supply. Combining 
the two, (1) the mines and metals-producing industry and (2) the line of sup- 
ply, we have the world power structure that operated as the first suprana- 
tional, world-around-integrated, metals cartels. They were out of reach of 
the laws of any one country, in a metals cartels capitalism. Combining these 
two with (3) the absolute need of the large financing and credit at magni- 
tudes rarely affordable by any one individual, we find finance capitalism in- 
tegrating the world operation. 

At any rate we now understand why the 1914-18 war was called World 
War I. It was inherently a war for mastery of the world’s metallic resources 
and their world-around physical integration, controlling, and exploitation. 

The amount of metal productivity of World War I was so great that, after 
the war, as the arms products became obsolete and were displaced by new 
design products, the metal contained in the ever vaster amounts of obsolete 
products began to come back into circulation as scrap. The scrap resources 
swiftly increased. The Morgan-escaped managerial capitalists said, “I’m go- 
ing to keep my job if we pay our stockholders dividends — the rate at which 
we can pay dividends is directly dependent upon the rate at which our pro- 
duction wheels go around. To keep our wheels going around, we don’t care 
whether we are using scrap metals or mined metals. As a matter of fact, the 
metals-as-scrap are usually more refined than the metals coming out of the 
mines. They cost less, so we’re better off using the scrap — whether from ob- 
solete buildings, machinery, armaments, railways, or ships.” Formerly Mor- 
gan had insisted on all his controlled manufacturing corporations acquiring 
all their metal stocks only from newly mined, refined, and wholesale 
“shaped” stocks. 

The mining companies found that industry would not buy ingots of their 
metals. They found that they had to turn their metals into tubes, bars, sheet, 
plate, wire, and a great variety of sizes and shapes. Wall Street’s finance cap- 
italism, therefore, underwrote the development of a host of metals-shaping 
industries who were the automatic customers of the only-ingot-producing, 
metals-mining corporations. 

The post-World War I mineowner-capitalists began gradually to be 


100 


Critical Path 


washed out of the game by virtue of the Morgan-emancipated managerial 
capitalists saying, “Our job is to keep the wheels going around.” Wheels- 
going-around producing saleable goods from scrap metals became strategic. 

Up to the time of World War I the owners of the factories (Mr. Morgan 
et al.) said, “We put you in as management to make a profit out of this fac- 
tory.” If the management said, “Give us a new piece of machinery,” the 
owners said, “New piece of machinery! What are you talking about? We put 
you in to make money out of our machinery. You are fired.” Change was 
anathema to the J. P. Morgan-type of financier. Scientists would come to 
Mr. Morgan and say, “Mr. Morgan, I can show you how to make steel so 
that it won’t rust.” “Young man! The more it rusts, the more I sell. How 
crazy you must be! Get the doctor to look this man over, he’s obviously a 
lunatic — take those mad papers out of his pocket and put them in my desk 
drawer.” 

But change was welcomed by the late- 1930s’ managerial capitalism. New 
designs called for more whirling of their production wheels. The change 
came in the form of many new armament designs for the clearly approach- 
ing World War II. The new designs released as “scrap” the metals from ob- 
solete designs. 

Concurrently, with the New Deal’s reforms and controls, the wage-earn- 
ers were now getting a fairer share of the national income, and the economy 
was prospering — particularly so as the New Deal began officially to remem- 
ber the “forgotten man.” Congress put a dollar cellar under the wages and 
elevated worker earnings enough to produce minor affluence and security 
for labor in general. 

Just before the U.S.A. entered World War II, the Wall Street lawyers in- 
structed the heads of great corporations to say to Roosevelt, “We heads of 
the corporations of America were not elected by the American people. We 
were chosen by our stockholders. Our job is to make profits for our stock- 
holders. At the time of World War I a lot of business people were called 
‘profiteers.’ As we enter into World War II war production, we don’t want 
to be called ‘immoral profiteers.’ If you want cooperation from us, Mr. Roo- 
sevelt, you as government are going to have to be the one to initiate our cor- 
porations’ being properly rewarded for our cooperation.” 

Mr. Roosevelt said, “I agree. You are beholden to your stockholders, so 
you are going to have to pay them dividends.” Coping with this dilemma, 
the United States Treasury Department agreed that it was legitimate for the 
industrial corporations to make up to 12-percent profit per each product 
turnover. The New Deal said, “We the people, as government, are, however, 
going to renegotiate with you all the time, continually inspect you, to be 
sure you are really earning your profits.” As a consequence of all the con- 


Legally Piggily 


101 


tinuous renegotiation by the government, those U.S.A. corporations earned 
an average of 10 percent on every turnover. This meant that in World War 
II for every annual war budget — running at first at $70 billion per year — 
10 percent, or $7 billion, was earmarked for distribution to the stockholders 
of the corporations. Complete socialization of the stockholders of the prime 
U.S.A. corporations was accomplished. 

Amongst the prime contractors identified by the New Deal were all the 
leading automobile companies. For example, Chrysler was picked out to 
produce the war tanks. With their powerful position established with the 
government, the U.S.A. automobile manufacturers, on being asked to con- 
vert all of their productivity to war armaments, agreed amongst themselves 
to put into storage all of their production tooling and to resume their post- 
war auto production with the models they were last producing at outset of 
war. New production tooling would cost them several billions of dollars. 
They had their Madison Avenue companies grind out advertisements show- 
ing the G.I. soldiers saying, “Please keep everything the same at home until 
I return.” 

Because Germany’s, Italy’s, and Japan’s production equipment was de- 
stroyed during World War II, they were free after the war to start using the 
newest war-advanced technology in both the designing and the production 
of their automobiles. That was the beginning of the end for the U.S.A.’s 
prestige as the world’s technological leader. The U.S.A. post- World War II 
cars were inherently seven years passe in contrast to the smaller, faster for- 
eign cars. The “Big Three” American auto producers undertook to manu- 
facture while keeping the foreign cars off the market and while they 
themselves exploited America’s market need for a geographically expanding 
economy’s transportation. 

In the late 1960s the “Big Three” automobile companies of America 
found that their distributors were disenchanted with decreasing financial re- 
turns and with frequent bankruptcy. To hold their distributors G.M., Ford 
and Chrysler deliberately manufactured a few of their mechanically well-de- 
signed parts with inferior materials that were guaranteed to deteriorate elec- 
trolytically or otherwise. The replacement of these parts guaranteed that all 
the distributors’ car buyers would have to return to them for service on a 
high-frequency basis, at which time the distributor would replace the parts 
catalogue-priced so high that the distributor was guaranteed a profitable 
business. This continuing deceit of the customers — we the people — was the 
beginning of the end of the American automobile business and the once- 
great world esteem for Uncle Sam. U.S.A. discreditation has been brought 
about without the U.S.A. people’s knowledge of the money-maker-world’s 
invisible cheating. 


102 


Critical Path 


Throughout all pre- World War II years employers had maintained that 
unemployed people were unemployed because they were unqualified for sur- 
vival, socially expendable. Then World War II saw young people deployed 
on war tasks all around the world. In view of this loss of labor vast amounts 
of automation were incorporated in the U.S.A.’s home-front war produc- 
tion. With the war over, the government found the cream of its youth all 
unemployed, and because of the automation there were no jobs in sight. Be- 
cause they were the proven “cream of the youth,” no one could say they 
were unemployed because they were unqualified, so the as-yet-operative 
New Deal created the G.I. Bill, which sent all those young people to prepaid 
college and university educations. 

By World War IPs end labor was earning so much that, for the first time, 
it was feeling truly secure, affluent, and successful. Emulating the pattern 
of the rich, individuals of labor were becoming little capitalists, with many 
enjoying the realization of their own home and land, with two shiny new 
post-World War II cars in the garage, their kids going to college, and some 
savings in the bank. The workers began buying shares in IBM and other su- 
perpromising private enterprise companies. 

The Wall Street lawyers, being astute observers of such matters, realized 
that this labor affluence had brought about a psychological reorientation of 
the body politic. People no longer remembered or felt the depression of spir- 
it that was experienced in the Great Depression of social economics follow- 
ing the Great Crash. The Wall Street lawyers’ grand strategists saw this as 
the time for breaking through the New Deal’s hold on government, an event 
which, up to that time, seemed impossible. The lawyers said, “Whoever can 
get the victorious, supreme-command American general of World War II 
as their candidate for President will be able to get the presidency.” They 
captured Eisenhower. Eisenhower had no political conviction, one way or 
the other. His vanity was excited at the idea of becoming president of his 
country. 

The Wall Street lawyers explained to Eisenhower the prevailing new psy- 
chology of affluence and convinced him that the new affluent majority 
would elect a Republican. Thus they successfully persuaded him to be a Re- 
publican. With the healthy economy the new wage-earner capitalists, with 
a vested interest in maintaining the status quo, readily voted for Eisenhower 
on the Republican ticket. Eisenhower’s Wall Street lawyer-managers ex- 
plained to him that he had been able to win the war because of the vision, 
courage, and ingenuity and the productive power of American free enter- 
prise. They convinced Eisenhower that “the U.S.A. is, in fact, free enter- 
prise.” They also convinced him that the Democrats’ New Deal was 
socialism and therefore the inherent enemy of free enterprise. 


Legally Piggily 


103 


As soon as the Wall Street lawyers had Eisenhower in office in 1952, they 
instructed him to break loose all the economic controls of the New Deal. 
They had him cut all price controls, all rent controls, all interest-rate con- 
trols; they had him terminate anything that was stymieing the making of big 
money by big business. For instance, they persuaded Eisenhower to allow 
the insurance companies to invest their vast funds in common stocks. Before 
Ike’s liberation of the insurance companies they were allowed to put their 
funds only in “Class A’’ bonds and similar investments. Cheered by the cap- 
italist-owned sector of the press, his Wall Street lawyer-advisors for a long 
time had Ike feeling like a great liberator. 

The Wall Street lawyers’ grand strategists put the Wall Street lawyer 
John Foster Dulles in as Ike’s Secretary of State to dictate the American 
foreign policy of “Soviet containment,” and Foster Dulles’s Wall Street law- 
yer brother Allen Dulles was put in as head of a new brand of absolutely 
invisible, U.S.A.-financed, capitalistic welfare department, the CIA, estab- 
lished ostensibly to cold-war-cope with the secret-agent operations of our 
enemies. So secret was their operation that the people of the United States 
and its Congressional lawmakers had no idea of the size of the unlimited 
funds given to the CIA, nor for what those unknown funds were expended. 
The CIA and Allen Dulles had a U.S.A.-signed blank check for X amount 
of money to do X tasks. I call the CIA, “Capitalism’s Invisible Army.” 

The great U.S.A. corporations, having been saved in 1933 by being only 
“unilaterally socialized,” and having in the subsequent fifteen years become 
powerfully healthy from enormous war orders, immediately after Eisenhow- 
er’s election started escalating prices. Their logic was that the first corpo- 
ration head to increase prices in a given field of production would be the 
first to be able to distribute that “upping” as profits to his stockholders and 
thereby to gain for himself greater economic management status and per- 
sonal wealth. 


* * * 

As a long-time student of foreign investment I saw a pattern developing. 
Between 1938 and 1940 I was on the editorial staff of Fortune magazine as 
its science and technology consultant, and my researchers harvested all the 
statistics for Fortune's tenth-anniversary issue, “U.S.A. and the World.” In 
that issue I uncovered and was able to prove several new socioeconomic 
facts — for the first time in the history of industrial economics: (1) the eco- 
nomic health of the American — or any industrial — economy was no longer 
disclosed (as in the past) by the total tonnage of its product output, but by 
the amount of electrical energy generated by that activity; tonnage had 
ceased to be the criterion because (2) we were doing so much more given 


104 


Critical Path 


work with so much less pounds of materials, ergs of energy, and seconds 
of time per given function as to occasion ever newer, lighter, and stronger 
metallic alloys, chemicals, and electronics. Though at that time universally 
used as the number-one guide to the state of economic health of any world 
nation, tonnage no longer represented prosperity. The amount of energy be- 
ing electrically generated and consumed became the most sensitive telltale 
of economic health. Furthermore, I was able in that issue to study carefully 
all the foreign investments made in America all the way back to its colo- 
nization in the early seventeenth century. 

The ramifications of my studies in foreign investments in America and 
elsewhere are wide. An example of my findings included discovery of the 
swift, post-American Revolution investment in U.S.A. ventures by the Brit- 
ish (East India Company-advised) financial world as already mentioned. 

I found a similar situation to be existent in World War II. As head me- 
chanical engineer of the U.S.A. Board of Economic Warfare I had available 
to me copies of any so-called intercepts I wanted. Those were transcriptions 
of censor-listened-to intercontinental telephone conversations, along with 
letters and cables that were opened by the censor and often deciphered, and 
so forth. As a student of patents I asked for and received all the intercept 
information relating to strategic patents held by both our enemies and our 
own big corporations, and I found the same money was often operative on 
both sides in World War II. 

The East India Company, whose flag I have shown to be the origin of 
ours, was a private enterprise chartered by the British. Quite clearly the 
East India Company didn’t lose the American Revolution. The British gov- 
ernment lost the Revolution, and the East India Company swiftly moved 
large amounts of its capital into U.S. America. 

With World War II over I began to watch very closely the foreign invest- 
ments patterning and the strategic metals movements, especially of copper, 
but those of silver and gold as well. In 1942 America had all the monetary 
bullion gold in the world in the Kentucky hills. During World War II what 
was called “the China Bloc” — which was the Sung family and others back- 
ing Chiang Kai-shek — were able to persuade the American Congress that 
China had always been corrupt and was eternally corruptible; to completely 
avoid communism in China Congress should let them have $100 million 
worth of gold bullion ($2 billion at January 1980 gold pricing) to be taken 
out of the Kentucky hills. Personally I don’t think that gold ever went any- 
where near China. I think it went right into the Swiss bank accounts of 
some clever thieves. But with that much gold out of the Pandora’s box of 
the U.S.A. Kentucky hills vaults, it provided a “gold lever’’ with which to 
progressively pry loose more and more gold to be reintroduced into the 
“lifeblood’’ of world economic accounting. 


Legally Piggily 


105 


After World War II, with only the one exception of the $100 million 
worth of monetary gold bullion of the China Bloc, all the rest of the world’s 
international monetary gold bullion was residing in the Kentucky hills, 
U.S.A., vaults. All countries outside America had gone off the gold stan- 
dard. In the course of international monetary negotiating that accompanied 
the U.S.A.’s post-World War I inadvertent ascendency into being the mas- 
ter economic state, and the U.S.A.’s post-World War II attempts to reha- 
bilitate the leading economies around the world by rehabilitating the 
economies of its vanquished nations and thereby increasing international 
trading, the U.S.A. was persuaded to re-establish the gold standard for ac- 
counting the international balances of trade. 

Gold is the super-helicopter of the open world-market-trading stratagems 
of the makers-of-money-for-self by the legalized manipulation of the money 
equity of others, all unbeknownst to the initial wealth equity-owning others. 
In 1934 Roosevelt’s New Deal prohibited the further use of gold by U.S.A. 
citizens or U.S.A. businesses. 

By 1953 it became apparent that the Wall Street lawyers were moving the 
major American corporations out of America. Of the 100 largest corpora- 
tions in America four out of five of their annual investment dollars in new 
machinery and buildings for 1953 went exclusively into their foreign oper- 
ations. This four-fifths rate persisted for a score of years. 

The Wall Street lawyers told Mr. Eisenhower that they didn’t like the 
overaltruistic social viewpoint of the Marshall Plan for helping underdevel- 
oped countries. They liked foreign aid, but not exclusively for the develop- 
ment of underdeveloped countries. The Wall Street lawyers approved of the 
“foreign aid’’ wherefore the U.S.A. continued with annual foreign-aid com- 
mitments by Congress. The average annual foreign-aid appropriation has 
been $4 billion (1950 value) per year over the twenty-seven-year period from 
1952 to 1979, which amounted to a $100 billion total. Each new year’s 
foreign-aid bill had a rider that said that if American companies were pres- 
ent in the country being aided, the money had to be spent through those 
American companies. In the foreign countries the corporations and individ- 
uals could again deal in gold. 

Foreign aid paid for all the new factories and machinery of all the Ameri- 
can corporations moving out of America. This became a fundamental pat- 
tern: first the 100 largest corporations, then the 200 largest corporations 
followed, then what Fortune calls the 500 largest corporations. Moving out 
of America could be done readily because a corporation is only a legal en- 
tity — it is not a human being. It had no physical body to pass through im- 
migration or emigration. You and I cannot move out of America because 
we are physical — we need a passport. A corporation does not. 

So the Wall Street lawyers simply moved their prime corporate operations 


106 


Critical Path 


elsewhere. It was clearly evident that with only 7 percent of the world’s pop- 
ulation in the U.S.A., and with two cars already in many U.S.A. garages, 
by far the major portion of further exploitation of the world’s peoples’ needs 
and desires would develop outside of the U.S. of America. But the main ob- 
jective of the Wall Street lawyers was for the corporations to get out from 
under the tax control of the American government. In 1933 the American 
people had saved the corporations by subsidizing them; then, twenty years 
later, the Wall Street lawyers moved them out of America, getting the 
American people to pay for the move. This allowed the corporations to ac- 
quire gold equities while the U.S.A. citizens and small domestic businesses 
could not do so. 

Soon after Eisenhower’s 1952 election to the presidency, the lawyers re- 
minded him once more that America clearly had won the war only through 
his brilliant generalship backed up by American free enterprise, and said, 
“We want you to stop the welfare-state-inclined American government from 
competing with free enterprise. You must cut out all the navy yards and the 
arsenals. They compete against the free-enterprise corporations, which are 
quite capable of doing the same work as the navy yards, but of doing it 
much more efficiently. You must turn all such production over to private 
industry, cut out the U.S.A. post office and turn that over to private enter- 
prise, cut out the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and turn that over 
to the insurance industry.” Although much of this transfer of production 
from government to private enterprise control was never completed, Eisen- 
hower goaded on by his lawyers initiated the flow of taxpayer-financed, 
highly trained personnel and especially their technical know-how to private 
enterprise. This irreversible trend continues on to the present day, as can 
be shown by the history of the whole of the atomic energy field. 

Those acquainted with the story of the atomic bomb development remem- 
ber the momentous occasion when theoretical fission was discovered in 1939 
by Hahn and Stresemann in Germany and secretly communicated by them 
to American physicists, who checked out their calculations and found them 
correct and then persuaded Einstein to go to Roosevelt to tell him that this 
was so and that Hitler’s scientists were hot on the trail. 

Franklin Roosevelt, exercising war powers given him by Congress, in ef- 
fect instantly appropriated $80 billion for what became known later as the 
Manhattan Project. Later, that initial $80 billion appropriation was supple- 
mented by an additional $75 billion for a total of $155 billion of the Ameri- 
can people’s money that went into developing atomic energy. 

The Wall Street lawyers’ grand strategists sent a man named Lewis 
Strauss to Washington to “join in the World War II effort.” Strauss was a 
partner in the Wall Street banking house of Kuhn, Loeb. He was also a bril- 


Legally Piggily 


107 



Source 1913-1970 Historical Statistics of the United States 1970-1979 Handbook 
of Labor Statistics 


Figure 17 . Price Index for All Items 


liant son-in-law of Adolph Ochs, president of The New York Times. Strauss 
was made an admiral in gratitude for his forsaking Wall Street to help 
America win the war. After the war Admiral Strauss was appointed to the 
Atomic Energy Commission; in 1953 Eisenhower named him commission 
chairman. Strauss and the Wall Street lawyers persuaded Eisenhower that 
the Atomic Energy Commission must not be in competition with capitalism 
and must be turned over to private enterprise. So it was — $155 billion worth 
of it, all of which had been paid for by the American public — but it con- 
sisted of work so secret that only the scientists who were intimate with the 
work understood it. 

All that was necessary to correct the situation was to give contracts to 
private enterprise to carry on the atomic work and to let the government’s 
scientists go to work for the private-enterprise corporations. 


108 


Critical Path 


At this point the Wall Street lawyers and Strauss persuaded Eisenhower 
that the United States Bureau of Standards’ scientists were in competition 
with private enterprise and must be curbed. Strauss assured Eisenhower that 
the corporations would take on all the bureau’s discarded scientists. What 
the Wall Street lawyers’ grand strategists realized was something momen- 
tous — to wit . . . that in the new 99.9-percent invisible reality of alloys, 
chemistry, electronics, and atomics, scientific and technical know-how was 
everything. Physical land and buildings were of no further interest to cap- 
italism. Metaphysical know-how was the magic wand of the second half of 
the twentieth-century world power structures. Physical properties were sub- 
ject to deterioration, taxable, and cumbersome. Advised to do so by their 
lawyers, capitalism and private enterprise set about after World War II to 
monopolize all strategic technological know-how — i.e., all metaphysical 
properties — and to dump all physical properties. They called for an eco- 
nomic program by which people would be forced to buy the apartments and 
houses — to get all physical properties off capitalism’s hands. 

The post-Eisenhower era becomes most suitably identified as that of law- 
yer capitalism and of “no-risk,” sure-thing, free enterprise. 

The whole of atomic development was know-how. Scientists had the 
know-how, and anybody without their technical information could not even 
speak their language. The Know-How Club, monopolized by lawyer capital- 
ism, was a very tight club. Furthermore, the nonmember four billion plus 
human beings on planet Earth knew nothing about the invisible micro- 
macro, non-sensorially-tune-in-able reality. Large private enterprise had 
now hired all the know-how scientists and engineers. They seemingly could 
keep the public out of their affairs forever. The world power structure had 
the U.S. government completely emasculate the Bureau of Standards. There 
was an earnest and concerned battle by a few responsible scientists to keep 
the bureau intact, but they were overwhelmed. Henceforth all science must 
be done by the private corporations themselves or under their subsidized 
university-college and private laboratory work. To appreciate the extent of 
this know-how monopoly of the big corporations, one need only look over 
the wording of the scientist and engineering help-wanted advertisements of 
the big corporations in the many pages of The New York Times Sunday 
business section or of their counterpart publications in other big cities. 

In the invisible, esoteric world of today’s science there is no way for the 
American government or public, without the U.S.A. Bureau of Standards’ 
scientists, to follow the closely held technical secrets of the big, profit-ori- 
ented corporations. To a small extent such popular journals as Scientific 
American help people follow details of this-and-that special case science 
without learning of the significance of the information in respect to com- 
prehensive socioeconomic evolution. 


Legally Piggily 


109 


No economic accounting books list metaphysical assets. Metaphysics is 
held to be insubstantial — meaning in Latin “nothing on which to stand.” 
Patents can be granted only for special cases — i.e., limited physical-practice 
applications of abstract generalized principles, which principles alone are in- 
herently metaphysical and unpatentable, being only “discovered” and not 
“invented.” But physical patents are capital. 

We have two fundamental realities in our Universe — the physical and the 
metaphysical. Physicists identify all physical phenomena as the exclusive 
manifest of energy: energy associative as matter or disassociative as electro- 
magnetic behavior, radiation. Both of these energy states are reconvertible 
one into the other. Because there is no experimental evidence of energy be- 
ing either created or lost, world scientist-philosophers now concede it to be 
in evidence that Universe is eternally regenerative. 

The physicists have found that energy will always articulate levers elec- 
tromagnetically, gravitationally, chemically by reactive forces, by vibratory 
waves, etc. Metaphysics consists only of weightless, dimensionless, abstract 
thoughts and mathematical principles that cannot lever physical needles in 
respect to instrument dials. Energy in either of its states, being physical, can 
be entered into the capital account ledgers. 

The large issue today is the technical know-how that governs the trans- 
formations of energy between its two states. “Know-how” is metaphysics. 
Metaphysics now rules. When the head of one of the U.S.A.’s largest banks 
was asked what “commodities” were involved in that bank’s import-export 
dealings with the rest of the world on behalf of the Chinese government, he 
answered that know-how was the prime commodity being acquired by the 
Chinese through that bank. 

I have spent a great deal of time since World War II in Japan, dealing 
with their industrialists, and have personally witnessed the Japanese acqui- 
sition by contracts of a whole complex of exquisitely specific packages of in- 
dustrial know-how, together with the respective follow-through educational 
services — all acquired from, and performed by, engineering and business- 
administration teams of many of the leading American corporations. 

The post-World War II Japanese had already perceived that they did not 
need to own the physical mines of metallic ores because they had learned 
also how to carry on exclusively with the melting down and recirculating 
of the world’s metals, particularly those poured into the Orient and Western 
Pacific islands by the U.S.A. during World War II in the form of now- 
obsolete — ergo, “scrapped” — armaments. The essence of Japan’s recent de- 
cades’ economic success has been the acquisition and realization of the 
industrial-technology-know-how wealth existent exclusively in metaphysical 
know-how, in contradistinction to strictly physical land properties, tools, 
and end products. With all their pre- World War II machinery smashed the 


110 


Critical Path 


Japanese and Germans acquired new, vastly improved industrial equipment 
with which to realize their know-how production, whereas the World- War- 
II-winning U.S.A. and European Allies using their old technology became 
more preoccupied with making money than in producing superior products. 

Because of the foregoing it was now possible to maintain that hidden 
know-how capability within private corporate walls. Since 99 percent of hu- 
manity does not as yet understand science’s mathematical language, less 
than 1 percent of humanity is scientifically literate — ergo, the lawyers’ strat- 
egy of tight monopolization of scientific know-how within the scientifically 
staffed corporations was highly feasible. 

In 1929, at the time of the Great Wall Street Crash, only about 1 percent 
of the U.S.A.’s big corporations had research departments. Now, half a cen- 
tury later, all the big corporations have all the powerful research depart- 
ments, other than those in which pure scientists are engaged in academic 
work under some corporate or government subsidy. Through the national 
defense budget’s armaments development, all the once risky research and 
development costs of enterprise are paid for by the public through taxation. 

The big oil companies knew long ago that humanity would ultimately run 
out of an adequate supply of petroleum and other fossil fuels, though coal 
may last a thousand years. That’s why, by the means we have reviewed, the 
oil companies acquired control of the know-how on atomic energy as well 
as all the atomic plants and equipment paid for originally by the U.S.A. gov- 
ernment. The power structure’s only interest is in selling energy — and only 
energy that they can run through a meter. They’re not in the least interested 
in anyone getting windpower — except themselves. Very rich men love hav- 
ing their sailing yachts wind-driven to Europe or the South Seas, but this 
is not for the people. People’s power must be piped or wired to them only 
through meters. 

When in 1972 all the power-structure capital had converted its dollars 
into gold, oil, or other highly concentrated and mobile equities, then-Presi- 
dent Richard Nixon severed the U.S.A. dollar from its government-guaran- 
teed gold equity value of $35 per ounce, the U.S.A. people’s dollar buying 
power plummeted — now, in 1980, being worth only 5 cents of the 1971 
U.S.A. dollar. 

By 1974 much of the world’s buying power landed in the lap of the Arabs, 
who also sat atop the chief petroleum source of the world. In effect they had 
both the money with which to buy their petroleum and the largest reserves 
to be bought. If someone wanted to buy their petroleum, often they couldn’t 
do so, because few in the world had the monetary resources remaining with 
which to do so. The Arabs realized they would have to lend out their money 
to work, but they had no experience in such investment matters. The Arabs 


Legally Piggily 


111 


had no knowledge of the vast industrial production and distribution tech- 
nical and administrative requirements. Nor had they any experience in the 
exploitation of the world-energy industry prior to their own lands’ exploi- 
tation by others before the onslaught of the petroleum company giants. The 
Arabs had not known how to discover, drill for, refine, and distribute the 
petroleum upon which they had been sitting unwittingly for thousands of 
years. 

So content were the Arab monarchs with the gratification of their every 
physical desire — artfully heaped upon them personally by the capitalist 
world’s foreign-oil-exploiting functionaries — that they would never have 
taken over the direct mastery of their petroleum affairs had not the psycho- 
guerilla warfare between the capitalist and communist powers deliberately 
aroused the Arabian peoples themselves, bringing pressure upon their lead- 
ers to take over the foreigners’ operations. Since their subsequent epochal 
enrichment, the Arabs’ political leaders as well as the monarchs and sheiks 
have bought everything of which they could dream, as stimulated by the af- 
fluent acquisitions patterns in other economies. After vast stock and bond 
investments, real estate and new building ventures in foreign countries, they 
found that they could expend only a fraction of their monetary wealth. The 
Arabs have now reached the dilemma of how to turn their monetary gold 
fortune to important and lasting advantage. 

In 1977 the king of Saudi Arabia said to a leading American banker with 
large oil interests, “My banks don’t know anything about international 
banking and major industrial accommodation.” The American banker said, 
“Would you like me to run your banks?” The king said, “Of course.” So 
the American banker did, and in the process he taught them international 
and transnational industrial-finance management. 

There’s no question that the few who have title to Arabian oil find it es- 
sential to amalgamate their operations with the world’s great oil companies, 
which own the vast equipment of world-around distribution and interac- 
counting capabilities as well as the vast majority of refineries and petro- 
chemical industries. The great oil companies control it all. In general they 
and noncommunist Arabia are one and the same. The Organization of Pe- 
troleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC) officialdom, regardless of national 
political differences, is very probably run entirely by the oil corporations’ 
trillions of dollars of persuasiveness. 

It is relevant at this point to note that the Arabs’ inadvertent isolation 
of both the physical- wealth items — (1) the underlying monetary gold and 
(2) the prime negotiable energy commodity, petroleum — and their concur- 
rent discovery of their utter lack of know-how, clearly differentiated out the 
relative values of (A) the purely physical petroleum and gold, and (B) the 


112 


Critical Path 


exclusively metaphysical know-how wealth. It turned out that B was most 
in demand as well as scarcest. The physical wealth was thus proved to be 
of approximately zero value, while the metaphysical know-how wealth 
proved to be the prime economic “good-health” constituent of wealth. 

Moreover, those who own oil also own the atomic energy and have long 
ago assumed that, if humanity exhausts or abandons oil, it will automati- 
cally switch over to atomic energy. Humanity has had nothing to say about 
all this because the know-how was so obscure and the lawyers’ stratagems 
so invisibly large. The lawyers’ omnilegal international stratagems were and 
as yet are so obscure, in fact, that no government authorities — let alone the 
public — knew that the world energy monopoly’s scientists had not taken 
into account earthquakes, for instance, in the construction of New England 
atomic energy plants, nor had the public or government anticipated that the 
intuitive wisdom of humanity would develop such an antipathy to atomic 
energy as eventually to force lawyer capitalism to fall back on its “ownable” 
coal mines and shale for conversion into pipable and meterable liquid fuels. 
It is as yet inscrutable to the public, government, and lawyer capitalism just 
how strong literate humanity’s intuitive wisdom will be in preventing the 
full-scale conversion of coal and shale into liquid energy fuel when it learns, 
as it has now been learned in a scientifically undeniable way, that this self- 
ishly exploitable energy fuel strategy will inexorably destroy the atmos- 
phere’s capability of supporting biological life on planet Earth. Like all fossil 
fuels coal gives off carbon dioxide when burned, but coal gives off 25 per- 
cent more of it per unit of energy than oil and 50 percent more than natural 
gas. Although carbon dioxide comprises less than 1 percent of the Earth’s 
atmospheric gases, this concentration has risen 17 percent since preindus- 
trial times and is expected to rise an equivalent amount in the next twenty 
years. The “greenhouse” effect from the Sun’s heat and increasing amounts 
of this otherwise harmless gas could send average global temperatures soar- 
ing by as much as 6 degrees Fahrenheit within fifty years according to a 
U.S. government study. This unprecedented global environmental catastro- 
phe would be virtually irreversible for centuries. 

No one knows whether the cessation of the waste radiation of atomic en- 
ergy exploitation or the cessation of coal and shale conversion into fluid fuel 
will occur in time to permit the physical continuance of humans on planet 
Earth. What we do know however, as we have previously stated, is (1) that, 
with the unselfish use of technology, it is now possible to take care of all 
humanity at a higher standard of living than any have ever experienced and 
do so on a sustaining basis by employing only our daily energy income from 
Sun and gravity and (2) that we can do so in time to permit the healthy con- 
tinuance of humans on planet Earth. 


Legally Piggily 


113 


Now things are beginning to go wrong with atomic-power generation . . . 
everywhere. To start off with, neither the scientists nor the atomic plant 
private-enterprise owners have any safe solution for what to do with radio- 
active atomic wastes. Humanity’s intuitions are logically aroused, and pub- 
lic antipathy to atomic energy is rapidly expanding — despite billions of 
dollars being spent by the world energy cartel in propaganda campaigns to 
make the vast majority of people “go for” atomic energy. 

The second great gasoline-line “pinch” of June 1979 was put upon the 
public by the invisible energy-know-how cartel to painfully divert the public 
concern generated by the Three Mile Island radiation accident and threat 
of a reactor “meltdown.” Though the public had reacted strongly against 
atomic plants, the sudden energy supply squeeze administered by the oil 
companies made the general public so energy hungry again that it stopped, 
for the moment, listening to those who were attempting to curtail atomic 
energy plants. The “gas crisis” re-established “rational” public yielding to 
governmental support of atomic energy as the “answer” to the energy crisis. 

Today’s (1980) world-power-structures struggle is one between the 
U.S.S.R. and big capitalism, which we now call lawyer capitalism, which de- 
liberately took the world’s private-enterprise corporations out of the funda- 
mental jurisdiction of America. They have kept their U.S.A. operations 
going in a seemingly normal way, so people in U.S. America haven’t real- 
ized that these companies are officially situated elsewhere despite the in- 
credible amplification of those great corporations’ annual profits, whose 
annual totals payable to these corporations’ stockholders are of the same 
magnitude as the annual increase in the U.S.A.’s joint internal and external 
debt increases. 

America is utterly bankrupt externally in terms of balance of trade due 
to its own oil companies now operating as Arabian business. The national 
debt at the time of the New Deal was $33 billion — which was the cost of 
World War I. Before World War I we frequently had no national debt what- 
ever. We have today a national debt that exceeds $800 billion — 30 percent 
of that indebtedness came from underwriting of ever-longer-term mort- 
gages. In 1934 the U.S.A. underwrote a completely obsolete building indus- 
try while Eisenhower allowed the banking world to make an incredible 
amount of money in interest rates and services* in support of the building 
and real estate game, which building industry — if it were any good — would 
pay the U.S.A. back handsomely. The U.S.A. cannot even pay the annual 
interest on its $800 billion national debt. That is why the Nixon presidency 
and all those since have had to enter each year with a negative budget, ac- 


*In 1978 over $1 billion just for transferring home-ownership deeds. 


114 


Critical Path 


knowledging that at year’s end the U.S.A. will be a $100 billion-magnitude 
unrecoverably deeper in debt. Our foreign-trade-balance indebtedness is 
(as of September 1979) $104 billion ($86 billion if foreign branches of U.S. 
banks are taken into account). Sum-totally, what has been taken from the 
people of the U.S.A. runs into many trillions of dollars. In the quarter of 
a century since Eisenhower America has become completely bankrupt, with 
its world leadership, its financial credit, and its reputation for courage, vi- 
sion, and human leadership gone. 


♦ * * 

None of this was the American people’s doing. It was all done in an ab- 
solutely legal but utterly invisible manner by the lawyer-capitalism. Individ- 
ual bankers, industrial-corporation officers, et al. have had to do what their 
lawyers told them to do. No bad people have been involved. The lawyers 
were following their survival instinct — and doing so completely legally. 

Everything we have reported here has been published at one time or an- 
other, but with the individual items often so far apart from the last relevant 
item that the public has tended not to remember and associate the items. 
As a consequence the total picture presented here is approximately un- 
known to any but the Wall Street lawyers’ grand strategists, most of whom 
are no longer alive. 


* * * 

One of my earliest books was Nine Chains to the Moon, written in 1935 
and published by Lippincott in July 1938, and now being published by Dou- 
bleday. In it I referred so frequently to Finance Capitalism that I developed 
a contraction of those two words into FINCAP. FINCAP had died a lin- 
gering death between 1929 and 1934. In this book, Critical Path , I refer so 
often to the lawyer-resurrected “capitalism” that it is appropriate to refer 
henceforth to LAWCAP. LAWCAP’s “capitalism” is paradoxically the 
most highly socialized organization in all history — the citizens of LAW- 
CAP’s welfare-state — the whole body of corporate stockholders — having an 
annual average dole of $100,000 per capita without their even having to 
make a pretense of getting a job. 

If we take the billions of dollars given in the 1930s to the great U.S.A. 
defense-industries corporations by the New Deal’s Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation ... if we take the hidden tax-deduction subsidies to do re- 
search, development, and advertising given to all these companies in pre- 
1942 dollars between 1933 and 1980 ... if we take the $100 billion in foreign 
aid that paid for the overseas establishment of the great corporations ... if 
we take the $155 billion of atomic know-how and development taken over 


3000 

2700 

2400 

2100 

1800 

1500 

1200 

900 

600 

300 


National total debt— public and private 
(in billions of dollars) 


Figure 18 . Total National Debt 
of Individuals, Corporations, 
and Government — Federal, State, 
and Municipal 


Source: 1918-70 Historical Statistics 
of the United States; 1970-1978 Statistical 
Abstract; Survey of Current Business 1979 


— i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — [ — i — f— 

) 1930 1940 1950 . 1960 1970 1980 

1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 


Year 


115 


116 


Critical Path 


by the oil companies . . . and if we take the number of fine ounces of gold 
bullion taken out of America exclusively by the capitalist world’s banking 
system . . . and if we take a reasonably low estimate of the unknown billions 
of dollars taken out of the U.S.A. by the CIA to operate exclusively on be- 
half of international capitalism without the knowledge or authority of the 
people of the U.S. of America’s quasi-democracy . . . and if we multiply the 
sum of the foregoing figures by twenty-five, which is the amount to which 
our present U.S.A. dollars have been depreciated between the time of the 
appropriations and January 1, 1980, we come to a figure in the magnitude 
of $6 trillion that has been legally transferred from the U.S.A. people’s na- 
tional capital account over to the capital ownership account of the stock- 
holders of the 1000 largest, transnational, exclusively American-flag-flying 
corporations. 

The transnational^ operating LAWCAP in the early ’50s resurrected the 
twenty-year-dead FINCAP and its “capitalist” world and left only its 
American-flag-flying storefronts in the U.S.A. to cover its comprehensive fi- 
nancial withdrawal from the U.S.A. LAWCAP silently and invisibly moved 
capitalism’s big-time operations into the any-legally-propitious-elsewhere. 
With its invisibly operating CIA (Capitalism’s Invisible Army) LAWCAP 
exploited the unwitting citizens of the U.S.A. in order — they hoped — to de- 
stroy socialism. 

The 1947-50 LAWCAP decision to start a World War III had two ob- 
jectives: (1) to keep capitalism in business, and (2) to prevent the Russians 
from employing their industrial productivity to produce a higher standard 
of living for their own people than that demonstrated in the U.S.A. LAW- 
CAP’s decision to start World War III inaugurated history’s greatest game 
of poker, with the U.S.S.R. as a very reluctant player, worried about its 
“home-folks’ ” political agitation for a few “goodies.” It became a poker 
game that called for each side adding approximately $100 billion per year 
into the “killingry kitty.” They have now done so for thirty years. This 
amounts to $6 trillion. By complete coincidence $6 trillion happens to be 
approximately the same magnitude as that of the total mileage per year trav- 
eled by light operating at 186,000 miles each second of the year. 

Throughout those thirty years, the U.S.A.-half of this $6 trillion (that is, 
$3 trillion) was redeposited at various turnover rates per year in the West- 
ern-world banks, and the latter continually reloaned those dollars, at his- 
torically unprecedentedly high rates, to armaments industry. The net of it 
all was to convert science and technology’s highest capability into accom- 
plishing the killing of ever more people at ever greater distances in ever 
shorter time. 

LAWCAP’s comprehensive grand strategy had its Achilles’ heel. 


Legally Piggily 


117 


Having successfully lifted $6 trillion from the mid-twentieth-century 
world’s leading nation — the U.S.A. and its people — LAWCAP puppeted 
the U.S.A.’s people into expending another of their own $6 trillion in play- 
ing “the drop-dead killingry poker game’’ with the U.S.S.R. exclusively on 
behalf of invisible LAWCAP. The latter was sure that with its complete 
control of all the world’s money to back the U.S.A. , the latter could not lose 
the killingry poker game with the U.S.S.R. Counting on winning the poker 
game, LAWCAP started planning its own post- World War III future. 

LAWCAP once more deceived its so-easy-to-deceive U.S.A. puppet with 
the kibitzing of the U.S.A.’s playing of its killingry poker hand. LAWCAP 
did so through its enormous media control and its election-funding and lob- 
bying power of the American political game. LAWCAP had its political 
leaders convince the U.S.A. people that they were playing the poker game 
so satisfactorily that the U.S.A. assumed that it was far ahead in atomic 
bombs, which gave it complete national security and assumedly maintained 
its world-around power and prestige. 

LAWCAP was confident that with ownership of all money and control 
of all the Western world’s arms-producing facilities, they could outlast the 
U.S.S.R.’s ability to cope with its internal pressure for shifting its produc- 
tivity toward its people’s life-style — as surreptitiously agitated for by the 
CIA’s psycho-guerilla operations. 

Because it was a “poker game” the Russians, realizing that intercontin- 
entally delivered warheads with a twenty-minute lag between rocket blast- 
off and landing bang-off inadvertently provided a twenty-minute radar lead, 
that meant for the first time in the history of war that both sides would be 
able to see the other side shooting at them twenty minutes before the bullets 
would reach them, which gave both sides twenty minutes within which to 
get away all of both sides’ atomic bombs, gases, germs, and death rays be- 
fore the Big Bang, thus producing the first war in history in which both 
sides and all their allies would lose. To be a survivor of such a war would 
be worse than being killed by it. Planet Earth would be humanly untenable. 

Because the Russians knew all this was so, and the American people did 
not seem to know it was so, the Russians assumed after the Khrushchev- 
Eisenhower Geneva Meeting of 1955 that atomic bomb warfare would never 
occur — that is the way the U.S.S.R. played their poker hand. They assumed 
only enough atomic bomb-making to camouflage their strategy, while they 
counted on conventional arms, vast divisions of armed and trained men, and 
the greatest ever of world history’s line-of-world-supply-controlling navies. 
The latter featured all of their now-perfected Vertol planes, being above-the- 
sea-surface-emitted, vertically ascending into the sky from enormous-bellied 
atomic submarines, moving far more swiftly submerged — seventy knots — 


118 


Critical Path 


than could the surface-battling, forty- to fifty-knot aircraft carriers. This the 
U.S.S.R. assessed to be the world-winning strategy. 

The reason that LAWCAP’s strategy kibitzed its U.S.A. players into 
holding four atomic bomb “aces” and an aircraft carrier “king” was because 
LAWCAP wanted to be sure that the atomic energy technology was so ad- 
vanced and proliferated by World War Ill’s end that they could employ its 
U.S.A.-peoples-paid-for basic equipment and widely developed uranium 
mines and production sources and its scientific personnel to produce the en- 
ergy to run through their money-making meters after their fossil fuels were 
exhausted. 

LAWCAP’s cupidity outwitted its wisdom. LAWCAP’s sense of evolu- 
tionary-event acceleration was faulty. They bluffed only the people of the 
U.S.A. — not the Russians. 

The Russians have now attained so commanding a lead in the killingry 
poker game that even the U.S.A. president concedes that it would take the 
U.S.A. a minimum of ten years to restrategy itself so that it could in any 
way cope with the Russians’ “conventional” naval supremacy and its vastly 
greater numbers of modernly armed divisions of world-around warfaring ca- 
pabilities. 

In the meantime as already mentioned the United States has gone com- 
pletely bankrupt internally, its national indebtedness coming very close to 
a trillion dollars and its balance of trade debt to $109 billion — worsening 
at a horrendous rate due to LAWCAP’s arranging to force the U.S.A. to 
obtain almost half its petroleum energy from the Near East. The U.S.A. has 
for eight years past been unable to meet even the interest on its internal debt 
as demonstrated by a negative balance of trade. Its future credit has been 
hypothecated thirty years beyond Armageddon. Nothing to stop the U.S. 
Treasury from issuing 2050 notes, but for how far into the future can LAW- 
CAP keep selling U.S.A. promissory notes? 

Unless God has something else in mind, it looks as though it will not be 
long before LAWCAP’s kibitzing of the U.S.A. will have lost the $6-trillion 
killingry poker game. Russia will not hesitate to “call” the U.S.A. hand and 
rake in the winnings of omniworld, line-of-supply control — maritime, aero- 
nautical, and astronautical. 

In one way the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. citizens are in much the same so- 
cioeconomic position. The Communist party which runs the U.S.S.R. con- 
sists of about 1 percent of their total population, while the U.S.A. is 
controlled by about the same 1 percent, who are the LAWCAP strategists 
of the great U.S.A. corporations. 

The U.S.A. is not run by its would-be “democratic” government. All the 
latter can do is try to adjust to the initiatives already taken by LAWCAP’s 
great corporations. Nothing could be more pathetic than the role that has 


Legally Piggily 


119 


to be played by the President of the United States, whose power is approxi- 
mately zero. Nevertheless, the news media and most over-thirty-years-of- 
age U.S.A. citizens carry on as if the president had supreme power. All that 
he and the Congress can do is adjust to what the “free-enterprise system” 
has already done. They are riding on the snapping end of the power-struc- 
ture dragon’s tail. 

If I had not been studying and working for a half-century on the assump- 
tion that this present state of affairs would come about at about this moment 
in history, I would have to be very pessimistic now about the human affairs 
of the 7 percent of the world’s population situated within the national 
boundaries of the U.S.A. let alone critically threatened omnihumanity. 

But, in fact, I have been studying and working anticipatorily through- 
out all those intervening fifty-three years, and I know what I am talking 
about. The world now has an option to become comprehensively and sus- 
tainingly successful — for all — and that is what this book is about: How to 
do so . . . and do so expeditiously enough to succeed within the time limit. 
“How to do so” is implicit in the chapters that follow starting with the man- 
ner in which I came to discover the critical options and the individual self- 
disciplines that came naturally to disclose the grand strategy of human 
survival and successful functioning. 

* * * 

Only cosmic costing accounts for the entirely interdependent electro- 
chemical and ecological relationships of Earth’s biological evolution and 
cosmic intertransformative regeneration in general. Cosmic costing ac- 
counts as well for the parts played gravitationally and radiationally in the 
totality within which our minuscule planet Earth and its minuscule star the 
Sun are interfunctionally secreted. Cosmic costing makes utterly ludicrous 
the selfish and fearfully contrived “wealth” games being reverentially played 
by humanity aboard Earth. 

Fortunately, the Sun does not demand payment for all the energy that it 
delivers by radiation to Earth in the overall cosmic scheme, which is trying 
to make humanity a success despite our overwhelming ignorance and fear. 
The stars are trying to tell humanity to awake and prosper and to conscious- 
ly assume the important cosmic responsibilities for which it was designed. 
Since realization and fulfillment of that responsibility involve evolutionary 
discovery by humanity of the cosmic stature of its mind and the inconse- 
quentiality of its muscle, the planting of humans on Earth may not bear 
fruit. 

When Universe is developing important functional interdependencies, she 
does not put all her embryos in the same proverbial “basket,” (or fiscus). 
So poor is the probability of self-discovery by humans of the infinite poten- 


120 


Critical Path 


tial of the mind and the relative triviality of human musclepower (which is 
not even as capable as a grasshopper’s) great nature must have planted a 
myriad of human-function-equivalent seedlings on a myriad of planets. In 
order to succeed as local-in-Universe critical information-gatherers and 
local-in-Universe problem-solvers in support of the integrity of eternally 
regenerative scenario Universe, the human-function equipment for local- 
in-Universe information-gathering will be as variable as the varied envi- 
ronments in Universe. Rarely will they have the appearance of human 
organisms — such would be employed only under environmental conditions 
similar to those of planet Earth. 

The first manifestation that humanity may make good on this planet will 
be the serious introduction of cosmic costing into the mainstream delibera- 
tions of Earthians. 

Cosmic accounting completely eliminates the economic validity of bank- 
ruptcy accounting, except when humans make the mistake of trying to 
hoard or withdraw critical “capital” assets from production functioning. 
Withdrawal of capital assets is akin to attempting to withdraw one of the 
stars from the celestial system. Into what Universe, other than the cosmic 
totality, may the star be transferred? Every atom and electron is an essential 
part of the eternally regenerative — ergo, totally inexhaustible (but always lo- 
cally ebbing and flooding) — pulsative Universe. 


PART II 

















































































































CHAPTER 4 


Self-Disciplines of 
Buckminster Fuller 


I My father died when I was fifteen. 

“Darling, never mind what you think. Listen. We are trying to teach 

you!” 

My mother said it. My schoolteachers said it. All grown-up authorities 
of any kind — the policeman, the druggist said it. “Thinking” was considered 
to be a process that is only teachable by the elders of the system. “That is 
why we have schools, dear.” “Thinking” was considered to be an utterly un- 
reliable process when spontaneously attempted by youth. 

2. Grandmother taught us the Golden Rule: “Love thy neighbor as thy 
self — do unto others as you would they should do unto you.” 

3. As we became older and more experienced, our uncles began to cau- 
tion us to get over our sensitivity. “Life is hard,” they explained. “There is 
nowhere nearly enough life support for everybody on our planet, let alone 
enough for a comfortable life support. If you want to raise a family and have 
a comfortable life for them, you are going to have to deprive many others 
of the opportunity to survive and the sooner, the better. Your grandmoth- 
er’s Golden Rule is beautiful, but it doesn’t work.” 

4. Knowing that my mother and relatives loved me, I did my best not 
to pay any attention to my own thinking and trained myself to learn what 
seemed to me “the game of life” as you would train yourself to play football. 
The rules are all written by others. 

5. Along came World War I. I did well in the Navy. I didn’t have to 
“make money” with my ships. But when I entered the business world and 


123 


124 


Critical Path 


had to make money over and above producing a good product, or when it 
had to be myself or somebody else who was to survive in the system, I was 
a spontaneous failure. I was always sure that I could cope with hardship 
better than the other guy, so I would yield. 

6. In 1907, at the age of twelve, challenged by Robert Burns’s “Oh wad 
some power the giftie gie us to see oursels as others see us,” I sought to 
“see” myself as others might and to integrate that other self with my self- 
seen self and thereafter to deal as objectively as possible with the compre- 
hensively integrated self. One of the techniques I adopted for doing this was 
to keep a come-as-it-may chronological — rather than an alphabetical or a 
categorical — record of my activities. In 1917, at age twenty-two, as commis- 
sioned line officer in the U.S. Navy, I named the record the “Chronofile.” 
It consisted, and as yet consists, of all my “to and from” letters, programs, 
sketches, memoranda, doodles, etc., plus a few typical bills. 

In 1917 Anne Hewlett and I were married. In 1918 our daughter Alex- 
andra was born; she contracted infantile paralysis and spinal meningitis and 
died on her fourth birthday in 1922. Between 1922 and 1927 I developed 
a manufacturing and building business, designed and equipped four small 
factories for manufacturing new building components, and therewith suc- 
cessfully erected 240 residential buildings, but I failed to do so profitably 
and lost my friends’ investments and became discredited and penniless. Co- 
incidentally with my failure in business in 1927, our second daughter, Al- 
legra, was born in pristine health. 

7. In 1927, at age thirty-two, finding myself a “throwaway” in the busi- 
ness world, I sought to use myself as my scientific “guinea pig” (my most 
objectively considered research “subject”) in a lifelong experiment designed 
to discover what — if anything — a healthy young male human of average 
size, experience, and capability with an economically dependent wife and 
newborn child, starting without capital or any kind of wealth, cash savings, 
account monies, credit, or university degree, could effectively do that could 
not be done by great nations or great private enterprise to lastingly improve 
the physical protection and support of all human lives, at the same time re- 
moving undesirable restraints and improving individual initiatives of any 
and all humans aboard our planet Earth. 

8. In 1927 I also committed all my productivity potentials toward dealing 
only with our whole planet Earth and all its resources and cumulative 
know-how, while undertaking to comprehensively protect, support, and ad- 
vantage all humanity instead of committing my efforts to the exclusive ad- 
vantages of my dependents, myself, my country, my team. 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


125 


This decision was not taken on a recklessly altruistic do-gooder basis, but 
in response to the fact that my Chronofile clearly demonstrated that in my 
first thirty-two years of life I had been positively effective in producing life- 
advantage wealth — which realistically protected, nurtured, and accommo- 
dated X numbers of human lives for Y numbers of forward days — only when 
I was doing so entirely for others and not for myself. 

Further Chronofile observation showed that the larger the number for 
whom I worked, the more positively effective I became. Thus it became ob- 
vious that if I worked always and only for all humanity, I would be opti- 
mally effective. 

9. I sought to do my own thinking, confining it to only experientially 
gained information, and with the products of my own thinking and intuition 
to articulate my own innate motivational integrity instead of trying to ac- 
commodate everyone else’s opinions, credos, educational theories, ro- 
mances, and mores, as I had in my earlier life. 

10. I sought to accomplish whatever was to be accomplished for anyone 
in such a manner that the advantage attained for anyone would never be 
secured at the cost of another or others. 

11. I sought to cope with all humanly unfavorable conditions, customs, 
and afflictions by searching for the family of relevant physical principles in- 
volved, and therewith through invention and technological development to 
solve all problems by physical data and devices that were so much more ef- 
fective as to be spontaneously adopted by humans and thereby to result in 
producing more desirable life-styles and thus emancipate humans from the 
previously unfavorable circumstances. 

I must always “reduce’' my inventions to physically working models and 
must never talk about the inventions until physically proven — or disproven. 

The new favorable-to-humans environment constituted by the technologi- 
cal inventions and information must demonstrate that new inanimate tech- 
nology could now accomplish what heretofore could not be accomplished 
by social reforms. I sought to reform the environment, not the humans. I 
determined never to try to persuade humanity to alter its customs and view- 
points. 

12. I sought never to “promote” or “sell” either my ideas or artifacts or 
to pay others to do so. I must never hire any agents to produce publicity 
for me, nor engage any lecture, literary, or “idea-selling” agents, nor hire 
personnel who would solicit support of any kind on my behalf. All support 


126 


Critical Path 


must be spontaneously engendered by evolution’s integrating of my inven- 
tions with the total evolution of human affairs. 

13. I assumed that nature had its own unique gestation rates, not only 
for the birth of each new biological component of ecological intersupport, 
but also for each inanimate technological artifact invention of human inter- 
advantaging. 

14. I sought to develop my artifacts with ample anticipatory time mar- 
gins so that they would be ready for use by society when society discovered 
through evolutionary emergencies that they needed just what I had devel- 
oped. I realized that if the new tools I had developed could provide valid 
human-advantage increases, then they would inevitably be adopted by so- 
ciety during the successive inexorable emergencies that occur in society, 
which evolution of emergence only through emergencies would dictate the 
proper rate of regenerative gestation of spontaneously adopted social ad- 
vances. 

15. I sought to learn the most from my mistakes. 

16. I sought to decrease time wasted in worried procrastination and to 
increase time invested in discovery of technological effectiveness. 

17. I sought to document my development in the official records of hu- 
manity by applying for and being granted government patents. 

18. Above all I sought to comprehend the principles of eternally regen- 
erative Universe and to discover human functioning therein, thereby to dis- 
cover nature’s governing complexes of generalized principles and to employ 
these principles in the development of the specific artifacts that would bene- 
fit humanity’s fulfillment of its essential functioning in the cosmic scheme. 

19. I sought to educate myself comprehensively regarding nature’s inven- 
tory of chemical elements, their weights, performance characteristics, rela- 
tive abundances, geographical whereabouts, metallurgical interalloyabilities, 
chemical associabilities and disassociabilities. 

I sought to comprehend the full gamut of production tool capabilities, en- 
ergy resources, and all relevant geological, meteorological, demographic, 
and economic data, as well as to comprehend the logistics and vital statistics 
thus far methodically amassed by humanity as derived from its all-history 
experiences. 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


127 


20. I sought to operate only on a do-it-yourself basis and only on the ba- 
sis of intuition. 

21. I oriented what I called my “comprehensive, anticipatory design sci- 
ence strategies” toward primarily advantaging the new life to be born within 
the environment-controlling devices I was designing and developing, be- 
cause the new lives would be unencumbered by conditioned reflexes that 
might otherwise blind them to the potential advantages newly existent with- 
in the new environment-control system in which they found themselves be- 
ginning life. 

As already mentioned, our second child, Allegra, was bom in 1927. Five 
years earlier her sister, Alexandra, had died on the eve of her birthday, hav- 
ing gone through four years of spinal meningitis and infantile paralysis. 

Allegra’s birth was a mysterious, awesome, and beautiful event, for my 
wife Anne and I realized that not only were we being again entrusted with 
a new life, but this time with that of a beautifully healthy life. At that mo- 
ment I was penniless and, to the relatively few who knew me, discredited. 
I had proved myself to be a failure in a business that had been financially 
backed by many of my friends. I had only a rich inventory of experience. 
That experience made clear to me that there were critical problems to be 
solved regarding total humanity aboard planet Earth — problems that would 
take at least a half-century to cope with successfully; problems as yet un- 
attended to by anyone; problems that, if successfully solved, would bring 
lasting advantage to all humanity; problems that, if left unsolved, would 
find all humanity at ever-increasing disadvantage. 

It was not that the problems could not be seen by others, but society was 
preoccupied with individual, national, state, and local business-survival 
problems, which forced its leaders into short-term, limited-scope consider- 
ations — with no time for total world problems. The presidents of great cor- 
porations had to make good profits within a very few years or lose their 
jobs. The politicians, too, were preoccupied with short-range national, state, 
or municipal survival matters. 

It seemed also clear to me that there had opened up a new avenue of ap- 
proach to humanity’s survival problems, an avenue that could be traversed 
only by an individual operating entirely on the individual’s own economic 
and philosophic initiative. 

All the world was preoccupied with intercompetitive survival, being spon- 
taneously motivated by the working assumption of the existence of a fun- 
damental inadequacy of life support on our planet. The leading ideologies 
said, “You may not like our system, but we are convinced that we are cop- 


128 


Critical Path 


ing most wisely, justly, and practically with fundamental inadequacy of life 
support. We are the fittest to survive.” 

What my experience taught me was that if the physical laws thus far 
found by science to be governing Universe were intelligently and fearlessly 
employed in the production of ever higher performances per each pound of 
material, erg of energy, and second of time invested, it would be feasible to 
take care of all humanity at higher standards of living than had ever been 
known by any humans — and to do so sustainingly. Evolution seemed to be 
operating in such a manner as to drive humans to inadvertent accomplish- 
ment of their own success. 

Despite the fearful “you-or-me” survival preoccupations, it seemed clear 
to me that if an individual who had practical experience in engineering, 
marketing, aeronautics, vessels on the sea, building on the land, mass man- 
ufacturing arts, and naval ballistics, who also could discern the evolutionary 
potentials emerging in scientific discoveries and see what the priority of 
tasks might be in bringing about general economic success for all humanity, 
then if that individual were to address those problems, completely commit- 
ting the balance of his life to the realization of such technical advantaging 
of humanity, then, if that individual was doing what nature was trying to 
do, he might find self — and those dependent on self — surviving and gaining 
in knowledge, capability, and experience relevant to the tasks to be accom- 
plished. 

Effective exploration requires effective record-keeping. I am confident of 
the accuracy of the record presented herewith. I am also confident that my 
personal record is pretty much the same as the record that would have been 
manifest by any healthy, well-informed individual who undertook the 
course I chose to steer upon the birth of Allegra in 1927. The fact that the 
individual who did pursue this course as a deliberate experiment (myself) 
found that it proved to be an economically tenable way of life and a tech- 
nically effective way of approaching world problems may encourage others 
to address problems in the same manner. 

* * * 

As already related, in 1907 I started a chronological record of my life and 
in 1917 named it the “Chronofile.” In 1917, at the age of twenty-two — for- 
tified with the already-thick Chronofile — I determined to make myself “the 
special case guinea pig study” in a lifelong research project — i.e., document- 
ing the life of an individual born in the “Gay Nineties” — 1895, the year 
automobiles were introduced, the wireless telegraph and the automatic 
screw machine were invented, and X rays were discovered — having his boy- 
hood around the turn of the century, and maturing during humanity’s ep- 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


129 


ochal graduation from the nineteenth century, which closed Sir Isaac 
Newton’s “normally at rest” and myriadly isolated hybrid world cultures 
to which change was anathema, into the twentieth century and Einstein’s 
normally “dynamic,” omni-integrating world culture to which change has 
come to seem both essential and popularly acceptable. 

Though I lived within seven miles of Boston’s center, so new and rare an 
object was the automobile that I was seven years old when I first saw one. 
I first drove one when I was twelve. Operators’ licenses and owners’ reg- 
istration certificates did not come into official use in any states until a de- 
cade later. 

When I was nine years old, the airplane was invented, but I did not see 
one flying until I was fourteen, and I did not fly one until I was twenty- 
two, within which same year (1917) I heard the historically first human- 
voice conversation over the radio. Earlier in that extraordinary year the 
U.S.A. had entered World War I; I had entered the U.S. Navy; and Anne 
Hewlett had entered into marriage with me. 

The cumulative effect of this swift succession of epochally surprising 
“first-ever” (for me) human and personal experiences precipitated my pre- 
viously mentioned inauguration of the history of the evolution of “Guinea 
Pig B” (“B” for Bucky) — the Chronofile. 

Along with millions of other pre-Kitty Hawk juveniles I, too, had tried 
to invent the airplane, first with paper dart models and then with box-kite- 
like multiplaned gliders. Despite our elders’ doubts and engineering’s down- 
to-earth negatives, immanent invention of the “airplane” was everywhere 
present in the thought world of my pre-Wright Brothers, knee-breeches 
years. It is interesting that our latest supersonic and 2000-mile-per-hour 
planes are beginning to take on the overall shape perfection of those early 
paper darts. Children’s intuitions are keen. 

My extraordinary experiences with the U.S. Navy’s World War I galaxy 
of new tools — oil-burning turboelectric ships, aircraft, diesel-engined sub- 
marines, radios, automatic range-keepers, etc. — convinced me that the ex- 
perience pattern of my generation was not to be just one more duplicate 
generation in a succession of millions of generations of humanity, with an 
approximately imperceptible degree of environmental change, as compared 
to the immediately previous generation. I was convinced that, unannounced 
by any authority, a much greater environmental and ecological change was 
just beginning to take place in my generation’s unfolding experience than 
had occurred cumulatively between my father’s, grandfather’s, great-, and 
great-great-grandfather’s four previous generations. I had read their diaries, 
expense accounts, or letters containing descriptions of their lives in their 
successive undergraduate days in the Harvard classes of 1883, 1843, 1801, 


130 


Critical Path 


and 1760, respectively. They all told of days-long walking or driving trips 
between Cambridge and Boston. I realized intuitively that the subway, 
which opened in my 1913 freshman year to connect Harvard Square in 
Cambridge to Tremont and Park streets in Boston in seven minutes, was a 
harbinger of an entirely new space-time relationship of the individual and 
the environment. 

It was clearly the environment and not the humans that was changing, 
and though the environmental changes might not alter human genes, 
changes in their external conditions might permit humans to realize many 
more of their innate capabilities than heretofore. 

Humans are tool complexes — hands for certain tasks, feet, ears, teeth, 
etc., for others. Using their human tool complexes, human minds, compre- 
hending variable interrelationship principles, invent detached-from-self 
tools — the bucket can lift out more water from the well than can a pair of 
cupped human hands — that are more special-case-effective but not used as 
frequently as their organically integral tools. Humans invent craft tools and 
industrial tools. The latter are all the tools that cannot be invented or op- 
erated by one human. The first industrial tool was the spoken word. With 
words humans compounded their experience-won knowledge. (Most indus- 
trial tools are driven by inanimate energy rather than by human muscle.) 

Dwellings are environment-controlling machines. So are automobiles. 
Automobiles are little part-time dwellings on wheels. Both autos and dwell- 
ings are complex tools. Both autos and dwellings are component tools with- 
in the far vaster tool complex of world-embracing industrialization. I use 
the word industrialization to include all intercoordinate humanity, all its 
artifacts, its evolving omni-interfunctioning and omni-integrating, omni-life- 
support-producing capability. 

I do not demean the phenomenon of industrialization by identifying it as 
being the money-making business that exploits productivity for unilateral 
profit. I do not identify the biological complexity “cow” and its ecological 
support system as being a component of some dairy business. Industrializa- 
tion is not business’s mass production of weaponry and munitions for po- 
litical proliferation and personal profit. Industrialization’s productivity is 
exploited by business. But industrialization’s coordinate productivity can be 
employed directly by spontaneous cooperation of humanity without busi- 
ness-profit-motivation. 

Life continually alters the environment, and the altered environment in 
turn alters the potentials, realities, and challenges of life. Environment em- 
braces a complex of nonsimultaneously occurring but omni-integrating 
mutations of humans’ external, only-by-invention-realized, metabolic-regen- 
eration organisms which we think and speak of as industrialization. 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


131 


Our Harvard 1917 class of 700 had only three automobile-owning mem- 
bers at its 1913 freshman start, one of whom was Ray Stanley, whose father 
had invented and produced the Stanley Steamer. But it was even then at 
least wishfully clear that humans in general might sometime acquire auto- 
mobiles. Since that time I have owned successively forty-three automobiles, 
three of which I invented and built, and have personally driven the forty- 
three cars a total of one and one-quarter million miles. I have lived long 
enough in various places to have had my cars registered in different years 
in ten different U.S.A. states. I have flown one and one-half million miles, 
part of that distance in three of my own planes. I have owned many boats, 
traveled in many others, and have commanded several craft in the United 
States Navy. 

My total travel, by land, sea, and air, aggregates more than three and one- 
half million miles to date, and in the last twenty-two years my work has tak- 
en me completely around the world forty-seven times, making it more 
economical and efficient to rent automobiles locally than to own them and 
leave them sitting in airport parking lots. Consequently I have rented over 
100 cars in addition to the forty-three I owned. This is in no wise a unique 
record. It is fairly average for millions of humans who have responsibilities 
in the general frontiers of evoluting world society. Three and one-half mil- 
lion is paltry mileage for any senior Pan American Airways pilot. Every as- 
tronaut with only two weeks away from Earth has traveled over three and 
one-half million miles. 

Pre-1900 average world man covered only 30,000 miles in his entire life- 
time, which is only one percent of my lifetime mileage to date. 

In 1900 no human thought assumed that acceleration existed in human 
affairs, i.e., sociologically. In 1980 there is no longer valid dissent from the 
concept of an accelerating change in the affairs of humans on Earth. The 
average U.S.A. family now moves out of town every three years. My present 
official address for passports and taxation is in Maine. I have had successive 
voting privileges in eight states. Whether I am “in residence” or not, my 
land, my house, you too, and I whirl constantly around the Earth’s axis to- 
gether (at about 800 miles per hour in the latitude of New York City), as 
all the while our little Spaceship Earth zooms around the Sun at 60,000 
miles per hour, while at the same time our solar system rotates in its nebular 
merry-go-round at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour — none of which 
celestial-arena traveling did I include in my previously stated lifetime mile- 
ages or in those of other Earthians. 

In all reality I never “leave home.” My backyard has just grown progres- 
sively bigger and more globular until now the whole world is my spherical 
backyard. “Where do you live?” and “What are you?” are progressively less 


132 


Critical Path 


sensible questions. “At present I am a passenger on Spaceship Earth,” and 
“I don’t know what I am. I know that I am not a category, a highbred spe- 
cialization. I am not a thing — a noun. I am not flesh. At eighty-five, I have 
taken in over a thousand tons of air, food, and water, which temporarily be- 
came my flesh and which progressively dissassociated from me. You and I 
seem to be verbs — evolutionary processes. Are we not integral functions of 
the Universe?” 

In 1917, in the U.S. Navy, I had intuited that an intermultiplicative his- 
torical acceleration of technical events was beginning that would bring 
about a fundamental and cataclysmic reorientation of human life in Uni- 
verse. Accelerating acceleration had been discovered by Galileo circa 1600 
in respect to free-falling bodies, out of which, with other discoveries, he for- 
mulated his first laws of motion. But the first laws of motion had not been 
conceived of, initially or since, as being applicable to human sociology — as 
accelerating our ecological evolution — until I intuitively hailed it as doing 
just that in 1917. 

Discussion of “acceleration” in economic, sociologic, and ecologic evolu- 
tion did not begin in the intellectual publications until more than a decade 
later. Also, two decades before publication by others was my 1922-1927 dis- 
covery that ever higher tool performance per unit of pounds, time, and en- 
ergy input (as metallurgical and electronic fallout from the weaponry 
industries into the domestic consumer economy) was resulting sum-totally 
in providing progressively ever more energetic performances with ever less 
weight and volume of material per function as well as ever less energy ex- 
penditure per each unit of overall performance in the domestic economy. I 
discovered this when erstwhile weaponry-support contractors sought to ex- 
ploit their U.S.-government-paid, scientifically instrumented, and produc- 
tion-tooled “new factories” when those factories and all their government- 
developed tools were returned to the companies after World War I’s 
armaments contracts were terminated. 

In contradistinction to the successively greater performance gains with 
ever less pounds and volumes of materials, ergs of energy, and seconds of 
time per each unit of performance strategy employed in designing ships (en- 
vironment controls) of the sea and sky for the military, the dry-land build- 
ing economy had theretofore been prototyped by fortress and castle 
building. Increased environment security was to be accomplished only with 
more weight and masonry massiveness — the heavier, higher, and thicker the 
walls, the more the security attained. 

In 1917 this more performance with less weight and volume of materials, 
less ergs of energy, and less seconds of time investment per each accom- 
plished unit of performance, manifested itself for the first time in the met- 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


133 


allurgy, chemistry, and electronics of World War I sea and sky armaments 
developments. This newly observed phenomena seemed to me to put in 
question the absolute scientific validity of Malthus’s 1805 discovery that hu- 
manity is multiplying its numbers at a geometrical rate while increasing its 
life-support capability only at an arithmetical rate, as a consequence of 
which it was universally concluded by all eco-political power system mas- 
ters that only a few humans are destined to survive successfully. Conversely, 
it seemed to me that it could come to pass through more-with-lessing that 
all of humanity might become both physically and economically successful 
even within the foreseeable future. 

There is not a chapter in any book in economics anywhere about doing 
more with less. Economists traditionally try to maximize what you have, 
but the idea that you could go from wire to wireless or from visible struc- 
turing to invisible alloy structuring did not occur to them at all. It was out- 
side their point of view — beyond their range of vision. Economists are 
specialists trained to look only at one particular thing. 

In my Shelter magazine of 1930-33 and in my 1938 book, Nine Chains 
to the Moon , I identified this progressive doing-more-with-less as ephemer- 
alization. Though Fortune magazine also published my 1922 concept of 
ephemeralization in its tenth-anniversary issue of 1940 in a prominent man- 
ner, and despite ephemeralization having subsequently wrought epochal ad- 
vancements in the standard of living for two billion previously deprived 
humans, ephemeralization is a phenomenon that in 1980 is as yet largely un- 
known to or overlooked by the world’s professional economists. Nonethe- 
less, the combination of accelerating acceleration and ephemeralization * has 
now elevated 60 percent of all humanity from its year- 1900 99-percent pov- 
erty level into realization of an everyday standard of living superior to that 
enjoyed by any kings, tycoons, or other power-commanding humans prior 
to the twentieth century. 

Sailors watch for every clue nature may give to coming events — cloud for- 
mations, temperature of the water, wind direction shiftings, etc. To survive, 
navigators must anticipate comprehensively. The sailor’s subconscious as 
well as conscious faculties interact to inform his anticipatory decisions. Only 
intuiting the subsequently realized epochal significance of accelerating 
ephemeralization to be implicit, as already noted, I decided in 1917 to sci- 
entifically document its emergent realizations as they impinged upon the 
daily life of an individual, his family, and his world. 


*Someone suggested to me that etherealization may be a better word. However, it is dis- 
qualified for my meaning because it is founded on the no longer physically accepted concept 
of ether. 


134 


Critical Path 


My 1917 “Project Guinea Pig B” was greatly advantaged by the Dymax- 
ion Chronofile. As of June 1980 the Chronofile consists of 737 volumes, 
each containing 300-400 pages, or about 260,000 letters in all. 

The first important regenerative effect upon me of keeping this active 
chronological record was that I learned to “see myself’ as others might — 
and usually did — see me. 

Second, it persuaded me ten years later (1927 — a decade after inception 
of “Project Guinea Pig B,” in 1917) to start my life as nearly “anew” as 
it is humanly possible to do. 

One basic tenet of my new 1927 volition, as already mentioned, was that 
whatever was to be accomplished for anyone must never be at the cost of 
another. Robin Hood, whose story my father read aloud to me when I was 
very young and not long before my father died, became my most influential 
early-years’ mythical hero. This meant that in my “first life” I had impro- 
vised methods in general to effect swift moral and romantic justice for those 
I found in trouble or danger. Foolishly self-confident in my “first life,” I 
had often rushed thoughtlessly to assume responsibilities beyond my phys- 
ical, monetary, or legal means to fulfill. This rashness led me into complex 
dilemmas, for in attempting to keep my assumption of responsibilities legal, 
I inadvertently involved my unwitting family, dragging them into prepos- 
terous financial sacrifices. 

In inaugurating my new life I took away Robin Hood’s longbow, staff, 
and checkbook and gave him only scientific textbooks, microscopes, calcu- 
lating machines, transits, and industrialization’s network of tooling in gen- 
eral. I made him substitute new inanimate forms for animate reforms. I did 
not allow Robin any public relations professionals or managers or agents to 
“promote” or “sell” him. It seemed obvious that if the new tools that the 
“new” Robin Hood developed could provide valid human-advantaging in- 
creases, they would inevitably be adopted by society during the successive, 
inexorable economic emergencies — which dictate the proper rate of regen- 
erative gestations of evolution. 

Along with the Dymaxion Chronofile I have kept all the tearsheets of 
newspapers, magazines, programs, etc., in which my work was reported. 
Until 1970 I could not afford to subscribe to a clipping service. Most of the 
clippings I have came into my hands by my own discovery or as a conse- 
quence of friends and acquaintances spontaneously sending clippings to me. 
This record now contains over 37,000 articles written and published by oth- 
ers about me or my work. It begins in 1917. Half of the 37,000 unique items 
have been published in the last twenty years. The record does not include 
the radio and television broadcasting about me or my work, which radio 
and TV broadcastings, both local and national, are ever increasing, averag- 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


135 


ing in 1979 at two per week for an annual total of 100 broadcasts, varying 
from one minute to an hour each. 

Published herewith is a curve showing the precise number of separate and 
individually written items per annum appearing only in The New York 
Times from 1920 to date. It is a curve of many peaks and valleys. Altogeth- 
er, it constitutes a wave pattern of ever-increasing magnitude. The cumu- 
lative record patterns into a ski-shaped curve — an initially long, almost 
horizontal pattern, with its nose finally rising ever more swiftly. It is an ac- 
celerating-acceleration curve. 

The successive peaks relate to: my Navy days; my 1918 publication of 
Transport magazine; my 240 Stockade buildings of 1922-1927; the 4-D 
monograph and the Dymaxion House of 1927-28; my 1930-32 publication 
of Shelter magazine; the 1927-35 Dymaxion Car; the 1927-38 Dymaxion 



Figure 19 . Dymaxion Clippings: The New York Times 


Cumulative Number of Clippings (dotted line) 


136 


Critical Path 


Bathroom; my 1938 book Nine Chains to the Moon ; the 1927 Industrial 
Man’s Ecological Transformation Charts; Lifelong Energetic/Synergetic 
Geometry; the Dymaxion Deployment Unit produced by Butler Manufac- 
turing Company of Kansas City in 1940; the 1930-Dymaxion Sky-Ocean 
World Map, first published in multicolor in an eighteen-page section in Life 
in March 1943; 1946 O-Volving-book-shelved, Underground Silo Library; 
1947 Geodesic Domes; my world-around Geodesic Radomes for the De- 
fense Early Warning system; my 1954 Marine Corps Air-Delivered Geode- 
sic Domes; my U.S.A. Moscow Pavilion Dome; my U.S.A. pavilion for the 
1967 Montreal World’s Fair; my 1967 Triton (tetrahedronal) Floating City 
for the U.S. Housing Authority; the 1965-1975 World Students’ Design Sci- 
ence Decade; 1927 Inventory of World Resources, Human Trends and 
Needs; my 1969 World Games — i.e., “How to Make the World Work,’’ as 
conducted that year at the New York Studio School, Yale University, 
Southern Illinois University, University of Southern California, University 
of Pennsylvania, University of Massachusetts, New York University; my 
1970 two-and-a-half-mile-high (Mount Fuji-high) housing-sightseeing tow- 
er, completely engineered (but never built) for Matsutaro Shoriki, late own- 
er of Nippon Television Network and the Yomiuri Shimbun — Japan’s 
largest-circulation daily newspaper; the 1960-73 “World Man Territory 
Trusteeship’’ inaugurated on Cyprus under joint auspices of Archbishop 
Makarios, Caress Crosby, the World Academy of Science and Art, and my- 
self; my large-scale tensegrity projects; my eighteen books, especially Syn- 
ergetics , volumes 1 and 2; scientific publications by others identifying my 
work with discoveries at various levels of the microcosmic structuring of na- 
ture; and most latterly to a general admixture of editorial realizations that 
my separately reported inventions and fundamental concepts all relate to a 
total unified philosophy that now emerges as comprehensively pertinent to 
unfolding historical reality. 

The preponderance of later items by others relate clearly to my general 
philosophy, to my fifty-year 1927 prognostications, and to my world-envi- 
ronment-redesigning stratagems. There is a dawning awareness that I am 
saying something realistic when I say we have been asking the politicians 
to do what only we can do ourselves, technologically, by cooperative use of 
our intellects and active initiatives plus our innate, politically transcendental 
integrity and artifact-inventing and mass-producing capabilities. 

I have been consistently faithful to my 1917 determination to treat myself 
objectively as an historical guinea pig, and I assure any who may be inter- 
ested that my files include as many unflattering items, such as notices from 
the sheriff, letters from those who thought me to be a crank, crook, char- 
latan, etc. I am glad that these negative charges are infrequent and to the 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


137 


best of my knowledge untrue, though the record discloses the ease with 
which items taken out of context can be negatively interrelated and inter- 
preted. 

Because my Chronofile and archive’s data constitute a faithfully compre- 
hensive record, I am now able to comment objectively regarding my sub- 
jectively disclosed guinea-pig self (and I am usually more critically incisive 
with myself than I am with studies of other humans). 

When my subject is being effective, I am glad, and when it is worriedly 
procrastinating, I am sad. When it makes mistakes, I learn the most and am 
elated. That is the extent of my prejudice. 

I think the curves plottable from my data are acceptable as demonstrating 
the realization of the scientific marshaling of my guinea pig’s case history, 
as deliberately and methodically undertaken a half-century ago. The curves 
document that my 1927 working assumptions are approximately congruent 
with the ensuing fifty-two-year unfoldment of evolutionary pattemings in 
economics, technology, sociology, and mathematics. My 1927 assumptions 
being well published and now actively reviewed not only are proving valid, 
but many are also trending to further accredit my present prognosticating. 
My 1961 prognostications covering world educational developments to 
1982 — as contained in Buckminster Fuller on Education, now published by 
University of Massachusetts Press — are tending to be far more spontaneous- 
ly accepted than were those of my 4-D monograph of 1928 (reissued as 4D 
Timelock by the Lama Foundation in 1972). 

Possibly a more telling trend regarding “Guinea Pig B” is the acceleration 
in the curve of the rate at which books by others refer to my work. Books 
usually represent a greater amount of research work, rumor filtering, and 
retrospective processing than do newspaper or magazine writing. The curve 
of books with reference to me or my work is accelerating even more swiftly 
than is the curve of news items published about my work. 

It has been an expensive and often cumbersome task to keep the records 
and to hold together the archives that document the half-century history of 
this experimental undertaking, which had often to passage penniless times. 
However, that record-keeping has been accomplished. As a consequence it 
may serve to encourage others to commit themselves to nature’s precession- 
al principles. 


* * * 

Few who know me or of me — over and above friends familiar with my 
1917 resolution to faithfully document the life of an individual and my 1927 
resolution to conduct a lifelong experiment with that individual — are cog- 
nizant of the reasons governing adoption of several important stratagems 


138 


Critical Path 


within my personally conceived and adopted grand strategy of self-disci- 
plines, though these have altogether governed the last half-century of my 
eighty-five years, and as yet continue to do so. 

In 1927 I designed the experiment’s strategies in a manner that seemed 
to me most probable to prove clearly that all the irreversible gains for all 
human individuals that I set about to produce could not be accomplished 
as conceived and initiated by business corporations, political states, aca- 
demic, professional, labor, or any other social groups, no matter how pow- 
erfully rich, well-informed, well-intentioned, or well-armed they might be. 
I was concerned with the unique cerebral faculties, conceptual metaphysics, 
and physical articulatabilities integral to, and operative only within, the in- 
ventory of one single individual human’s functioning. 

As I initiated such a lifelong operation in 1927, it was evident to me that 
within the extant world-around, socioeconomic milieu, the physical re- 
sources essential to the reduction to physical realization and production of 
the individual’s invented artifacts could only be legally acquired in three 
ways. 

1. Within the U.S.S.R. only by first persuading the Communist party 
leaders that my concepts were either superior to or compatible with theirs, 
and thereafter waiting on their relative priority list for half a century until 
the first ten of their five-year plans had been completed. 

In February 1933, five years after my strategic decision to rely on “socio- 
economic precession’’ — which I will explain a few paragraphs later — an em- 
issary of the U.S.S.R. planning authority (visiting the U.S.A. in connection 
with Henry Ford’s Dearborn school for U.S.S.R. engineers) told me that the 
Soviets thought well of my industrially-to-be-produced, service-rented, air- 
deliverable, scientific dwelling machines — the Dymaxion houses. But pop- 
ular knowledge of their potential, before the time when production of the 
resources essential to their manufacture had been adequately supplied to in- 
herently prior tasks in the sound organization of their industrial economy, 
would (if known of in Russia) generate impatience for their realization. This 
would be a psychologically upsetting factor — ergo, Dymaxion houses would 
not be brought to public attention until after 1980; so, my 1927 decision to 
carry out their research and development in the U.S.A., where technological 
evolution permitted such an initiation, was valid. 

2. Within one of the great dictatorships I might gain the physical means 
of realizing my technological artifacts by first persuading the dictator that 
his only militarily sustainable plans should be abandoned because they were 
diametrically opposed to my concepts (not pursued). 

3. Within the remainder of the world I would acquire the means only in 
exchange for cash money or services. This brought me once more to the 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


139 



Figure 20. Model of the Dymaxlon 4-D House 


number-one strategic question: how could the initially moneyless, creditless, 
physical-facilities-lacking individual succeed in realistically demonstrating 
that the invented artifacts not only could be practically realized but that 
their use would substantially increase the economic, technological, and so- 
cial advantaging of all world-around humanity and not be inherently limited 
to advantaging only minorities. 

I saw that twentieth-century money was an economic invention that 
could be manipulated, for instance, through the Federal Reserve Bank and 
its control of its member banks’ rediscount rate — or again by the banks’ 
loaning to already powerful organizations large blocks of the money of 
many small depositors to enhance the advantage only of the few through 




140 


Critical Path 


profitable exploitations of the many’s needs. As mentioned in an earlier 
chapter, since Malthus (1810) it had been assumed by all the world’s po- 
litical ideologies — as it is even today — that there is a fundamental and lethal 
inadequacy of life support on our planet, wherefore, poverty and misery for 
vast millions of humans have been accepted as unavoidable. Wherefore, the 
also universally assumed law of “survival only of the fittest” had given his- 
torical rise to various political ideologies, as ways of coping with this fun- 
damental inadequacy — each convinced that the ultimate proof of which 
ideological group is fittest to survive can be resolved only by periodic trial 
of arms. 

Politicians’ effectiveness is dependent on the degree of growth of their on- 
going authority. Since there is no sustainable equilibrium in a 100-percent 
efficient, ever-regenerating physical Universe, the politician of the moment 
who has gained greatest effectiveness is the one whose gained authority is 
as yet increasing — i.e., the brightness of whose “star” is waxing. Once their 
authority becomes visibly less, they are “on the way out.” The same is true 
of the money-making private-corporation executives. They must play com- 
pany politics to ever progressively augment personal authority . 

No matter how altruistic a public image they may attain and maintain, 
both the budding or full-bloom politicians and corporate executives must se- 
cretly have always on highest priority the increasing enhancement of their 
own public image as well as of their own financial credit. Whether public 
or private, professional or amateur, their own kudos-building or -mainte- 
nance requires that both the politicians and corporate executives forever be 
attempting to favorably reform the viewpoints of others regarding their par- 
ticular organizations. To do so they are forever proposing to reform the or- 
ganization commanded by those others whose prerogatives they hope to 
acquire. 

Far different from the politicians’, corporate executives’, and religious 
leaders’ strategies was the new noncompetitive course I took in 1927 — i.e., 
that of reforming only the physical environment through artifacts, such as 
increasing safety and decreasing accidents by engineering improvements of 
motor vehicles while also providing overpasses and banked turns for the ve- 
hicles to drive on, instead of trying to reform the vehicle drivers’ behaviors. 

I planned to employ the ever-increasing and -improving scientific knowl- 
edge and technology to produce ever more effective human life-improving 
results with ever less investment of weight of materials, ergs of energy, sec- 
onds of time per each measurable level of improved artifact performance. 
I was hopeful of finally doing so much with so little as to implement com- 
prehensive and economically sustainable physical success for all humanity, 
thereby to eliminate the need for lethally biased politics and their ultimate 
recourse to hot or cold warring. 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


141 



The big question remained: How do you obtain the money to live with and 
to acquire the materials and tools with which to work? 

The answer was “precession.” What precession is, and why it was the an- 
swer, requires some explaining. 

When we pull away from one another the opposite rigid-disc ends of a 
flexible, water-filled rubber cylinder, the middle part of the overall cylinder 
contracts in a concentric series of circular planes of diminishing radius per- 
pendicular (at right angles) to the line of our pulling. 

When we push toward one another on the two opposite ends of the same 
flexible, water-filled, rubber, rigid-disk-ended cylinder, the center of the cyl- 
inder swells maximally outward in a circular plane perpendicular (at right 
angles) to the line of our pushing together. 

When we drop a stone in the water, a circular wave is generated that 
moves outwardly in a plane perpendicular (at right angles) to the line of 
stone-dropping — the outwardly expanding circular wave generates (at nine- 



Figure 22. 


142 


Critical Path 


ty degrees) a vertical wave that in turn generates an additional horizontally 
and outwardly expanding wave, and so on. 

All these right-angle effects are processional effects. Precession is the effect 
of bodies in motion on other bodies in motion. The Sun and Earth are both 
in motion. Despite the 180-degree gravitational pull of the in-motion Sun 
upon the in-motion Earth, precession makes Earth orbit around the Sun in 
a direction that is at ninety degrees — i.e., at a right angle — to the direction 
of the Sun’s gravitational pull upon Earth. 

The successful regeneration of life growth on our planet Earth is ecologi- 
cally accomplished always and only as the precessional — right-angled — 
“side effect’’ of the biological species’ chromosomically programmed indi- 
vidual-survival preoccupations — the honeybees are chromosomically pro- 
grammed to enter the flower blossoms in search of honey. Seemingly 
inadvertently (but realistically-precessionally) this occasions the bees’ bum- 
bling tail’s becoming dusted with pollen (at ninety degrees to each bee’s lin- 
ear axis and flight path), whereafter the bees’ further bumbling entries into 
other flowers inadvertently dusts off, pollenizes, and cross-fertilizes those 
flowers at right angles (precessionally) to the bees’ operational axis — so, too, 
do all the mobile creatures of Earth cross-fertilize all the different rooted 
botanicals in one or another precessional (right-angled), inadvertent way. 

Humans, as honey-money-seeking bees, do many of nature’s required 
tasks only inadvertently. They initially produce swords with metal-forging- 
developed capability, which capability is later used to make steel into farm 
plows. Humans — in politically organized, group-fear-mandated acquisition 
of weaponry — have inadvertently developed so-much-more-performance- 
with-so-much-less material, effort, and time investment per each technologi- 
cal task accomplished as now inadvertently to have established a level of 
technological capability which, if applied exclusively to peaceful purposes, 



Figure 23. 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


143 



Earth 

J 


can provide a sustainable high standard of living for all humanity, which 
accomplished fact makes war and all weaponry obsolete. Furthermore, all 
of this potential has happened only because of the at-ninety-degrees-realized 
generalized technology and science “side effects” or “fall-out” inadvertently 
discovered as special case manifest of the scientifically generalized principle 
of precession. 

At the 1927 outset of project “Guinea Pig B” I assumed that humanity 
was designed to perform an important function in Universe , a function it 
would discover only after an initially innocent by-trial-and-error-discovered 
phase of capability development. During the initial phase humans, always 
born naked, helpless, and ignorant but with hunger, thirst, and curiosity to 
drive them, have been chromosomically programmed to operate successfully 
only by means of the general biological inadvertencies of bumbling “honey- 
seeking.” Therefore, what humans called the side effects of their conscious 
drives in fact produced the main ecological effects of generalized technologi- 
cal regeneration. I therefore assumed that what humanity rated as “side ef- 
fects” are nature’s main effects. I adopted the precessional “side effects” as 
my prime objective. 

So preoccupied with its honey-money bumbling has society been that the 
ninety-degree side effects of the century-old science of ecology remained 
long unnoticed by the populace. Ecology is the world-around complex in- 
tercomplementation of all the biological species’ regenerative intercyclings 
with nature’s geological and meteorological transformation recyclings. So- 
ciety discovered ecology only when its economically sidewise discards of un- 
profitable substances became so prodigious as to pollutingly frustrate 
nature’s regenerative mainstream intersupport. Society’s surprise “discov- 
ery” of ecology in the 1960s constituted its as-yet-realistically-unresponded- 
to discovery of nature’s main effects — ergo, of precession. It is a safe guess 


144 


Critical Path 


that not more than one human in 10 million is conceptually familiar with 
and sensorially comprehending of the principle of “precession.” 

In 1927 I reasoned that if humans’ experiences gave them insights into 
what nature’s main objectives might be, and if humans committed them- 
selves, their lifetimes, and even their dependents and all their assets toward 
direct, efficient, and expeditious realization of any of nature’s comprehen- 
sive evolutionary objectives, nature might realistically support such a main 
precessional commitment and all the ramifications of the individual’s devel- 
opmental needs, provided that no one else was trying to do what the pre- 
cessionally committed saw needed to be done. Precession cannot be 
accomplished competitively. Precession cannot respond to angularly redun- 
dant forces. It can, however, respond to several angularly nonredundant 
forces at a given time. 

Since nature was clearly intent on making humans successful in support 
of the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe, it seemed clear that if I 
undertook ever more humanly favorable physical-environment-producing 
artifact developments that in fact did improve the chances of all humanity’s 
successful development, it was quite possible that nature would support my 
efforts, provided I were choosing the successively most efficient technical 
means of so doing. Nature was clearly supporting all her intercomplemen- 
tary ecological regenerative tasks — ergo, I must so commit myself and must 
depend upon nature providing the physical means of realization of my in- 
vented environment-advantaging artifacts. I noted that nature did not re- 
quire hydrogen to “earn a living” before allowing hydrogen to behave in the 
unique manner in which it does. Nature does not require that any of its in- 
tercomplementing members “earn a living.” 

Because I could see that this precessional principle of self-employment 
was a reasonably realistic possibility (though to the best of my knowledge 
never before consciously adopted and tested by others), I resolved to adopt 
such a course formally, realizing that there would be no human who could 
authorize my doing so nor any authority able to validate my decision so to 
do. I saw that there would be no humans to evaluate my work as it pro- 
ceeded — nor to tell me what to do next. 

I went on to reason that since economic machinery and logistics consist 
of bodies in motion, since precession governs the interbehaviors of all bodies 
in motion, and since human bodies are usually in motion, precession must 
govern all socioeconomic behaviors. Quite clearly humans do orbit at ninety 
degrees to the direction of their interattractions — orbiting elliptically 
around one another’s most attractively dominant neighbors, as do also gal- 
axies within supergalaxies and all the stars, moons, comets, asteroids, star- 
dust particles, unattached molecules, atoms, and the electrons within the 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


145 


atoms. All orbit their respectively most interattractively dominant nuclei of 
the moment. I recognized that overall interproximities vary and that New- 
ton’s law of system interattractiveness varies inversely at a second-power 
rate of the mathematical distances intervening as well as in respect to the 
product of the masses of any two considered bodies. All of the foregoing 
evolutionary intertransformings I observed would occasion frequently 
changing interdominances. 

I assumed that nature would “evaluate” my work as I went along. If I 
was doing what nature wanted done, and if I was doing it in promising 
ways, permitted by nature’s principles, I would find my work being econom- 
ically sustained — and vice versa, in which latter negative case I must quick- 
ly cease doing what I had been doing and seek logically alternative courses 
until I found the new course that nature signified her approval of by pro- 
viding for its physical support. 

Wherefore, I concluded that I would be informed by nature if I proceeded 
in the following manner: 

(A) committed myself, my wife, and our infant daughter directly to the de- 
sign, production, and demonstration of artifact accommodation of the 
most evident but as-yet-unattended-to human-environment-advantag- 
ing physical evolutionary tasks, and 

(B) paid no attention to “earning a living” in humanity’s established eco- 
nomic system, yet 

(C) found my family’s and my own life’s needs being unsolicitedly provid- 
ed for by seemingly pure happenstance and always only “in the nick 
of time,” and 

(D) being provided for “only coincidentally,” yet found 

(E) that this only “coincidentally,” unbudgetable, yet realistic support per- 
sisted, and did so 

(F) only so long as I continued spontaneously to commit myself unreserv- 
edly to the task of developing relevant artifacts, and if I 

(G) never tried to persuade humanity to alter its customs and viewpoints 
and never asked anyone to listen to me and spoke informatively to oth- 
ers only when they asked me so to do, and if I 

(H) never undertook competitively to produce artifacts others were devel- 
oping, and attended only to that which no others attended 

then I could tentatively conclude that my two assumptions were valid: 

(1) that nature might economically sustain human activity that served 
directly in the “mainstream” realization of essential cosmic regenera- 
tion, which had hitherto been accomplished only through seeming 


146 


Critical Path 


“right-angled” side effects of the chromosomically focused biological 
creatures; and (2) that the generalized physical law of precessional be- 
haviors does govern socioeconomic behaviors as do also the general- 
ized laws of acceleration and ephemeralization. 

The 1927 precessional assumptions became ever-more-convincingly sub- 
stantiated by experiences — only the “impossible” continued to happen. I be- 
came ever more convinced that I must go on developing artifacts that would 
make possible humanity’s successful accomplishment of survival activities 
so much more logically and efficiently as to render the older, less efficient 
ways to be spontaneously abandoned by humanity. I resolved never to at- 
tack or oppose undesirable socioeconomic phenomena, but instead commit- 
ted myself to evolving and cultivating tools that would accomplish 
humanity’s necessitous tasks in so much easier, more pleasant, and more ef- 
ficient ways that, without thinking about it, the undesirable ways would be 
abandoned by society. (I liked the popular 1944 song, “Accentuate the Pos- 
itive, Eliminate the Negative.”) 

All the foregoing was, then, the precessional course I deliberately adopted 
in 1927. I had only the remaining days of my life to invest. It involved swift 
sorting out of the complex of design, production, testing, and demonstration 
tasks to be performed. What was the order of inherent priorities and suc- 
cessively overlapping interdependencies? 

Socioeconomic precession by environment-controlling artifacts was a 
strategic course that obviously could be steered only by maximum reliance 
on our intuitive sensibilities, frequent position determination and course 
correcting, plus constant attendance upon the thoughts evolvingly generated 
by our commitment and its moment-to-moment, experience-produced new 
insights into the relative significance of the whole family of evolving events. 
It involved swift recognition and correction of all errors of judgment. It re- 
quired being always “comprehensively considerate.” 

* * * 

As navigational aids and “high-seas life-preserving devices” wisely to be 
employed in sailing such a course in heretofore-uncharted socioeconomic 
seas, I have patented every one of what seemed to me to be strategically im- 
portant items amongst my inventions, and have done so as they occurred 
in all economically relevant countries around the world. This has cost three- 
fold any and all royalties ever accruing to those patents. I did so for the fol- 
lowing reasons: 

Having no academically earned scientific degrees I could not qualify for 
membership in any scientific societies and could therefore not publish my 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


147 


discoveries officially in their journals. I found that filing of patent claims 
established an equally valid scientific record of my discoveries and inven- 
tions. The preamble texts of patent claims are often philosophically and his- 
torically enlightening. Of necessity they are meticulously specific in respect 
to the technological means of practical realizations of the inventions. 

The worth of a patent, however, is not established by the merit of the in- 
vention but by the expertness with which its claims of invention are written. 
Almost anyone can obtain a patent from the patent office. What history has 
shown to be socioeconomically important is whether those claims can sur- 
vive in the highest court trials of patent-infringement cases. Vast knowledge 
of the precedents in court-decision history and of the patent strategy of 
great corporations is essential in the writing of the claims. 

While a U.S.A. patent can be obtained for less than $200, a patent that 
the great corporations’ patent attorneys see no way of circumventing re- 
quires expensively expert professional services. Added to this is the cost of 
world-around major nations’ patent coverage (which foreign patents must 
be applied for and obtained because every country can now air-deliver their 
inventions into any other country within less than a week, in contradistinc- 
tion to a six-month water-delivery lag in 1900). This world-around patent 
coverage cost about $50,000 in 1975 (it was $30,000 in 1950) for obtaining 
each world-protected, probably court-sustainable, infringement-defying pat- 
ent. 

In every instance I sought the services of those lawyers most widely ac- 
knowledged to be the champion patent attorneys of that moment in the spe- 
cific category of my type of inventions. 

From time to time during the half-century since I first obtained a patent, 
the patent attorneys of more than 100 of the world’s most powerful corpo- 
rations have called upon my patent attorneys to obtain a license under one 
or more of my patents. In every one of these instances, phrasing his state- 
ment in varying ways, the visiting powerful corporation attorney has said 
to my attorney (usually as a flattering, but truthful, “one-professional-to-an- 
other,” off-the-record remark), “Of course, the first thing my client asked 
me to do was to find a way of circumventing your client’s patent, but you 
have written your claims so well that I was forced to advise my client to 
procure a license under your patent if indeed he wished to engage in the in- 
vention’s manufacture without exposing himself to almost certainly devas- 
tating infringement expense.” 

That statement discloses two truths. The first is that big business, which 
now makes its major profits out of know-how, deliberately steals know-how 
wealth whenever possible; the second is that if I had not taken out patents, 
you would probably never have heard of me nor would you have learned 


148 


Critical Path 


that an independently operating little individual, starting penniless and 
creditless, had indeed succeeded in inventing what I, as the half-century 
“Guinea Pig B” — the test-case individual — have been able to accomplish. 

My half-century experience also discovered the natural, unacceleratable 
lags existing between inventions and industrial uses in various technical cat- 
egories, which occur as follows: in electronics — two years; aerodynamics — 
five years; automobiles — ten years; railroading — fifteen years; big-city build- 
ings — twenty-five years; single-family dwellings — fifty years. Clearly these 
lags have consistently characterized the lengths of gestation periods in the 
different arts with which I was concerned. In the case of most of my inven- 
tions the gestation lags have been far greater than the seventeen-year life- 
span of patents in those arts. Patents in the forty-five- to fifty-year inven- 
tion-gestation-rated single-family-housing arts are financially worthless. I 
took out many patents in these arts, however, because it was in the field of 
human-life protection, support, and accommodation that the worst socio- 
economic problems existed. 

In 1927 the American Institute of Architects journal published a plan for 
a single-family dwelling they felt to be an optimum single-family dwelling 
under the improving technical circumstances of 1927 — it included electric 
refrigeration instead of the old icebox, oil-burning furnaces instead of hu- 
man-shovel-stoked coal furnaces, etc. Concerned with my accelerating 
ephemeralization, I inventoried all the design fixtures of that optimum sin- 
gle-family dwelling — its floor area, its volume, the number and placement 
of its windows, the number of lumens of light admitted, all of its plumbing 
and wired facilities, its insulation, etc. — and then I calculated its complete 
weight, including all of its pipes and wires out to the city mains. It weighed 
150 tons. 

Then, using the most advanced aircraft-engineering techniques and the 
highest-performance aluminum alloys, etc., I designed a dwell-in-able envi- 
ronment control of the same volume and floor area that in every way pro- 
vided facilities and degrees of comfort equal to those of AIA’s optimum 
1927 single-family dwelling. My aeronautical-engineering-counterpart sin- 
gle-family dwelling weighed only three tons — a fact that I proved seventeen 
years later when, incorporating all logical interim technological improve- 
ments, we built that aircraft-engineering prototype in Beech Aircraft’s plant 
in Wichita, Kansas. 

This three-ton to 150-ton (!/ 50 th) weight ratio of the difference between the 
technical capabilities of the aircraft versus the home-building arts clearly 
confirmed the reasonability of my working assumption that the accelerating 
ephemeralization of science and technology might someday accomplish so 
much with so little that we could sustainingly take care of all humanity at 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


149 


a higher standard of living than any have ever experienced, which would 
prove the Malthusian “only you or me” doctrine to be completely fallacious. 

Having committed myself to precessional existence, I now focused all my 
effort for the rest of my life on applying the highest science and technology 
directly to the realization of human livingry. 

Most of my inventions have come into public use long after my relevant 
patent rights have expired. Some of them have not yet come into public use 
but will do so fifty years after their 1927 invention and thirty-two years after 
the seventeen-year patents have expired. This has not mattered to me since 
I did not take out the patents to make money but only to document and 
demonstrate what the inventive little individual can accomplish, and to 
prove documentably the socioeconomic existence of such unique industri- 
alization lags. 

For instance, my mass-producible one-piece bathrooms that are now in 
mass production in West Germany and are fabricated as I planned, with 
glass-fiber-reinforced-polyester-resin, are almost exact visual-form replicas 
of the sheet-copper and aluminum prototypes I developed, installed, and 
thoroughly tested and proved at the United States Bureau of Standards, Hy- 
draulic Division, in 1937-38, having first designed one in 1927 — all of 
which, as designed, had to wait until the glass-reinforced-polyester-resins 
plastic industry had been developed, there being a half-century gestation pe- 
riod in the home-improvements art. 

Paradoxically, the truly luxurious West German one-piece bathrooms are 
now about to be made obsolete by the combined effectiveness of my fog-gun 
self-cleaning device and my dry-packaged and hermetically sealed and me- 
chanically-carried-away-and-packaged toilet device, which altogether elim- 
inate all wet plumbing and do away with the need of piped-in-and-away 
water and water-borne wastes. The amount of water needed by the fog gun 
is less than a pint per day per family. All water for our advanced dwelling 
machine will be brought to the dwelling in quantities equal to milk and fruit 
juice consumption. 

Now that I have proven that an individual can be world-effective while 
eschewing either money or political advantage-making, I do my best to dis- 
courage others from taking patents, which almost never “pay off” to the in- 
ventor. My patent taking was to effect a “bridgehead” accreditation to more 
effective employment of humanity’s potentials. 

My half-century experience in the foregoing experiment makes me feel 
certain that if I had developed any of the inventions to make money or to 
aggrandize self, I would have failed to do either, as have so many thousands 
failed when committed primarily to self-advantaging. I frequently hear from 
only-to-self-committed individuals who lament with pathetic self-conviction 


150 


Critical Path 


that others are trying to steal their inventions, wherefore they don’t dare to 
disclose to anyone, while perversely yearning to profit by what to them is 
invention. Very often, unknown to them, prior disclosures of the same in- 
vention “idea” exist. 

Ideas are easy to come by; reduction to practice is an arduous but inspi- 
rationally rewarding matter. 

I have discovered that one of the important characteristics of most eco- 
nomic trends is that they are too slow in their motion to be visible to hu- 
mans. We cannot see the motion of the stars, the atoms, a whirling airplane 
propellor, the growth of a tree, or the hour or minute hand of a clock. In 
the latter case we can see only the movement of the second hand. Humans 
do not get out of the way of that which they cannot see moving. As with 
the electromagnetic spectrum, most of the frequencies and motions of Uni- 
verse are ultra or infra to man’s sensorial tunability. 

With a half-century of experience in prognosticating based on the rates 
of change of my ephemeralization and acceleration curves, I am firmly con- 
vinced that I can see clearly a number of coming events, and I am therefore 
vitally eager that people should not be hurt by the coming of these events, 
particularly when I can see ways in which it would be possible not only for 
them to avoid hurt but even to prosper by and enjoy what now seems to 
me to be inevitable. 

Much that I see to be inevitable is unthinkingly opposed by various fac- 
tions of society. Reflex-conditioned society, facing exclusively toward its 
past, backs up into its future, often bumping its rump painfully but uncom- 
prehendingly against the “potential-wealth coffers” of its future years’ vast- 
ly multiplying capability to favorably control its own ecological evolution 
and the latter’s freedom-multiplying devices. 

My recitation of self-disciplines may suggest that all I had to do was to 
conceive of the discipline and institute it, whereas the fact is that my pre- 
viously conditioned reflexes frequently contradicted my intentions, while 
circumstances beyond my control converged so powerfully as to divert me 
from my intended self-disciplines. It has taken constant disciplining and re- 
disciplining to get myself under control to a productively effective degree. 

Throughout the first half of my last fifty-two years of severe reorientation 
of my life pattern — in which I determined to give up forever the idea of 
“earning a living” for my family and self while depending entirely on eco- 
logical precession to provide the critically needed material, tools, and mon- 
ies to carry on the work — my friends and family and my wife’s family and 
friends would say that I was being stubbornly treacherous to my wife and 
daughter in not attempting to “earn a living.” Thus goaded, I would from 
time to time accept a job that was proffered me by some friend, and for the 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


151 


moment all these friends and family were relieved and delighted. In each 
instance, however, all my grand strategy would languish and things would 
go wrong until, for one reason or another, I jumped off the deep end again 
and recommitted myself to the unfunded comprehensive program of solving 
problems by environment-modifying artifacts produced with the most ad- 
vanced scientific and technological means. Then everything would go 
smoothly again. 

By and large I seem to have made more mistakes than any others of 
whom I know, but have learned thereby to make ever swifter acknowledg- 
ment of the errors and thereafter immediately set about to deal more effec- 
tively with the truths disclosed by the acknowledgment of erroneous 
assumptions. 

I don’t want a reader of this chronicle to think that I am anything other 
than what I am — an average healthy human being with all the attendant 
weaknesses and vulnerabilities. What is important is that the reorientation 
of my life and the criteria of its conduct did render such an average human 
being more effective than under conventional circumstances. 

There is one, as-yet-unmentioned, comprehensively overriding commit- 
ment that I made before developing all my already-recounted disciplines 
and commitments, especially to the principle of precession, whereby I 
gained complete release from the concept of earning a living for my family 
and myself and gained, as well, the day-to-day practical physical implemen- 
tation of all my artifact-inventing and reduction of the latter to physical 
demonstration. 

I have deliberately kept this all-important commitment to the last. If 
it had not come first in my life pattern however, it is quite possible that 
I might not have had the insights that led to all the intercomplementary res- 
olutions and self-discipline. 


* * * 

My definition of the word believe means to accept an explanation of phys- 
ical phenomena without any experiential evidence. At the outset of my re- 
solve not only to do my own thinking but to keep that thinking concerned 
only with directly experienced evidence, I resolved to abandon completely 
all that I ever had been taught to believe. Experience had demonstrated to 
me that most people had an authority-trusting sense that persuaded them 
to believingly accept the dogma and legends of one religious group or an- 
other and to join that group’s formalized worship of God. 

I asked myself whether I had any direct experiences in life that made me 
have to assume a greater intellect than that of humans to be operative in 
Universe. I immediately referred back to my good education in the sciences 


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Critical Path 


and my directly experienced learning of the operation of a plurality of phys- 
ical laws — such as the interattraction of celestial bodies, varying inversely 
as the second power of the arithmetical distances intervening — which laws 
could only be expressed in the purely intellectual terms of mathematics, 
which plurality of laws always and only related to eternal relationships ex- 
isting between and not in any one of the interrelated phenomena when con- 
sidered only separately. None of the eternal and always concurrently 
operative laws had ever been found to contradict one another — ergo, they 
were all designedly interaccommodative like a train of gears. Many also 
were interaugmentative. I said that when we use the word design in contra- 
distinction to randomness, we immediately infer an intellect that sorts out 
a complex of potentials and interarranges components in complementary 
ways — ergo, human mind in discovering a plurality of these only mathemat- 
ically expressible eternal laws, all of which are interaccommodative, is also 
discovering the intellectually designed scenario Universe, whose designing 
requires the a priori eternal existence of an intellectual integrity of eternally 
self-regenerative Universe. I said to myself, I am o’erwhelmed by the only 
experientially discovered evidence of an a priori eternal, omnicomprehen- 
sive, infinitely and exquisitely concerned, intellectual integrity that we may 
call God, though knowing that in whatever way we humans refer to this in- 
tegrity, it will always be an inadequate expression of its cosmic omniscience 
and omnipotence. 

At the time I resolved to do only my own experientially based thinking, 
in 1927, the Russian Revolution, then ten years old, was beginning to cope 
with its survival problems by including industrialization as well as farming. 
In 1928 they brought into operation their five-year plans of successively 
most important tasks to be accomplished. Realizing from the outset that in 
order to organize the complete preoccupation of all their over 100 million 
people with the Communist party’s specific planning, it would be disastrous 
to their efforts to tolerate the continuing presence of any other mystically 
higher authority than that of the Communist party — such, for instance, as 
any of the great organized religions — probably in pure expediency, the 
Communist party said that science, which is utterly pragmatic, proved that 
there is no God — ergo, Russia, committed to omniscientific technology, was 
also thenceforth committed to atheism. Many intellectuals around the world 
accepted this “party-line” doctrine. 

In 1930 Einstein, “Mr. Science” himself, published his “Cosmic Religious 
Sense — the Nonanthropomorphic Concept of God.” Einstein said that the 
great scientists such as Kepler and Galileo, whom the Roman Catholic 
Church had excommunicated as “heretics,” were, because of their absolute 
faith in the orderliness of Universe, far more committed to the nonanthro- 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


153 


pomorphic cosmic God than were the individuals heading the formal reli- 
gious organizations. 

Since 1927, whenever I am going to sleep, I always concentrate my think- 
ing on what I call “Ever Rethinking the Lord's Prayer.'’ The Lord's Prayer 
had obviously been evolved by a plurality of deeply earnest and thoughtful 
individuals whose names we will never know. My latest rethinking of it fol- 
lows. 

I am confident, contrary to the Russian assumption that science invali- 
dated all possibilities of the existence of God, that, as specifically argued, 
my following declaration constitutes a scientifically meticulous, direct-expe- 
rience-based proof of God. 

EVER RETHINKING THE LORD'S PRAYER 
July 12, 1979 

To be satisfactory to science 
all definitions 
must be stated 
in terms of experience. 

I define Universe as 

all of humanity's 

in-all-known-time 

consciously apprehended 

and communicated (to self or others) 

experiences. 

In using the word, God, 

I am consciously employing 
four clearly differentiated 
from one another 
experience-engendered thoughts. 

Firstly I mean : — 

those experience-engendered thoughts 
which are predicated upon past successions 
of unexpected, human discoveries 
of mathematically incisive, 
physically demonstrable answers 
to what theretofore had been misassumed 
to be forever unanswerable 
cosmic magnitude questions 


154 


Critical Path 


wherefore I now assume it to be 

scientifically manifest , 

and therefore experientially reasonable that 

scientifically explainable answers 
may and probably will 
eventually be given 
to all questions 

as engendered in all human thoughts 

by the sum total 

of all human experiences; 

wherefore my first meaning for God is : — 

all the experientially explained 
or explainable answers 
to all questions 
of all time — 

Secondly I mean : — 

The individual's memory 

of many surprising moments 

of dawning comprehensions 

of an interrelated significance 

to be existent 

amongst a number 

of what had previously seemed to be 

entirely uninterrelated experiences 

all of which remembered experiences 

engender the reasonable assumption 

of the possible existence 

of a total comprehension 

of the integrated significance — 

the meaning — 

of all experiences. 

Thirdly, I mean : — 
the only intellectually discoverable 
a priori, intellectual integrity 
indisputably manifest as 
the only mathematically statable 
family 

of generalized principles — 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


155 


cosmic laws — 

thus far discovered and codified 
and ever physically redemonstrable 
by scientists 

to be not only unfailingly operative 
but to be in eternal, 
om n i-interconsiderate, 
omni-interaccommodative governance 
of the complex 

of everyday, naked-eye experiences 

as well as of the multi-millions-fold greater range 

of only instrumental ly explored 

infra- and ultra-tunable 

micro- and macro- Universe events . 

Fourthly, I mean : — 

All the mystery inherent 

in all human experience, 

which, as a lifetime ratioed to eternity, 

is individually limited 

to almost negligible 

twixt sleepings, glimpses 

of only a few local episodes 

of one of the infinite myriads 

of concurrently and overlappingly operative 

sum-totally never-ending 

cosmic scenario serials 

With these four meanings I now directly 

address God . 

“ Our God — 

Since omni-experience is your identity 
You have given us 
overwhelming manifest : — 
of Your complete knowledge 
of Your complete comprehension 
of Your complete concern 
of Your complete coordination 
of Your complete responsibility 
of Your complete capability to cope 
in absolute wisdom and effectiveness 


156 


Critical Path 


with all problems and events 

and of Your eternally unfailing reliability 

so to do 

Yours , Dear God , 

is the only and complete glory. 

By Glory I mean 

the synergetic totality 

of all physical and metaphysical radiation 

and of all physical and metaphysical gravity 

of finite 

but nonunitarily conceptual 
scenario Universe 
in whose synergetic totality 
the a priori energy potentials 
of both radiation and gravity 
are initially equal 
but whose respective 
behavioral patterns are such 

that radiation's entropic, redundant disintegratings 
is always less effective 
than gravity's nonredundant 
syntropic integrating 

Radiation is plural and differentiable , 
radiation is focusable, beamable, and selfsinusing, 
is interceptible, separatist , and biasable — 
ergo, has shadowed voids and vulnerabilities; 

Gravity is unit and undifferentiable 

Gravity is comprehensive 

inclusively embracing and permeative 

is non-focusable and shadowless, 

and is omni-integrative; 

all of which characteristics of gravity 

are also the characteristics of love. 

Love is metaphysical gravity. 

You, Dear God, 

are the totally loving intellect 

ever designing 

and ever daring to test 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


157 


and thereby irrefutably proving 
to the uncompromising satisfaction 
of Your own comprehensive and incisive 
knowledge of the absolute truth 
that Your generalized principles 
adequately accommodate any and all 
special case developments , 
involvements, and side effects; 
wherefore Your absolutely courageous 
omnirigorous and ruthless self-testing 
alone can and does absolutely guarantee 
total conservation 
of the integrity 

of eternally regenerative Universe 

Your eternally regenerative scenario Universe 

is the minimum complex 

of totally intercomplementary 

totally intertransforming 

nonsimultaneous, differently frequenced 

and differently enduring 

feedback closures 

of a finite 

but nonunitarily 

nonsimultaneously conceptual system 

in which naught is created 

and naught is lost 

and all occurs 

in optimum efficiency. 

Total accountability and total feedback 
constitute the minimum and only 
perpetual motion system . 

Universe is the one and only 
eternally regenerative system. 

To accomplish Your regenerative integrity 
You give Yourself the responsibility 
of eternal, absolutely continuous, 
tirelessly vigilant wisdom. 

Wherefore we have absolute faith and trust in You, 
and we worship You 


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Critical Path 


awe-inspiredly, 
all-thankfully, 
rejoicingly , 
lovingly ; 

Amen. 

* * * 

In considering theology and science I think it is important to note their 
differences regarding familiar and not-so-familiar cosmic concepts. 

It is the very essence of my thinking that, for a principle to qualify as gen- 
eralizable in science, there must be no known exceptions to its reliability. 
Exceptionless means eternal. Principles can be only eternal. 

Mathematics are eternal. Principles are mathematically demonstrable — 
as manifest, for instance, in synergy. Principles are truly independent of any 
additional special case, time-size aspects of their manifestation. There are 
principles governing covarying rates of relative size-time interrelationships. 
That principle is manifest in E — me 2 , c 2 being the utterly unimpeded rate 
of growth of an omnidirectionally expanding light wave’s surface as dem- 
onstrated in vacuo. 

This also involves the mathematical principle that a system’s linear di- 
mension grows at a first-power rate, while its surface grows at a second- 
power rate and its volume at a third-power rate. A steel needle with an 
initial length of six feet and a diameter of two inches, having a “slenderness” 
(L/R) ratio of 36/1, is reduced to a needle three inches long with a diameter 
of .08333 of an inch. The six-foot needle sinks in the water. The three-inch 
needle floats on the water: its volume — ergo, its weight — has become so neg- 
ligible that its surface relates only to the surface tension of the water, its 
weight being much less than can be supported by the atomic interattractions 
producing the molecular membrane of the water surface. 

To demonstrate frequency in pure principle I observe painfully that I can- 
not put my finger through the plane of revolution of a swiftly rotating air- 
plane propellor and withdraw it before it gets hit. Yet machine guns can be 
timed to fire bullets between successively revolving propellor blades. My 
muscle and brain cannot reflex and act that fast. I might get my finger 
through once but can’t get it back in time. Operationally speaking, “solid” 
means very high frequency present in pure principle. I can see through my 
glasses because light moving through only one way at 186,000 m.p.s. has 
ample time to avoid the frequency of interference events occurring locally 
in pure principle. 

There are no solids. There are no things. There are only interfering and 
noninterfering patterns operative in pure principle, and principles are eter- 
nal. Principles never contradict principles. Principles can interaccommodate 


Self-Disciplines of Buckminster Fuller 


159 


one another only in noninterfering frequency ways. Principles can interaug- 
ment one another if frequency is synchronizable. 

Acknowledging the mathematically elegant intellectual integrity of eter- 
nally regenerative Universe is one way of identifying God. 

Everything the brain deals with relates to high-frequency thingness. 
Mind, and mind alone, deals with understanding the interrelationships ex- 
isting only between and not in any one principle, considered only by itself. 
Principles themselves are often subsets of interrelationships existing only be- 
tween specific principles. 

God may also be identified as the synergy of the interbehavioral relation- 
ships of all the principles unpredicted by the behaviors or characteristics of 
any of the principles considered only separately. 

The synergetic integral of the totality of all principles is God, whose sum- 
total behavior in pure principle is beyond our comprehension and is utterly 
mysterious to us, because as humans — in pure principle — we do not and 
never will know all the principles. 

Apparently the integrity of the synergy of all synergies of all principles 
is continually testing its own comprehensive adequacy to accommodate all 
challenges in pure principle to the maintenance in pure principle of the prin- 
ciple of nonsimultaneous, only-overlappingly-affected, complex unity’s eter- 
nal regeneration. 

Realization that the foregoing may be true tends to inform humans that 
the introduction into Universe of humans, in pure principle, with minds op- 
erating in pure principle, capable of apprehending and objectively employ- 
ing in pure principle some of the eternal principles, was courageously 
undertaken by God to discover whether the principle of the eternally regen- 
erative integrity of Universe can endure inviolate despite the dichotomy of 
knowledge brought about by introduction into the cosmic system of humans 
and their minds with access to and employment of some — but not all — of 
the eternal principles. This was an experiment in pure principle to test the 
adequacy of the synergy of synergies of principle to cope with the sometimes 
perverse, egotistical, selfish, and deceitful initiatives inherent in the concept 
of humans in pure principle without access to the wisdom accruing syner- 
getically only to knowledge of all the principles — ergo, possibly capable of 
impairing the integrity of eternal regeneration. That may be what the integ- 
rity of God needs to know and needs to know by experimental evidence. 

That is what I am thinking about in “Ever Rethinking the Lord’s 
Prayer.” It is also what I am thinking about in volume 2 of Synergetics . I 
think it is probably an intuitive awareness of the possible verity — of parts 
or of all — of the foregoing that makes the theologist disregard the scientist’s 
brain-induced requirement of a cosmic beginning and ending. 

All scientists have brains. Brains always and only coordinate the special 


160 


Critical Path 


case information progressively apprehended in pure principle by the sepa- 
rate senses operating in pure mathematical-frequency principle. Brain then 
sorts out the information to describe and identify special whole-system char- 
acteristics, storing them in the memory bank as system concepts for single 
or multiple recall for principle-seeking consideration and reconsideration as 
system integrities by searching and ever-reassessing mind. 

Only minds have the capability to discover principles. Once in a very 
great while scientists’ minds discover principles and put them to rigorous 
physical test before accepting them as principle. More often theologists or 
others discover principles but do not subject them to the rigorous physical- 
special-case testing before accepting and employing them as working- 
assumption principles. 

Principles are eternal. Special case interactions of principles are temporal 
and brain-apprehensible because in pure principle we have time, which is 
simply the principle of potentially different relative frequencies and not of 
beginnings and endings. 


CHAPTER 5 


The Geoscope 


O ne OF the world-around’s most immediately critical problems is 
that of how to facilitate the swift development of all human individ- 
uals’ discovery of all we know about human life on board Spaceship Earth 
at this moment in Universe — and how so to learn in the shortest possible 
time. 

We have already referred many times to the world’s pro tern power-struc- 
ture-wrought obstacles blocking the critical path to human understanding 
of the nature of reality. 

In the Victorian era, into which I was bom, reality was everything we 
could see, smell, hear, taste, and touch. That is what reality had always 
been. 

When I was three years of age, the electron was discovered. Science said 
the electron was a nonconceptual phenomenon. Because it was invisible, it 
could not be photographed . . . and it didn’t “make the news.” The electron 
was very real, however, because it could give you a shock — could even elec- 
trocute you. The new reality being invisible, approximately 99.9 percent of 
twentieth-century science was leading industrial technology’s everyday, 
working reality into the ultra- and infravisible — the macroastrophysical and 
the microatomic, electronic, metallurgically alloying, chemically reacting, 
microbiologically, astrophysically exploring ranges of the electromagnetic 
wave spectrum of Universe. And 99.9 percent of these very real activities 
are nondirectly apprehensible by the bare human senses and are practically 
discovered and coped with only through powerful macro-micro operative 
instruments. 

At the dawning of the twentieth century, without warning to humanity, 
the physical technology of Earthians’ affairs was shifted over from a brain- 


161 


162 


Critical Path 


sensed reality into a reality apprehended only by instruments, comprehend- 
ed only by scientifically trained brains, understood and coped with only by 
experience-educated mind, and employed usefully only through mind’s dis- 
covery and objectification of special case realizations of the only mathemat- 
ically expressible laws governing each of the omni-intercomplementary 
family of scientific generalizations. 

We have also noted how the power structures successively dominant over 
human affairs had for aeons successfully imposed a “specialization” upon 
the intellectually bright and physically talented members of society as a re- 
liable means of keeping them academically and professionally divided — 
ergo, “conquered,” powerless. The separate individuals’ special, expert 
glimpses of the separate, invisible reality increments became so infinitesi- 
mally fractionated and narrow that they gave no hint of the significant part 
their work played in the omni-integrating evolutionary front of total knowl- 
edge and its power-structure exploitability in contradistinction to its omni- 
humanity-advantaging potentials. Thus the few became uselessly 
overadvantaged instead of the many becoming regeneratively ever more uni- 
versally advantaged. 

Hyperspecialization also prevented popular comprehension of what the 
ongoing world power structure was doing — ergo, hyperspecialization kept 
society preoccupied in ways nondetrimental to the power structure’s inter- 
ests and practically dependent upon the power structure’s media for infor- 
mation. 

In addition to (A) the difficulties of popular comprehension imposed by 
the invisibility of the frontiers of everyday reality, and (B) specialization as 
an obstacle to popular apprehension and comprehension of “what life is 
about” — which obstacles A and B must be effectively vanquished within the 
1980s if humanity is to continue on our planet — we now discover another 
formidable obstacle that must also be vanquished by 1990. That obstacle (C) 
is humanity’s inability to see more than a very limited number of rates of 
motion. Humans cannot see humans growing either bodily or as local hu- 
man tissue. Humans cannot see the motion of the hour and minute hands 
of the clock or of the physical growth of trees. Humans can realize only ret- 
rospectively that they have grown because their clothes no longer fit. Hu- 
mans find that trees have grown because yesteryear’s view has been cut 
off — 99.9 percent of what humans can “see” comprehendingly is the belated 
aftereffects of what happened. 

Most of the important trend patternings are invisible — ergo, their even- 
tuations are unanticipated by society. Because of obstacles A, B, and C most 
of the significant evolutionary trendings of human affairs cannot be detected 
and tuned in by people’s sense-coordinating brains. Few of their vital chal- 


The Geoscope 


163 


lenges are apprehended in time by human brains. When humans cannot see 
something approaching to destroy them, they do not get out of the way. 

Question: Is there not an instrument that can inform humanity about its 
invisibly trending evolutionary challenges — and do so in time to allow them 
to satisfactorily anticipate and cope with inexorable events? Yes! There is 
the Geoscope, which can be swiftly realized both physically and metaphys- 
ically. 


* * * 

Only for six one-thousandths of its three and one-half million known 
years of presence on Earth has humanity sensed the shape, size, rotation, 
and Sun-orbiting rate of our planet in the solar system as well as our Earth’s 
relationship to other micro-macro-Universe events. Only human mind’s ca- 
pability to discover the only-mathematically-definable-and-employable 
physical laws — of the everywhere and everywhen nonsimultaneously inter- 
transforming, differently enduring, differently energized, independently epi- 
sodic and overlapping, eternally regenerative, scenario Universe’s laws such 
as those of leverage, electromagnetics, and optics — has made possible hu- 
manity’s additional discovery and participatory use of macro-micro-Uni- 
verse information. 

“Oh wad some power the giftie gie us to see oursels as others see us.” To 
facilitate humanity’s comprehension of its present status in Universe, what 
is needed is a sensorially tune-in-able physical means of “seeing oursels as 
others see us.” Poet Robert Burns’s wish was partially fulfilled when, for 
the first time, Earthian humans standing on the Moon took colored moving 
pictures of our planet Earth exactly as seen from the Moon and electromag- 
netically dispatched the pictures back to us on Earth to be seen over any- 
body’s and everybody’s properly tuned-in television sets. 

Most people will say that if you want to get the best map of the whole 
world, use a globe, the bigger the better. The trouble with a globe is that 
you cannot possibly see all the world displayed on it at any one time. The 
experimentally disclosed fact is that, without revolving the library Earth- 
globe, you cannot read the names identifying the geographical data of more 
than one-quarter of its surface at any one viewing. 

You may say “the larger the globe, the more you can see of the world 
in any one viewing.” If that were true, you could use the real Earth as your 
optimum globe. The fact is that the bigger the globe, the less of its surface 
data you can see and read at any one time. With a twelve- or sixteen-inch 
globe you can get the most information possible in any one viewing. This 
is approximately one-quarter of the Earth’s surface. 

Because humans want to see their whole Earth at once, cartographic pro- 


164 


Critical Path 


jections of the Earth’s surface were developed — Mercator, polyconic, polar 
azimuthal, etc. The Mercator became the most familiarly used. It is as yet 
found in 1980 to be the map most frequently used in schools around the 
world. On it Greenland will often be seen to be larger than South America, 
and North America larger than Africa; it has no Antarctic continent; and 
the land on the left end of the map is seemingly 24,000 miles away from 
the land area on the right end while in reality those areas are actually ad- 
jacent. With only one exception — the Fuller Dymaxion Projection — all of 
the well-known methods of cartographic projection either chop the world 
data into a number of separately viewed parts or produce badly distorted 
images and continental fractionations. 

It was to provide a satisfactory means for humanity to see correctly the 
entire surface of the globe all at the same time that the Dymaxion Sky- 
Ocean Projection was designed. With it, for the first time in history, humans 
can see their whole planet Earth’s geography displayed on one flat surface 
without any visible distortion in shape or relative size of any of its data and 
without any breaks in its continental contour — that is, the whole world sur- 
face is viewable simultaneously as one-world island of unbroken contour in 
one-world ocean. 

The Dymaxion transformational projection system that produces the Sky- 
Ocean World Map divides the sphere into its maximum omnisymmetrical, 
twelve-vertexed, thirty-arc-edged subdivisions of twenty equi-central-angled 
arcs of 63° 26' and sixty surface angles of 72° each, spherical triangles. The 
thirty great circle arcs of 63° 26' act as constant peripheral integrity con- 
trols, preventing the breaking open and spilling out of the discrete data and 
distorting of the constant angular symmetry, both central and surface, dur- 
ing the transformation from spherical to planar display of the twenty tri- 
angles of the spherical and planar bound icosahedron. 



Figure 25. Bird’s-eye view of person looking at a sixteen-inch world globe. 


The Geoscope 


165 




The more conventional projection systems that are widely used include 
the Mercator projection (Fig. 27), the conic projection (Fig. 28), and the po- 
lar azimuthal projection (Fig. 29). All three of these systems give rise to 
considerable visual distortion, which the Dymaxion projection avoids (see 
Fig. 30). 


* * * 

In 1964 the United States Information Agency asked me to consider the 
design of a building and an exhibition that might be adopted as the United 
States entry in the Montreal World’s Fair of 1967, later known as “Expo 
’67.” 




Figure 30. 


166 



The Geoscope 


167 


I made a proposal, and the exhibition part of it was rejected. I was asked 
to continue, however, as the architect of the U.S.A. building to house an 
exhibition designed by others. Insofar as I know, I was the only one con- 
sidered as architect of the building. I think this was because of the success 
the United States had experienced with my 1954 world-around, air-deliv- 
ered, geodesic-dome trade fair pavilions and the U.S.A. Moscow Exhibit 
dome of 1959, which was purchased by the Russians as a permanent build- 
ing after the United States exhibition was concluded. 

Fortunately my U.S.A. geodesic dome for Expo '67 proved a success. 
Also, but more gradually, it is being realized by many that my rejected idea 
for the American exhibit is looming into ever greater prominence as a highly 
desirable social facility. I will therefore review the concept and development 
of my original idea. 

I told the United States Information Agency in 1964 that by 1967 the re- 
gard of the rest of the world for the United States would be at its lowest 
ebb in many decades — if not in the total two centuries of the U.S.A.’s ex- 
istence. Since each country’s World’s Fair exhibit would be well published 
all around Earth, I felt that it would be very important that the United 
States do something that would tend to regain the spontaneous admiration 
and confidence of the whole world. This could be done by inaugurating at 
Expo ’67 a computerized exploration for the most universally creative and 
economically sound internal and external U.S.A. policy formulation. 

What I proposed was based on my observation that world people had be- 
come extraordinarily confident in the fundamental reliability of the comput- 
er and its electronically controlled processes. I know that a great many 
people will contradict me, but I had predicated my conviction of society’s 
subconsciously established confidence in the computer’s reliability upon vi- 
tal, therefore undeniable, behavior facts. 

On the working assumption that humanity had established implicit con- 
fidence in the computers and automated instrumentation, I proposed in 
1964 that the United States Expo ’67 exhibition should have a 400-foot-di- 
ameter 5/8 sphere building similar in shape to the 250-foot-diameter build- 
ing actually built for Expo ’67. In the basement of this building would be 
housed an extraordinary computer facility. On entering the building by thir- 
ty-six external ramps and escalators leading in at every ten degrees of cir- 
cumferential direction, the visitors would arrive upon a great balcony 
reaching completely around the building’s interior quarter-mile perimeter. 
The visitors would see an excitingly detailed 100-foot-diameter world globe 
suspended high within the 400-foot-diameter 5/8 sphere main building. 
Cities such as New York, London, Tokyo, and Los Angeles would appear 
as flattened-out, basketball-sized blotches with the tallest buildings and ra- 
dio towers only about one-sixteenth of an inch high. 


168 


Critical Path 


Periodically the great spherical Earth would be seen to be transforming 
slowly into an icosahedron — a polyhedron with twenty (equilateral) trian- 
gular facets. The visitors would witness that in the processes of these trans- 
formations there are no visible changes in the relative size and shape of any 
of the land and water masses of the 100-foot-diameter miniature Earth. 
Slowly the 100-foot-diameter icosahedronal Earth’s surface would be seen 
to be parting along some of its triangular edges, as the whole surface slowly 
opens mechanically as an orange’s skin or an animal’s skin might be peeled 
carefully in one piece. With slits introduced into its perimeter at various 
places it would be relaxed to subside into a flattened-out pattern as is a bear- 
skin rug. The icosahedronal Earth’s shell thus would be seen to gradually 
flatten out and be lowered to the floor of the building. The visitors would 
realize that they were now looking at the whole of the Earth’s surface si- 
multaneously without any visible distortion of the relative size and shape of 
the land and sea masses having occurred during the transformation from 
sphere to the flattened-out condition we call a map. My cartographic pro- 
jection of the “Sky-Ocean World’’ functions in just such a manner as I have 
just now described. 

This stretched-out, football-field-sized world map would disclose the con- 
tinents arrayed as one world-island in one world-ocean with no breaks in 
the continental contours. Its scale would be 1/500, 000th of reality. Three 
millimeters or one eighth of an inch would represent a mile. A big 1000- 
foot-long oil tanker would appear to be less than one millimeter or only one 
fiftieth of an inch in length. A major airport’s runways would each be about 
three millimeters or one eighth of an inch long. A major football stadium 
would measure less than one millimeter or one fiftieth of an inch long at 
this scale. 

The great map would be wired throughout so that minibulbs closely in- 
stalled all over its surface could be lighted by the computer at appropriate 
points to show various, accurately positioned, proportional data regarding 
world conditions, events, and resources. World events would occur and 
transform on this live world map’s ever-evoluting face. If we had 100,000 
light bulbs for instance, each mini-light-bulb could represent 40,000 peo- 
ple — a medium-sized town. Mexico City, New York City, or Tokyo would 
be a cluster of 250 bulbs. The bulbs could be computer-distributed to rep- 
resent the exact geographical distribution positioning of the people. Military 
movements of a million troops would be dramatically visible. The position 
of every airplane in the sky and every ship on the world ocean could be com- 
puter-control displayed. Weekend and holiday exoduses from cities into the 
country or travel to other cities would be vividly displayed by computer- 
controlled tallying instruments. 


The Geoscope 


169 


I proposed that on this stretched-out, reliably accurate, world map of our 
Spaceship Earth a great world logistics game be played by introducing into 
the computers all the known inventory and whereabouts of the various 
metaphysical and physical resources of the Earth. (This inventory, which 
took forty years to develop to high perfection, is now housed at my head- 
quarters.) 

We would then enter into the computer all the inventory of human 
trends, known needs, and fundamental behavior characteristics. 

I proposed that individuals and teams would undertake to play the World 
Game with those resources, behaviors, trends, vital needs, developmental 
desirables, and regenerative inspirations. The players as individuals or teams 
would each develop their own theory of how to make the total world work 
successfully for all of humanity. Each individual or team would play a the- 
ory through to the end of a predeclared program. It could be played with 
or without competitors. 

The objective of the game would be to explore ways to make it possible 
for anybody and everybody in the human family to enjoy the total Earth 
without any human interfering with any other human and without any hu- 
man gaining advantage at the expense of another. 


Figure 31. Dymaxion Sky-Ocean World Map 




Figure 32. Cornell Geoscope 


170 


The Geoscope 


171 


To accomplish the game’s objective the resources, pathways, and dwelling 
points around the surface of our 8000- mile-diameter, spherical Spaceship 
Earth must be fully employed by the players in such a way that the world’s 
individual humans would each be able to exercise complete actional discre- 
tion and would have such freedom of decision regarding the investment of 
their time in their waking hours that they would be able to travel indepen- 
dently, or in groups, either to and fro locally or continuing intermittently 
on around the world, dwelling from time to time here or there, finding ev- 
erywhere facilities to accommodate their needs in an uncompromising man- 
ner. The game would seek to use the world’s resources, interprocesses, and 
evolutionary developments in such a way that all the foregoing would be 
possible. 


* * * 

It was to satisfy the same need of humanity — to comprehend the total 
planetary, all-evolutionary historical significance of each day’s develop- 



Figure 33. Nottingham Geoscope 


172 


Critical Path 


ments — that the 200-foot, or sixty-meter, -diameter Geoscope was devel- 
oped. The Geoscope is a gossamer, open trusswork spherical structure 
wherewith humanity can see and read all the spherical data of the Earth’s 
geography as seen from either its inside or its outside and in its proper in- 
terorientation within the theater of local Universe events. 

When completely installed and ready for use, all Geoscopes are oriented 
so that their polar axes are always parallel to the real Earth’s north-south 
polar axis, with the latitude and longitude of the installed Geoscope’s zenith 
point always corresponding exactly with the latitude and longitude of the 
critically located point on our real planet Earth at which the Geoscope is 
installed. As a consequence of the polar axis and zenith correspondences of 
the Geoscope mini-Earths and the real Earth, it will be found that the min- 
iature Earth Geoscope’s real omnidirectional celestial-theater orientation al- 
ways corresponds exactly with the real omnidirectional celestial-theater 
orientation of the real planet Earth. 

Since the two spheres (mini-Earth and real Earth) are rigidly coupled to- 
gether tangentially at the same latitude-longitude point on the real Earth as 
the latitude-longitude zenith point on the Geoscope sphere, the geograph- 
ical-geometrical orientation attitudes brought about by their respective axial 
rotations and orbital travel around the Sun will be identical. The Geoscope 
has the same relationship to the Earth as has one of the relatively small life- 
boats mounted fore and aft on the davits of an ocean cruise ship to the big 
ship herself. If the big ship changes its course from north to east, the lifeboat 
does likewise. If the bow rises and falls in a head-on sea, so too does the 
bow of the davits-mounted lifeboat . 

The 4000-mile — l/46th light-second — distance existing between the cen- 
ter of the Earth sphere and that of the Geoscope sphere mounted on the 
Earth’s surface is astronomically negligible when compared to any of the ce- 
lestial distances. The distance from Earth to its nearest star — the Sun — is 
92 million miles, or eight light-minutes, away. The next nearest star is 25 
trillion miles away. Such celestially negligible distances as 4000 miles are 
canceled out as visibly unappreciable. Such negligible distances are called 
“parallax” by the astronomer or navigator. 

Standing at night with your eyes at the center of such a Geoscope — min- 
iature Earth — and viewing the stars outwardly through its fly-screen sur- 
face, on which are thinly outlined all the contours of all the world’s 
continents, you will see the exact relationship of all the stars to the Earth’s 
surface. Any star in zenith over any one geographical point on the Earth 
can be verified to be in zenith at that moment over that point on Earth by 
telephoning someone at that point. What you will see from the center of 
mini-Earth at any one time is exactly what you would see if you were safely 


The Geoscope 


173 


stationed at the center of real planet Earth and had X-ray eyes and could 
look outwardly through 4000 miles of matter to see the stars viewable in ze- 
nith outwardly of any one given geographical point of our axially spinning, 
Sun-orbiting, sphere Earth at any one given moment. As viewed from its 
center, Geoscope becomes a true planetarium — no imitation stars and no 
imitation sky. In the Geoscope we have the real stars in their real sky in 
exact zenith position as seen through the Geoscope’s spherical triangle win- 
dows outwardly and around our Earth sphere in all directions as of any giv- 
en moment — as our Earth revolves and zooms along its Sun orbit within 
that vast starry environment. 

Because the real planet Earth is revolving around its north-south polar 
axis, so, too, is mini-Earth. They are both thus revolving without effecting 
any change of the observed position of Polaris — the North Star — in respect 
to mini-Earth’s north pole. Therefore, the observer at the center of the 
Geoscope feels spontaneously the celestial fixity not only of Polaris but also 
of all the other stars as seen outwardly through the Geoscope’s triangular 
windows. Because outwardly of Geoscope’s equator what we can see of the 
starry scene is changing most rapidly and ever less rapidly until, looking out 
along the polar axis, we observe no change, we get the same feeling as we 
do looking out the window of a railway car, automobile, or airplane. We 
see and feel the scene changing as a consequence of our vehicle’s motion and 
not of the scenery’s motion. For the first time in human experience Geo- 
scope’s mini-Earth spherical structure is clearly seen and felt to be revolving 
within the theater of Universe, and those holding steady their bodies, heads 
and their eyes and standing at the Geoscope’s center, feel-see their Earth re- 
volving within the vast theater of the starry sky. 

With Geoscopes locally available around the world, all children experi- 
encing its true celestial-event orientations will feel themselves being rotated 
around from west to east by the Earth to be shaded from the Sun’s light 
by the rolling-around Earth’s western horizon . . . which deep shadowing 
they will call night. 

They will feel their western horizon to be rotating around with them and 
to be obscuring (or eclipsing) the Sun. They will spontaneously say “Sun- 
clipse” instead of “Sunset.” In the same way they will say spontaneously 
“Sunsight” in the morning as the Earth revolves the Sun into seeability, thus 
spontaneously acquiring two poetical, two-syllable, truly meaningful words 
to replace the two-syllable, misinformative, but poetical words of their an- 
cestry — “Sunset” and “Sunrise.” 

The new educational technology of world man will of eventual, emergen- 
cy-emerged, critical necessity come to produce and use the Geoscopes as ba- 
sic educational tools for acquiring both cosmic and local Universe 


174 


Critical Path 


orientation. It will be universally used as the visual reference for all hourly 
news broadcasts everywhere around the Earth. Geoscope will spontaneously 
induce total-Earth, total-humanity viewing significance in regard to all our 
individual daily experiences. It will spontaneously eliminate nationalistic 
cerebrating. 

The most usefully informative model of the Geoscope now under consid- 
eration is a 200-foot-diameter, structurally gossamer, look-into-able and 
look-out-able, geodesic sphere to be suspended with its bottom 100 feet 
above ground by approximately invisible cables strung tautly from the tops 
of three remotely erected 200-foot-high masts. 

The vast number of computer-selected, colored, miniature electric light 
bulbs displayed on the spherical frame’s surface of the 200-foot-diameter 
Geoscope, with their intensity and diminutive size as well as their minimum 
distance of 100 feet from viewing eyes (as seen from either the center of the 
sphere or from the ground outside and 100 feet below), will altogether pro- 
duce a visually continuous-surface picture equal in detailed resolution to 
that of a fine-screen halftone print or that of an excellent, omnidirectionally- 
viewable, spherical television tube’s picturing. It may well be that by the 
time the first 200-foot Geoscope is undertaken, we may be able to develop 
a spherical TV tube of that size or a complex of spherically coordinated TV 
tubes. This giant, 200-foot-diameter sphere will be a miniature Earth — the 
most accurate global representation of our planet ever to be realized. 

I have produced several fully working, lesser-diameter models of such 
Geoscope (or mini-Earth) facilities. Most notable were the twenty-foot-di- 
ameter one at Cornell University in 1952; the semicompleted, 200-foot-di- 
ameter one at the University of Minnesota in 1954-56; the ten-foot-diameter 
one at Princeton University in 1955; and, in semidemonstrability, the 250- 
foot-diameter, 3/4 sphere, spherical structure used as the U.S.A. pavilion at 
Expo ’67 in Montreal, Canada, in 1967; and the fifty-foot-diameter Geos- 
cope permanently installed exactly astride the ninetieth meridian of our 
planet Earth as the Religious Center of Southern Illinois University’s cam- 
pus at Edwardsville, Illinois, in 1970. 

To our 1953-55 University of Minnesota and Princeton University Geo- 
scope development classes I suggested that our first 200-footer should serve 
as an everyday facility of the United Nations. I proposed that it be trian- 
gularly suspended from the top of five 300-foot-high tower masts to be 
erected from a group of rock ledges in New York City’s East River — known 
on the government charts as Blackwell’s ledges. These ledges are situated 
in the middle of the East River a quarter of a mile south of what was once 
called Blackwell’s Island, then for thirty years Welfare Island, and in the 
1970s was renamed Roosevelt Island. All the East River water traffic run- 


The Geoscope 


175 


ning between New York’s Lower Harbor and Long Island Sound or the 
Harlem River passes to the west of Blackwell’s ledges — that is, between the 
ledges and the United Nations buildings. The tallest UN building is 400 feet 
high. I proposed that the 200-foot Geoscope sphere be hung above the 
ledges with its bottom 200 feet above the water, which would locate its top 
at the same 400-foot height as that of the UN building and 100 feet higher 
than the tops of the supporting masts. I proposed that the intercabling of 
the mast tops and their tangentially triangling support of and tiedown of the 
sphere be done with high-tensile and small-diameter, high-carbon rod steel, 
so delicate that the dull-black-plated support system would be invisible — 
the geodesic-tensegrity sphere being of such low weight as to make this in- 
visibility highly feasible. 

This would result in the 200-foot sphere seeming to be floating in midair 
as though it were a small celestial body that had come in very close to Earth 
at just the right location to make it highly visible to occupants of the UN 
building as well as to all those in New York City in the vicinity of Fiftieth 
Street. 

In designing the optimum public Geoscope in 1950 I chose the 200-foot- 
diameter, approximately transparent, gossamer-structured sphere because at 
that time the United States Air Force was, wherever possible, engaged in 
making radio-triangulated, geographically accurate photographic maps of 
the whole Earth’s surface. The airplane’s exact geographical position at the 
moment of photographing was determined by electromagnetics — geograph- 
ical position fix by cross-triangulation from two known station points on 
Earth. This electromagnetic-beam-crossing triangulation, triggered by the 
camera, accurately identified the position of the airplane at the moment of 
its photographing of any one picture and as located on the latitude-longi- 
tude coordinate grid of our Earth’s planetary sphere. The Air Force’s geo- 
graphical photography work was known as the aerial (photographic) 
mosaicking of the world. 

With the U.S.A. entering into a third, but coldly conducted, ententingly 
competing, small-nation puppetry-manipulated world war with the U.S.S.R. 
and its allies, we can understand why it was that the U.S.A. was so intently 
flying those world-around, radio-triangulated photomosaic missions. 

The mosaic grid was flown over all those countries of the world that per- 
mitted the U.S.A. to do so. Different series of the photographic mosaicking 
were flown at different altitudes. The lowest-flown altitude gave the greatest 
details. It was the communist countries’ prohibition against the U.S.A.’s 
photographic mapping that caused the U.S.A. to develop the Russian-shot- 
down, ultra-high-flying U-2, hoping to accomplish the triangulation task. 

The optimum Geoscope is designed to make practical an omnidirectional 


176 


Critical Path 



Figure 34. Drawing for proposed United Nations 200-foot Geoscope 


The Geoscope 


177 



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/^V7 tv * ^ t ' •***£.< A->yV /r -<3 

1 «* py* V"f 5~ ?**'•/ ' . * #*o>w 64^/ £ 

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Figure 34a. Drawing of support masts for proposed UN Geoscope 

77?ree maste cou/d do it and would be preferable, a// wou/d have to support 
the sphere from well below its equator. 


178 


Critical Path 



Figure 34b. Bird’s-eye view of UN Geoscope 


The Geoscope 


179 


moving picture displayed on the surface of a large sphere for presenting all 
manner of information relevant to all human affairs as they occur around 
the whole of our planet, so that the whole world’s population can learn for 
itself how to comprehend the significance of the world-around information 
as compounded with other powerfully relevant, long-known, and broadcast 
news and other Geoscope-mounted information. 

The lowest level at which the Air Force radio-triangulation-fixing photo- 
mosaicking was flown obviously produced the greatest detail. The Air Force 
did all their photographing on the moving picture industry’s thirty-five-mil- 
limeter film. In photo-industry lingo “contact” prints of the thirty-five-mm. 
frames means actual — unenlarged — film-frame size, black-and-white or col- 
ored prints, about 2% X 2/ 4 -square-inch prints. Contacts of those 35-mm. 
frames as photographed by the Air Force’s lowest-level mosaicking, when 
assembled like a picture puzzle and pasted onto a balloon of the right size, 
altogether produce one united, spherical surface picture of the whole world. 
The diameter of such a spherical picture “globe” made up of contact prints 
of the lowest-level mosaicing is about 200 feet. The higher the level of mo- 
saic flying, the smaller the sphere produced. 

Since I knew in 1950 that I could produce a 200-foot-diameter, adequate- 
ly strong, but lightly trussed geodesic sphere, I determined to design a 200- 
foot Geoscope. 

During World War II the largest clear-span, steel-trussed, quadrangular- 
ly based airplane hangars’ narrowest horizontal dimension’s truss spannings 
built were approximately 250 feet wide. To make them a foot wider would 
have doubled the weight of the steel trusses. 

No clear-span, spherical structure of that size had ever been built any- 
where in 1950. The structural engineering profession did not at that time 
assume that such a large, clear-span, spherical structure could be econom- 
ically produced. As yet standing in prime condition, St. Peter’s 150-foot-di- 
ameter marble dome built in Rome over 400 years ago and the Pantheon’s 
equally excellent-condition 150-foot-diameter marble dome built in Rome 
about 1700 years ago were, in 1950, history’s largest clear-span domes. In 
1950 the largest-ever steel-framed, radial-arch dome of 150-foot diameter 
was built. Geodesic structures opened up the ability of humans to build un- 
limited-diameter clear-span spherical structures. (By 1958 I had built a 
clear-span geodesic hemispherical dome of 384-foot diameter. Since then 
they have gone to 700 feet in diameter, and they will keep on growing in 
clear-span size at an ever faster rate until we enclose whole cities.) 

The thirty-five-millimeter pictures taken by the U.S. Air Force at their 
lowest level of mosaicking (which would produce a 200-foot-diameter 
sphere) were of such detail that you could, with your naked eye, identify 


180 


Critical Path 


your own home grounds and even your house, which would be a l/100th- 
of-an-inch speck — the smallest speck seeable by human eye. You would not 
be able to see your car in front of the house, nor could you see humans or 
cows. But you could see clearly your 400-acre-or-greater farm. 

This 200-foot-size Geoscope would make it possible for humans to iden- 
tify the true scale of themselves and their activities on our planet. Humans 
could thus comprehend much more readily that their personal survival 
problems related intimately to all humanity’s survival. 

The 200-foot Geoscope’s surface geography would be at a scale of one to 
200,000. At this scale, on a 200-foot-diameter miniature “Earth,” we set the 
following approximate equivalencies: 


1 foot 
1 foot 
1 inch 
!/i6 inch 
‘/is inch 
/u inch 
/i6 inch 
/ 6 4 inch 


200,000 feet 
38 miles 

3 miles = 15,000 feet 
1040 feet 
3 football stadia 
length of Queen Elizabeth 2 
length of average oil tanker 
edge of one acre 


Since the size of the smallest line that can be seen separately from another 
line is l/120th of an inch, the width of two lines of l/120th of an inch 
would be l/60th of an inch. A l/120th-inch line enclosing a square l/64th 
of an inch would not have a visible interior area, so for this reason an acre 
as shown on the 200-foot-diameter Geoscope would appear only as a square 
dot l/64th of an inch along its outer edge. An average home-house would 
make a square speck of about 1/1 00th of an inch to the edge. 

Speaking “approximately,” the city of greater Los Angeles would make 
a circle one and one-half feet in diameter on the 200-foot-diameter Geo- 
scope. A small town of 5000 people would make a circle one inch in diam- 
eter. Looking at the 200-foot-diameter Geoscope from 1000 feet away, you 
could say realistically to yourself, “I can’t see it from here, but my house 
is a seeable speck on that world,” and putting powerful binoculars to your 
eyes, you could see that speck. 

The Geoscope’s electronic computers will store all relevant inventories of 
world data arranged chronologically, in the order and spacing of discovery, 
as they have occurred throughout all known history. 

Historical patterns too slow for the human eye and mind to comprehend, 
such as the multimillions-of-years-to-transpire changes in the geology of our 


The Geoscope 


181 


planet — for instance, the picturing on the Geoscope Earth in two minutes 
of the drifting apart of the continental plates. 

Or in another four-minute sequence picturing, the last four one-million- 
years-each ice ages, spaced 250,000 years apart, their transforming of the 
world’s ocean waters into ice cappings, which water shift reveals peninsulas 
interconnecting what we now know of only as islands — for instance, the 
Malay Peninsula including all of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi, and 
the Philippines, as it did in the last ice age. 

The geographically varying population growths of our Earth can be run off 
on the Geoscope at a rate of one second per century. This would show hu- 
manity first appearing on the coral atolls in the waters of Southeast Asia 
and the Indian Ocean, then coming up on the lands of China and India and 
East Africa, and spreading westward into Europe and thence westward to 
the Americas, with a small second-magnitude migration, rafting on the Ja- 
pan Current and flowing the other way. 

Another change to be illustrated is resource transpositioning, such as the 
shift in geographical location of the world’s iron metal from mines of yes- 
terday, much of which is now converted into world-around city buildings, 
railway tracks, and bridges, all of which latter are scrapped when tlte build- 
ings or railways become obsolete. Yesterday’s buildings and equipment have 
now become our “highest grade’’ iron mines. The data covering such epoch 
shifts may be comprehensively introduced into the computer’s memory 
bank and acceleratingly displayed around the interior or exterior surface of 
the Geoscope “Earth,” to be comprehended by any human of sound brain 
and mind. 

The 200-foot Geoscope could present the cloud cover and weather history 
for all the known weather histories as recorded by ship captains around the 
world and in the recent century by world-around weather stations. 

At Boulder, Colorado, the United States Meteorological Service has a 
large computer-equipped headquarters. They have two large world maps on 
the walls of the main lobby of their building; the first world map has dis- 
played on it all the weather data just received seconds ago from stations all 
around the world. Throughout all the last thirty cold-warring years there 
has been no breakdown in the integrity of the hourly interweather reporting 
amongst all the nations around the Earth. 

On the other identically sized and colored world map is shown the pre- 
dicted world weather map emanating from the huge computer into which 
has been fed all the known weather data from each of the world-around 
weather stations for each year and day of the year for all the known years 
of weather record-keeping. Out of that ever-increasing data the computers 
figure the most probable weather conditions for each locality for each min- 


182 


Critical Path 


ute of the day for each day of the year. The computer map is becoming ever 
more identical to the actual world weather map. 

This meteorological headquarters of the U.S.A. at Boulder, Colorado, sits 
high on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, with Denver and the 
Great Plains stretched out far below. Walter Orr Roberts took moving pic- 
ture footage of the vast area stretched out below Boulder. He had his mov- 
ing picture camera take one picture per minute. There were all kinds of 
clouds in the sky down below Boulder. Much of the time you could see 
clearly between the clouds, at which time you could see the whole city of 
Denver with vast open land around it. He took such one-minute-apart pic- 
tures for many hours. He then projected the moving picture at the conven- 
tional twenty-four-frames-per-second rate and was astonished to see the 
cloud formation acting exactly like ocean waves rolling across the scene, 
with cresting-breaking waves having deep intervening troughs through 
which you could see the wave bottoms (on which Denver sat). It is very 
probable that the world history of weather for 200 years shown at high- 
speed acceleration on the Geoscope might display very great regularities of 
seasonal changing, with possible regularities of multiyear periods between 
dry and wet weather, etc. 

The world history of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be shown 
on the 200-foot Geoscope and, if the world-around picturing is accelerated 
to contract time in important degree, it might readily disclose rhythms that 
would visually predict the coming quakes and eruptions. 

Since the military intelligence of each of the world’s military powers 
keeps careful track of their respective enemies’ disposition of their arma- 
ments, troops, and navies, such strategic matters are not secret to the mil- 
itary of both sides and are only unknown to the world people. The 200-foot 
Geoscope installed outside the UN might display all that is known of those 
military dispositions around the Earth. All humanity would be able to see 
where all the world’s submarines are located. This might greatly alter the 
dependency of people upon their political leaders and tend to induce an ac- 
tive democratic participation in world affairs. The UN delegates would ob- 
viously be greatly aided and stimulated by the 200-foot Geoscope 
disclosures to be viewed through all their east-facing windows. 

Around-the-world evolutionary changes in transportation means, quanti- 
ty, average miles per year, etc. — the number of people engaged in world 
travel and their average distancing, their convergencies in cities and deploy- 
ments to remote places — would all be dramatically displayed on an accel- 
erated rate of disclosure around the world. The present “real time’’ 
disposition of all aircraft operating around the world would be displayed, 
as well as their departure points and destinations. The accelerated pattern 
of world movement of population from farms and cities would be dramatic. 


The Geoscope 


183 


Juxtaposition and overlaying of seemingly unrelated information may 
produce unexpected and otherwise unimaginable pictures quickly and syn- 
ergetically. 

One of the most fantastic capabilities of the human brain is that of com- 
plex pattern recognition. If world-encompassing actions were accelerated, or 
a facsimile of the action presented within the velocity range of human com- 
prehension, not only would the motion become clearly visible, but also some 
fundamental principles or heretofore unfamiliar forms of behavior probably 
would be exposed. The brain quickly correlates such new information with 
previously acquired data and insight gained from other experiences and 
adds understanding to the new phenomena being examined. Many of to- 
day’s seemingly completely new and complex occurrences are in fact rela- 
tively simple and are clearly related to other phenomena with which we 
have learned to deal successfully. 

With the Geoscope humanity would be able to recognize formerly invisi- 
ble patterns and thereby to forecast and plan in vastly greater magnitude 
than heretofore. 

The consequences of various world plans could be computed and project- 
ed, using the accumulated history-long inventory of economic, demograph- 
ic, and sociologic data. All the world data would be dynamically viewable 
and picturable and relayable by radio to all the world, so that common con- 
sideration in a most educated manner of all world problems by all world 
people would become a practical everyday, -hour and -minute event. 

From our usual local, only tangentially viewed, horizon-to-horizon obser- 
vations — within which we see such a small fraction of the Earth that it 
seems to be horizontal — we conclude that in order to be a sphere, the Earth 
must indeed be very, very large. Other lands and other people seem very re- 
mote and strange. The interrelationship between their activities and ours is 
difficult to comprehend. When one realizes, on the other hand, that we all 
are in fact on the surface of a very tiny spherical spaceship on a long and 
seemingly inexplicably purposed journey, our proximity to each other be- 
comes clear, and the absurdity of many of our conflicts becomes evident. 

For the first time in all human history humanity’s function as local Uni- 
verse information-gatherer and local Universe problem-solver will be a prac- 
tical reality, using the whole of Earth’s comprehensive resources and data, 
and incisive, computer-augmented problem-solving capabilities with all hu- 
manity’s spontaneous democratic participation, allowing humankind to use 
its intellect to the fullest in attempting to make our existence successful. 

The proposed UN East River Blackwell’s ledge installation of the 200- 
foot Geoscope was brought to the attention of U Thant when he was the 
Secretary General of the United Nations. It appealed to him so much that 
he gave a luncheon at New York City’s Hotel Pierre for me and all the am- 


184 


Critical Path 


bassadors to the UN from around the Earth. It was well attended, with 
more than half of the world’s permanent ambassadors to the UN present. 
He had me give a thorough presentation speech describing the 200-footer. 
It met with great favor. Thereafter, on a number of prominent occasions, 
U Thant represented the concept. The estimated cost at that time was $10 
million. Inflation would make it about $50 million today. There was no vis- 
ible source of funding. The UN itself did not have any funds for such a pur- 
pose. The development of the popularity of World Game and the increasing 
need for the 200-foot Geoscope might suggest that its realization may not 
be far off. 

The Geoscope will make possible communication of evolutionary phe- 
nomena not hitherto comprehendingly communicable via humans’ concep- 
tual faculties regarding their Spaceship Earth’s orientation and course of 
travel amongst the other planets around the Sun, as well as of the compre- 
hensive evolutionary developments occurring around the surface of our 
Spaceship Earth as already described. Many events about to take place will 
be dramatically evidenced, as will the avoidability of many events which, if 
unanticipated by humans, would tend to destroy us all — and on the other 
hand, if reliably anticipated, will make possible safe and happy continuance. 

* * * 

It is logical to consider at this point the continuingly important part 
played by the historically significant, omni-world-around, electromagneti- 
cally triangulated, aerial-photo-mapped, latitude-longitude-coordinated, 
geographical data — the triangular gridding of whose great sphere serves as 
the spherical scoreboard upon which to display the Geoscope’s World 
Game “software.” 

In 1900 — three years before the airplane, nine years before the discovery 
of the North Pole, eleven years before the discovery of the South Pole, and 
thirty-five years before radar — world-around geographical information had 
multiplied to such an extent that the major governments of the Earth agreed 
to have their geographers hold an omniworld meeting to adopt universal 
standards of cartography and geography. The world’s cartographers agreed 
to adopt a one-million-to-one scale of producing their master world maps. 
At that same meeting of world geographers and cartographers it was noted 
by many of those professionals that the rectilinear, latitude-longitude, geo- 
graphical coordinate system’s angular-direction-and-linearly-measured-dis- 
tances method of surveying of the world (at that time in universal use) had 
permitted much large-scale error to creep in. It was proving less and less 
satisfactory to go on trying to “square” the spherical surface of the Earth. 
Spherical trigonometry, for instance, showed that a spherical cubing of the 


The Geoscope 


185 


120 ° 

3 x 120° = 360° 


Figure 35. Spherical cubing 


Earth produced eight 120-degree corners of that cube, and not 90 degrees 
as it was popularly misconceived to be doing. 

Most of the positioning of the geographical data had been done by explor- 
ers, often without the use of sextants and only from their estimates, as re- 
corded in journals — for instance, “leaving the confluence of rivers X and Y, 
I traveled northwest for eight hours when I came upon a lake about a mile 
long.’’ The explorer then made a drawing of these relationships from his 
pocket compass observations, pocket watch, and observations from high 
points of the direction of other high points and viewable features. 

As a consequence the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Hydrographic Survey, and the 
U.S Geological Survey services determined to inaugurate a triangular sur- 
veying of the Earth’s surface, starting at a point in North America whose 
position was obtained and frequently reverified by celestial observation and 
spherical trigonometry. 

At that time the U.S. Navy had an astronomically fixed, triangularly sur- 
veyed and measured-off, meticulously buoy-marked, and multi-land-points- 
observed “official nautical mile,’’ just eastward of Owl’s Head lighthouse in 
the protected deep waters of Penobscot Bay in the state of Maine. Over this 
official mile all the ships built for the Navy had to be repeatedly run in re- 
verse directions — with and against the tide, with and against the wind, 
etc. — to prove that they could maintain the top speed called for in their 
builders’ contracts with the U.S. government. In that same Penobscot Bay 
there was one most conveniently sightable, uninhabited small island near 
the Navy’s “measured mile.’’ On this island — named “Compass Island’’ — 



186 


Critical Path 


the U.S.A. surveyors built a high wooden pyramid whose apex position they 
carefully calculated by many-times-repeated sextant observations of the Sun 
and major stars. Other wooden “monumented” geographical points on oth- 
er islands in Penobscot Bay were sharply located by their intertriangular re- 
lationships with Compass Island. This complex of intertriangulated islands 
became the base grid from which the whole U.S. continental intertriangu- 
lation grew. By the time of World War II’s commencement most of the 
United States latitude-longitude mapping had been triangularly corrected 
and its geographical features accurately repositioned on government maps. 

Churchill’s grand strategy of coping with the Nazi-Germans’ and Ital- 
ians’ occupancy of all Europe except the British Isles was to open the of- 
fensive against them from North Africa. This was called the “soft- 
underbelly” attack. 

World War II introduced also the radio-triangulation control of bombing 
flights’ navigational courses and bomb-drop points, which thus could be ac- 
complished from above cloud cover. Such radio control was strictly depen- 
dent on whatever ground-mapping accuracy existed on the prior-to-radio- 
triangulated plotted maps. 

Franklin Roosevelt’s grand strategy agreement with Churchill called for 
the U.S.A.’s swift extension of its radio triangulation surveying from the al- 
ready radio-triangulated U.S.A. southward into Mexico and thence through 
Central America into South America, thence from Brazil’s easternmost 
capes to Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, and by triangulation of the 
latter with South America’s other Atlantic islands to North Africa, and 
thence to North African positions opposite Italy on the south shores of the 
Mediterranean. 

From their scientifically “known” North African geographical points the 
first U.S.A. bombing flight was carried out on Sicily — that flight’s course 
being only “hopefully” coordinated with the first U.S.A. landing of its 
troops on Sicily. Because the geographical location of Sicily had never been 
radio-triangulated and coordinated with the latitude-longitude grid, the 
U.S.A. bombing had to rely on the non-triangulatedly-verified old latitude- 
longitude charts. The whereabouts of Sicily was so far off the triangularly 
radio-coordinated grid that the U.S. Air Force bombs let go above the 
clouds inadvertently landed in the midst of much of its own U.S.A. troops. 
With Sicily finally occupied, the world radio-triangulated grid was extended 
reliably all the way from the U.S.A. into successively radio-corrected map- 
ping areas of Italy, as the U.S.A. forces worked slowly northward. Position- 
ing errors in the old world mapping as great as fifteen or twenty miles w r ere 
often discovered and corrected. 

After the U.S.A.’s successful military penetration northward in Italy and 


The Geoscope 


187 


the Normandy landing in France, the intercontinental radio triangulation 
became established all the way from the U.S.A. through Central America, 
South America, across the Atlantic into North Africa and thence into It- 
aly — and was extended throughout all France as the military penetration of 
the Allies prevailed. Finally the world triangulation entered Germany and 
came to Berlin. The U.S.A. reached Berlin after Russia had already taken 
the portion of Germany in which Berlin was located. 

By agreement of their general staffs the Russians and U.S.A. allies en- 
tered Berlin almost simultaneously. The U.S.A intelligence operatives 
rushed to seize as much as possible of the Germans’ aerial-photo-coordinat- 
ed radio-triangulated flight maps over Russia, hoping that this triangulation 
might have been carried deeply into Russia by the Germans. Apparently the 
Germans had not carried their radio-triangulated, photo-positional correc- 
tions deeply into Russia, or the Russians had found and removed the data 
before the U.S.A. got there — for none was found by the U.S.A. or its allies. 

Though at the time the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. were ostensibly allied, their 
behind-the-scenes transnational socialist and transnational free-enterprising 
interests were powerfully at work — each making one-sided, strategically an- 
ticipatory moves. 

As a result of all the foregoing the Russians had all the long-ago-pub- 
lished, omnitriangularly corrected geographical data of America, while the 
U.S.A. had no such data of Russian geographical corrections — which, with 
errors as great as twenty miles in the latitude-longitude positioning of Rus- 
sia’s cities and other strategic points, meant that with the post-World War 
II inception of intercontinental atomic bomb warfare the Russians knew 
and as yet know exactly where all the U.S.A. targets are, but the U.S.A. did 
not know where Russian targets were — not within any strategically effective 
limits. To confuse the U.S.A. even more the U.S.S.R. built mock towns and 
cities at the incorrectly mapped points and put radio broadcasting stations 
where their cities were supposed to be — but weren’t — as mispublished only 
by the pretriangulated gridding of the U.S.S.R. 

Since the communist and capitalist worlds were organizing themselves for 
Armageddon and were committed to intercontinental atomic bombing, the 
exact location of targets was of highest importance. What the world public 
did not know and what both the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. military leaders did 
know was that the U.S.A. had no radio-corrected triangulation map of the 
U.S.S.R. and that the U.S.S.R. did have radio-corrected triangulation maps 
of the U.S.A. and as well triangulation of all the U.S.A.’s allies — Russia 
knew exactly where the U.S.A. is, and the U.S.A. may not as yet know 
where much of the U.S.S.R. is. 

It was this fact that caused the U.S.S.R. to resist any inspection-of-atom- 


188 


Critical Path 


ic-bomb-manufacturing agreements (or any other ground-level “inspection” 
by the U.S.A.) as regularly demanded by the U.S.A. and its allies whenever 
strategic inter-U.S.S.R.-and-U.S.A.-negotiated agreements were attempted. 
It probably was the U.S.A.-attempted cross-triangulation operation con- 
ducted from the Iran-Afghanistan border whose operation was curtailed 
with termination of Shahist Iran. It was the U.S.A.’s CIA’s transfer of its 
electronic surveillance into other Afghanistan territory that gave the 
U.S.S.R. a valid cause for militarily entering Afghanistan, which the Rus- 
sians have long wanted to do in order eventually to reach through to the 
Indian Ocean. Anticipating the ultimate development of a valid cause for 
moving into Afghanistan, the Russians had already made the Afghans “a 
present” of a modern high-tonnage-carrying highway system from Russia 
into Kabul. 

The military policy of the U.S.A. deceiving its own public first became 
manifest during World War II, when the U.S.A. repeatedly denied in the 
press and radio that a U.S. Navy ship had been sunk by the enemy — though 
it had been so proclaimed by the enemy’s broadcasting. Long after the facts 
the U.S.A. would publish the losses in a low-key manner. The adoption of 
the policy of self-deception was never announced by the U.S.A., but it was 
assumed tacitly to have been instituted to bolster U.S.A. morale. That the 
U.S.A. fighting forces and their supporting public were assumed by the 
U.S.A. leaders to be so stupid as not to realize what was happening when 
time after time it was learned only days later that the ships were indeed 
sunk was the beginning of the end of U.S.A. populace credit for the oper- 
ational integrity of its representative government. 

* * * 

For several years I was a member of the “Dartmouth Conference.” This 
was an arrangement made by Norman Cousins and two other Americans 
with the Russian Academy of Sciences to produce teams of U.S.S.R. and 
U.S.A. leaders in various fields — teams of approximately twenty-five on 
each side — to meet in such years as seemed expedient, first in the U.S.A. 
at Dartmouth College and next at Moscow-and-Leningrad, next at the 
Westchester Country Club in New York, etc. I was a member of the Mos- 
cow-Leningrad and Westchester, New York, conferences. 

The conferees discussed every known point of contention existing between 
the two countries. The U.S.A. team on which I served consisted of John 
Kenneth Galbraith, Harvard economist; Paul Dudley White, Eisenhower’s 
cardiologist; Norton Simon, financier; Leslie Paffrath, the director of the 
Johnson Foundation; two Harvard U.S.S.R.-specializing professors; a U.S. 
Navy admiral and a U.S. Army general. The latter four had been on many 


The Geoscope 


189 


U.S.S.R./U.S.A. arms-problem negotiating teams. The balance of the 
U.S.A. team consisted of Norman Cousins (team leader); Dr. Franklin Mur- 
phy, the chancellor of UCLA, now chairman of the board of the Los An- 
geles Times-Mirror Corporation; David Rockefeller; and myself. 

The Russian team included the president of their Academy of Sciences, 
their leading astronomer (who was in charge of their space-vehicle guid- 
ance), their leading climatologist, others of their leading scientists, their 
most eminent writers, philosophers, economists, an admiral, a general — 
thirty in all. Present also were a dozen “simultaneous interpreters” loaned 
by the UN. 

We all lived at the same hotel. The dining room had only four-place ta- 
bles. As you entered, you chose quickly with which of the Russians you 
wished to sit. They were the first to reach the dining room. You tried to 
sit successively with each of the U.S.S.R. team members. The moment you 
sat down with a Russian, an interpreter moved in with you. To our U.S.A. 
surprise it turned out at the end of the conference that all the Russians 
could speak English, while amongst the U.S.A. representatives only the two 
Harvard professors could speak Russian. 

Our meetings consisted of: (A) those lasting all day, every day, at which 
all the officially-to-be-considered points were discussed; and (B) the very 
small individual dining room and other casual meetings at dinner parties 
and receptions. At the latter it seemed as though all points of contention 
could be coped with in a manner satisfactory to both sides. At the formal 
all-day meetings, however, everyone seemed so intractable that nothing 
could be resolved. 

For the last day of the first week-long conferences, some in Moscow, 
some in Leningrad, it was decided by the leaders of the two teams that in- 
stead of having summaries prepared of what had occurred, each side would 
select one of its members to give a speculative half-day-long prognostication 
regarding all prominent features of human life on planet Earth for the next 
half-century. Each prognosticator would have half a day in which to make 
his or her presentation. It was assumed that the prognosticators would in- 
dicate how much each side was accommodating the other side’s conference 
issues. These presentations were expected to provide a clue as to what extent 
the respective sides would be yielding in the future to the opposing argu- 
ments presented during the previous formal sessions. 

The Russians chose their leading meteorologist to give the U.S.S.R prog- 
nostication. He would have all of Saturday morning to present it. 

I was chosen to present the U.S.A. prognostication. I had all Saturday 
afternoon to do so. In preparation I made a tensegrity sphere to demon- 
strate new human-use potentials of nature’s fundamental structuring prin- 


190 


Critical Path 


ciples of discontinuous-compression-and-continuous-tension as employed in 
all geodesics and synergetics. I also calculated the weight of a great cathe- 
dral we passed each day on the walk to the grand palace in which we held 
our conferences. Employing tensegrity principles, I was able to show a 99- 
percent weight reduction for enclosing an equal amount of dear-span to that 
of the cathedral, including adequately engineered snow-loading, wind-load- 
ing, and earthquake-proofing. 

I based my presentation on the twentieth century’s unprecedented invisi- 
ble revolution in chemistry, electronics, and metallurgy, by means of which 
we could now do so much more with so much less weight, volume, energy, 
and time per each accomplished function as to suggest that we humans 
would soon prove invalid Malthus’s seemingly infallible scientific conclu- 
sion that economically on our planet Earth it had to be “only you or me — 
not enough for both.’’ I then outlined the changes in patterning of life on 
Earth if there were ample high standard of living, life support for all. My 
discourse, its predictions, and the raisons d’etres for those predictions were 
approximately the same as those of this book — Critical Path. 

What I said pleased both the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. delegates. On the walk 
home to our hotel each individual delegate from both sides hustled up be- 
side me and told me how excitedly pleased he or she was over my state- 
ments. The Russians were unanimously enthusiastic about what I said. 
Fortunately, all the U.S.A. delegates seemed equally pleased. At the farewell 
banquet that night the president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences said 
in his closing speech, “From now on Buckminster Fuller will be ranked in 
the U.S.S.R. side-by-side with Franklin and Edison.” I assumed that the 
Russians had so classified me because I was not only an inventor but dwelt 
in the lands of capitalism — despite the fact that I am apolitical and an ar- 
dent advocate of an omnihumanity-advantaging freedom of individual ini- 
tiative, and not of private enterprise’s only selfishly benefited freedoms. 

In our second meeting, two years later at the Westchester Country Club, 
many of the American participants lived nearby and so went home each 
night. Together with the Johnson Foundation director I lived at the club 
with the Russians. I found that the young editor of Pravda was the only 
Russian amongst them who seemed free to explore and discuss spontane- 
ously the world’s future prospects. Though obviously a faithful communist, 
his speculative thoughts seemed not to be bound within popularly estab- 
lished party-line dogma. 

What I learned from the Russians — regarding which I am certain they 
were seriously convinced — was that “the U.S.S.R. would never be willing 
to negotiate with the U.S.A. regarding any world-around, supreme-power 
matters when the U.S.S.R. was in a weaker military position than the 
U.S.A.” 


The Geoscope 


191 


They said to me, “Every time we struggle to attain parity with the U.S.A. 
so that we can negotiate, the U.S.A. institutes an arms advancement before 
the meeting, wherefore we are deprived of tolerable negotiating conditions. 

“Worse than that,” they said, “this continually defeats turning our mas- 
sive high-technology productivity toward realizing a life-style for our social- 
ist economy equal to or better than that already enjoyed by capitalism — 
whose world-publicized high standard of living is a thorn in our side as we 
remain unable to do so — not because of technical or social inability but be- 
cause of the preoccupation of technological resources with the cold war- 
ring.” 

Assuming that an atomic war would mean that both sides would lose* — 
ergo, it would not occur — the U.S.S.R. determined to outnumber and thus 
overpower the U.S.A. in the design and the production of conventional air 
and sea armaments and in the training and maintenance of a vastly greater 
standing army, whereafter they felt they could negotiate constructively for 
the establishment and maintenance of peaceful world-around conditions. 

It must be remembered that, in their 1920s-formulated, successive-mul- 
tistaged five-year industrial planning, the Russians had assumed a World 
War II to occur in the early 1940s, at which time it would be evident to 
the private-enterprise world that socialism could be successful — which pri- 
vate enterprise had always said would be impossible — ergo, the private-en- 
terprise-dominated countries would start a war to destroy socialism but 
would do it in a highly deceptive manner by having a Nazi propaganda of- 
fensive launched against the German industrial cartels, which would sud- 
denly be turned against the U.S.S.R. This is exactly what happened. The 
Germans first made the U.S.S.R. their ally. When well into Poland and at 
the Russian border, the Nazis turned treacherously against the U.S.S.R. The 
anti-U.S.S.R. strategy of the “Cliveden set” miscarried when, soon there- 
after, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. became allies. 

No one in the U.S.A. can understand the bitterness as yet existent in the 
U.S.S.R. over the millions of U.S.S.R. troops and civilians killed by the Na- 
zis. The U.S.S.R. could not understand the U.S.A. rearming of the Ger- 
mans, with whom the U.S.S.R. was much more concerned as a World War 
IV enemy than with the U.S.A. as such an enemy. 

The Russians had assumed in their five-year planning that when World 
War II terminated, they would be able to divert all their high industrial pro- 
ductivity toward advantaging all their people to prove that socialism could 
produce an economically desirable life-style equal to or better than that pro- 
vided by capitalism. Again the Russian planning became thwarted when 
Western capitalism, which had been socialized by FDR’s New Deal, real- 


*See p. 117, “Legally Piggily” chapter, and page 192 of this chapter. 


192 


Critical Path 


ized at the cessation of World War II that it could not carry on without 
the vast government procurement program which is occasioned only by 
war. To cope with this situation the capitalists invented World War III 
(which they called the cold war). 

The Russians queried of the U.S., their supposed ally, “Who are you go- 
ing to fight?” and the U.S.A. answered, “You.” 

This meant that the U.S.S.R. would have to focus all its high-science-and- 
technology productivity on producing armaments for decades of around- 
the-world cold warring, in the conduct of which both the Russians and the 
U.S.A. would have to avoid direct, all-out interconfrontation. With the join- 
ing of supreme-powers war by direct military confrontation, neither side 
could withdraw without all-out surrender. However, all-out intercontinental 
atomic war would mean the end of human life on Earth. Therefore, the 
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R., in testing their respective strengths, would have to op- 
erate indirectly against one another through their respective puppet nations, 
hopefully intent on drawing forth the “secret weapons” in the other’s ar- 
senals. Thus we have the North versus the South Koreans, the “Vietnam- 
ese” versus the Vietcong, the Israelis versus the Arabs, etc. 

The Russians decided early on that atomic warheads would not be used 
because the rocket delivery times traveling at 14,000 miles per hour were 
such that with radar traveling at 700,000,000 miles per hour, both sides 
would know ten minutes before being struck that the enemy had fired their 
atomic warheads — ergo, both sides would have plenty of time to send off 
all their atomic warheads, and both sides would lose. So while deceptively 
continuing the atomic-warhead race with the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R. commit- 
ted itself realistically to producing the strongest navy in history. 

The U.S.A. politicans kept the U.S.A. populace feeling militarily secure 
because they could point out that the U.S.A. was developing far more atom- 
ic warheads than was the U.S.S.R. The U.S.A. was doing so because big oil 
money, which successfully lobbied Washington’s Capitol Hill energy poli- 
cies — knowing that petroleum would ultimately be exhausted — fostered 
atomic-warhead production in order to build up the atomic technology in- 
dustry (in the development of which the U.S. people’s government had spent 
over $200 billion) and its nuclear scientist personnel whom they, the world- 
power-structure organizations, would need to employ in operating the atom- 
ic-energy plants and the electrical-distribution network as world petroleum 
supplies dwindled. They would need the energy meters in order to continue 
exploiting the capitalist world’s energy needs. 

When Jane's Annual World Inventory of Ships showed that the U.S.S.R. 
Navy had reached parity with the U.S.A., the U.S. politicans laughed it off 
by saying the Russians did not even have aircraft carriers. This was true be- 
cause the U.S.S.R. had seen that aircraft carriers are “highly vulnerable,” 


The Geoscope 


193 


so they built huge airplane-carrying submarines from which a plane would 
take off by “Vertol” — vertical flight to height, followed by horizontal 
flight — ergo, needing no runways. This Vertol-from-submarine launching 
was strongly advocated by some of the U.S. Navy’s most astute officers, 
whose word was not heeded because the aircraft carriers were much more 
profitable business for private enterprise. The weapons industry’s Washing- 
ton lobbyists were more persuasive than the U.S. Navy’s experts. 

With its naval fleet supremacy established but lacking en route support 
bases, the U.S.S.R. then set about to develop disarmament talks with the 
U.S. A. from a superior conventional-warpower position — that of control- 
ling the high-seas lines of supply. 

Realizing that the U.S. A. senators had jurisdiction over all peace nego- 
tiating and that the U.S. A. Senate’s Republican membership was intent to 
deprive the Democratic President of peace-making success, and that appar- 
ently the U.S.A. was not going to go along with ratification of the SALT 
treaty, the Russians decided to put the heat on the U.S.A. so that a global 
naval-line-of-supply confrontation incident such as the occupation of Af- 
ghanistan would demonstrate — as it has in Iran — that the U.S.A. can no 
longer control the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea and therefore cannot take 
yesteryears’ sure-to-win military steps against Iran. 

The U.S.A.’s half-century dominance of world affairs is now terminating, 
just as did Great Britain’s century and a third of dominance come to an end 
with the 1929 economic crash. 


* * * 

Sir Halford Mackinder was Britain’s chief geographical advisor from the 
latter Victorian period to 1930. Mackinder pointed out that the British Em- 
pire was built on its mastery of the world’s sea routes from the Orient to 
Europe. He also pointed out to the British, circa 1900, that what the world’s 
seacoasts might really be was not what one saw when looking at the world 
maps. He showed the British that the railways were the large-tonnage-ca- 
pacity, previously seagoing, cargo carriers going up onto the land. He fur- 
ther showed them that the Trans-Siberian Railway was being built by the 
Russians to short-circuit the Orient-to-Europe high-tonnage cargo routes. 
Mackinder pointed out that the Trans-Siberian Railway was strategically 
too far to the north. Its snow impediment was too great to be economical. 
The British kept the Russians bottled up by refusing them an Atlantic 
port — Russia had to go to Archangel in the Arctic Sea and, on the Pacific 
coast, to Vladivostok. 

The Orient Express ran only from Paris to Constantinople in Asia Minor. 
The czar-backing Russian-power-structure interests, hoping to compete 
with the British, represented the inheritors of the before-the-water-route, 


194 


Critical Path 


overland-caravaning powers of the Old World. Mackinder showed the Brit- 
ish that the only economically successful trans-Europe and Asia railroad 
route would have to be from France to Constantinople and thence via Tur- 
key and Iran to Kabul, Afghanistan, and thence through the Khyber Pass, 
through Sinkiang and Inner Mongolia to Shanghai, China, cutting shipping 
times down very much as compared with the sea routes around Africa to 
the Orient. Mackinder’s counsel was heeded by the British. 

Mackinder showed the British that Russia could, by taking Afghanistan 
and Pakistan, reach the Persian Gulf and then come through the Indian 
Ocean to intercept British cargo ships en route to the Orient. Mackinder 
identified on the map what he called “the Heartland.’’ The heart of Mac- 
kinder’s Heartland was Afghanistan, with its Khyber Pass leading to the 
east and its ability to break through to the Arabian Sea and the Persian 
Gulf. Mackinder said, “Whoever controls the Heartland, rules the world.’’ 
Afghanistan was (and as yet is) the heart of the world’s heartland. 

After World War I the British were so “tired” that they did not listen 
to Mackinder as they had before. In the 1920s he tried to make the British 
realize that the airplane altogether eliminated the world’s shorelines as the 
limit of travel. The British did not see the airplane as a cargo carrier and 
believed that their world trading exclusively by ships of the sea would not 
be threatened by air traffic. No one had ever flown across an ocean, let alone 
set up air-cargo fleets capable of competing with their seagoing fleets. One 
of the factors that they failed to envision was that of the technology becom- 
ing ever lighter per unit of functional performance until it became feasibly 
and economically air-deliverable. 

Mackinder developed a doctorate-level school in London in the 1920s. 
One of his students was a talented German named Haushofer, who listened 
to Mackinder pointing out that the armored tanks were, in effect, the navy 
destroyers coming out of the sea and running up on the land. Mackinder 
said to his students, “The French Maginot Line and all great fortresses 
around the world are obsolete.” He continued, “The airplane raiders above 
and the armored tanks on the land could circumvent, overrun, and overfly 
the fortresses and overwhelm any troops or other defense.” Haushofer grad- 
uated from Mackinder’s school, returned to Germany, and went to work for 
Goering, Hitler’s air minister. Haushofer described Mackinder’s science in 
German as Geopolitik. From his description of Mackinder’s concept, which 
the British were not heeding, Goering developed his blitzkrieg — lightning 
war — with the Luftwaffe commanding the sky and tanks and other armored 
vehicles commanding the land. Goering flew over and rolled over the Ma- 
ginot Line and took all Europe. 

Until the end of World War II the British had kept the Afghanistan 
heartland well under control. Then, after World War II, they let its mili- 


The Geoscope 


195 


tarily guaranteed isolation greatly deteriorate. Meanwhile the Russians were 
busy giving Afghanistan such “presents” as a first-class highway from Rus- 
sia to Kabul. The U.S.A. gave them naught. 

In 1954 the British Foreign Office advised the U.S. State Department that 
they had just learned from their ambassador in Kabul, Afghanistan, that 
Russia, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and China had all installed impres- 
sive exhibition buildings in Kabul to take part in Afghanistan’s most sacred- 
ly important holiday — the Geshin Fair. Neither the United Kingdom nor 
the U.S.A. nor any of their allies had an exhibit in Kabul. 

I received an emergency call from Jack Masey of the U.S. State Depart- 
ment’s U.S. Information Agency. He asked me how long it would take me 
to produce a 10,000-square-foot-floor-area geodesic dome so light and com- 
pactly shippable that it could be sent by one DC-4 airplane to Kabul. My 
Raleigh, North Carolina, shop had it produced in twenty-five days, com- 
plete with a high-tension, all-weather skin outwardly tensed to its geodesic, 
tubular aluminum frame. All the struts and hubs of the dome were color- 
coded. The 1 14-feet-in-diameter dome was test-assembled at the Raleigh air- 
port and accepted by the U.S.A. 

It was flown to Kabul with my one engineering representative to super- 
vise its erection by the Afghans. It was assembled in one day just in time 
for the Geshin Fair opening. The U.S.A. show inside consisted of the Bor- 
den’s “laughing cow,” bouncing ball bearings, and Lionel trains. No one 
showed interest in the show inside, but all the Afghans, the Russians and 
East Germans, the Chinese and Czechs, were fascinated with the geodesic 
dome itself. The Russians asked permission to bring in their moving picture 
equipment to make a documentary of the dome construction. The then king 
of Afghanistan fell in love with the dome — it was a great modern-materials 
Afghan yurt — the Afghans’ own architecture. The king asked the U.S.A. to 
give him the dome, but the U.S.A. refused and sent the dome off as an 
around-the-world traveling show. 

The Russians, finding the Afghans making themselves working auto- 
mobiles out of the most battered second-hand cars shipped into Kabul and 
then driving them around on very rough dirt roads, made the Afghans a 
present of macadam-surfaced, first-class roads, which delighted the Afghans 
because they provided some real distance driving — the Russians extended 
the highways all the way into the U.S.S.R. These roads recently (1979) pro- 
vided the means for the U.S.S.R. to roll their armed forces into Afghanistan. 

Having been a long-time student of Sir Halford Mackinder’s work, I was 
fascinated through my dome experience to discover that the U.S. diplomacy 
apparently knew nothing of Mackinder’s “Heartland” concept — or consid- 
ered it to be no longer relevant. 

When early in 1979 the U.S.S.R. took over Kabul, Afghanistan, it was 


196 


Critical Path 


because the balance of world power had shifted from U.S.A. to U.S.S.R. 
mastery. 

As we have related, Mackinder had identified “The Heartland” on the 
maps. The heart of his Heartland was Kabul, Afghanistan. Also, the Rus- 
sians with their now-great navy had access to the Atlantic Ocean only at 
Archangel and the Baltic ports and Vladivostok in the North Pacific. With 
Afghanistan under their control the Russians were able to control all the 
northern and eastern borders of Iran and the western borders of Pakistan. 

Russia always uses the power structure’s number-one strategy — “divide 
to conquer!” — and does so with psychological expertise. She often finds re- 
ligious divisibility the most propitious. It was feasible in Iran, which could 
be divided religiously against the incumbent political power — ergo, the 
Muslims versus the Shahdom of Iran — with knowledge that after driving 
out the U.S.A.-supported Shahdom, it (the U.S.S.R.) could divide the Mus- 
lims into their subsects and militarily overwhelm Iran. The U.S.A.’s secretly 
supported Kurdish opposition to Russia in Afghanistan and to the Muslims 
in Iran would become the final obstacles to the Russians’ century-held ob- 
jective of gaining direct access to the Indian Ocean and therewith complete 
control of U.S.A. access to Arabian oil. The Russians’ move into Afghani- 
stan was not just a power-structure play. They were exercising their evolu- 
tionary ascendancy into the world’s top power position. The Heartland — 
Afghanistan and its ultimate access to the Indian Ocean — is the historic 
prizes of the world’s top power position. 

Fortunately for the cross-breeding world citizens of North America and 
for the rest of the world, the U.S.S.R. is most probably intent on getting the 
world power structure under irreversible control as quickly as possible so 
that it can institute controlled demilitarization and thereby turn its immense 
productivity toward improving the standard of living for the socialist world 
and thus prove socialism’s life-style to be equal to or better than the best 
of the life-styles produced by capitalism. I am confident that Russia does 
truly intend world disarmament. She will keep a powerful upper hand at 
each stage of disarmament but will seek to have the world’s militarily 
scrapped metals reinvested in peacefully productive livingry advantage for 
all the world’s peoples. 

I have only one objection to the concept of comprehensive socialism: So 
far it has made no provision for effective development of the individual ini- 
tiative of humans. Too long has such freedom of initiative been usurped ei- 
ther by the Communist party, representing only 1 percent of the U.S.S.R. 
population, or by the Western world’s private enterprise’s utterly selfish ex- 
ploitation for money-making rather than for common sense-making. I have 
discussed this point with the Russians. They admit that a party dictatorship 


The Geoscope 


197 


is not “democracy” and, at the same time, also admit that it is for true de- 
mocracy to which the Russians, the Chinese, and most people of the world 
aspire. Possibly the electronically operative democracy and its ability to 
cope with complex problem-solving will also make safe the realization of in- 
dividual initiative to be exercised on behalf of all humanity by any humans 
anywhere. 


CHAPTER 6 


World Game 


I think you may find the physical design science revolution and its 
“software” outlined in my World Game thesis to be the most thorough, 
effective, and realistically feasible strategy for accomplishing sustainable 
physical and metaphysical success for all humanity, all to be realized within 
the shortest possible time. 

In my book Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (E. P. Dutton, 1963) 
you will find my identification of the phenomenon wealth. Wealth consists 
of physical energy (as matter or radiation) combined with metaphysical 
know-what and know-how. The scientists make it clear that no physical en- 
ergy of Universe gets lost — ergo, the physical constituent of wealth is cos- 
mically irreducible. Experience teaches us that every time we employ our 
metaphysical know-what and know-how wealth, we always learn more. Ex- 
perience can only increase — ergo, the metaphysical component of wealth 
can only increase, and totally integrated wealth itself can only increase. 

From the comprehensively informed World Game viewpoint, those who 
have learned how to make money with money — which money can never be 
anything but a medium of wealth exchanging — have now completely sev- 
ered money from its constant functional identity with real wealth. With 
their game of making money with money the money-makers and their econ- 
omists continue to exploit the general political and religious world’s as- 
sumptions that a fundamental inadequacy of human life support exists 
around our planet. 

These money interests are wrong. Because of (A) the constant increase 
in strength per pound of new metallic alloys, (B) the constant increase in 
horsepower per each pound and cubic inch of aircraft engines, and (C) the 
ever-increasing performance per pounds and cubic inches of new chemistries 


198 


World Game 


199 


and electronics, in general we have the capability, which can be fully real- 
ized within ten years, of producing and sustaining a higher standard of liv- 
ing for all humanity than that ever heretofore experienced or dreamt of by 
any. 

This is not an opinion or a hope — it is an engineeringly demonstrable fact. 
This can be done using only the already proven technology and with the al- 
ready mined, refined, and in-recirculating physical resources. 

This will be an inherently sustainable physical success for all humanity 
and all its generations to come. It can be accomplished not only within ten 
years but with the phasing out forever of all use of fossil fuels and atomic 
energy. Our technological strategy makes it incontrovertible that we can live 
luxuriously entirely on our daily Sun-radiation-and-gravity-produced in- 
come energy. The quantity of physical, cosmic energy wealth as radiation 
arriving aboard planet Earth each minute is greater than all the energy used 
annually by all humanity. World Game makes it eminently clear that we 
have four billion billionaires aboard our planet, as accounted by real wealth , 
which fact is obscured from public knowledge by the exclusively conceived 
and operated money game and its monopolized credit system accounting. 

Wealth is, then, the already organized human capability and know-how 
to employ the fixed, inanimate, planetary assets and omnicosmically oper- 
ative and only celestially emanating natural energy income in such a manner 
as to predictably cope with so many forward days of so many human lives 
by providing for their (1) protection, (2) comfort, and (3) nurturing, and 
for (4) the accommodation of the ongoing development by humans of their 
as-yet-untapped store of intellectual and aesthetic faculties, while (5) con- 
tinually eliminating restraints and (6) increasing the range and depth of 
their information-accumulating experience. 

The success of all humanity can be accomplished only by a terrestrially 
comprehensive, technologically competent, design revolution. This revolu- 
tion must develop artifacts whose energy-use efficiency not only occasions 
the artifacts’ spontaneous adoption by humanity, but therewith also occa- 
sions the inadvertent, unregretted abandonment and permanent obsoles- 
cence of socially and economically undesirable viewpoints, customs, and 
practices. 

This design revolution must employ world-around, satellite-interlinked, 
data-banks-and-computer-accomplished conversion of present-day, exclu- 
sively geocentric, Spaceship Earth wealth accounting by synchronizing our 
planetary economic affairs with the cosmic, interstellar, intergalactic, com- 
plex family of physical, time-energy behavior laws, demonstrated by astro- 
physics to be synergetically in economic governance not only throughout 
our Milky Way’s 100 billion stars, but also throughout the two billion ad- 


200 


Critical Path 


ditional such galaxies now discovered and observed by astrophysics within 
our phototelescopic range. Little planet Earth of our small star the Sun is 
not exempt from the inexorable, synergetic integration of the complex of 
time-energy, electromagnetic, chemical structuring and destructuring’s in- 
ventory of the intertransformative laws that govern the generalized, regen- 
erative economic-investment system of the physical and metaphysical assets 
of what physics now finds to be an eternally regenerative, 100-percent- 
efficient scenario Universe. 

Simultaneous “shooting the works’’ of the biggest atomic explosions mu- 
tually deliverable by the most powerful long-range weapons systems of the 
most powerful political systems on planet Earth — designed to reinforce their 
exclusively politico-economic accounting concepts — can produce less than 
a visible twinkle in the galactic theater. Obviously Universe is not saying, 
“We cannot afford another galaxy — let alone another star — let alone an- 
other terrestrial crew of cosmically invisible human information-harvesting 
and -processing functionaries, whose problem-solving capabilities are being 
strangled by ignorant fears and selfishness aboard tiny planet Earth.” 

Scientifically faithful, synergetically integrated, time-energy, electrochem- 
ical process accounting shows that it costs energetic Universe more than a 
million dollars to produce each gallon of petroleum when the amount of en- 
ergy as heat and pressure used for the length of time necessary to produce 
that gallon of petroleum is charged for at the New York Con Edison Com- 
pany’s retail kilowatt-hour rates for that much electricity. 

About 90 percent of all U.S.A. employment is engaged in tasks producing 
no life-support wealth. These non-life-support-producing employees are 
spending three, four, and more gallons of gasoline daily to go to their non- 
wealth-producing jobs — ergo, we are completely wasting $3 trillion of cos- 
mic wealth per day in the U.S.A. 

In real, energy-time, know-how accounting of wealth the planet Earth’s 
four billion billionaires have not yet been notified of their good fortune. 
Their heritage probating is being postponed by the lawyers for the now in- 
herently obsolete power structures of all kinds — religious, political, finan- 
cial, professional, and academic — all of which exploitative systems are 
organized only to take biased advantage of all scarcities, physical and meta- 
physical. 

Evolution has now accelerated into revolution, which, if it goes bloody, 
will render all humanity extinct, but if it goes via the design revolution, all 
humanity will win. This is a new kind of revolution; it is one that, instead 
of revengefully pulling down the top fortunate few, will elevate all the here- 
tofore unfortunates and the fortunates alike to new and sustainable heights 
of realized life far superior to those previously tenuously attained by the 
most privileged few. 


World Game 


201 


World Game comprehensively details that which individual humans must 
do to realize total success for all and do so within the critical time limit, 
before humanity passes the point of no return en route to self-extinction. 

* * * 

Quickly reviewing the earliest large-scale wealth trading by humans, pay- 
ments were made in “kind” — that is, with livestock that could be driven 
from here to there. Most valuable were cattle. When “money,” or heads of 
cattle (known as capital, capita meaning “head” in Latin), was loaned to en- 
terprisers, the latter’s cattle were held by the lender as collateral until the 
enterprise venture was completed. The interim birth and growth of calves 
into cattle became the “interest” on the loan to be paid by the borrower to 
the lender of the venture’s working capital. Much later, metal money re- 
placed the cattle. The concept of interest due to the loaner persisted, but 
since metal does not breed more metal, the interest paid reduces the real- 
wealth value of the collateral when returned to the borrower. 

As the scale of long-distance trading exceeded the distances to which the 
cattle could be driven, the trading shifted primarily into water-borne ships. 
Ships carry far greater loads than can humans or beasts of burden. In the 
earliest days of international trading by ships cattle were used as “money.” 
This became increasingly impractical, and the Phoenicians invented iron 
money in the form of miniature bull horns. With metal as money there 
swiftly developed a world-around preference for gold, due to its scarcity and 
easily recognized weight per volume as well as its nontamishability. World- 
trading ships carrying gold soon became prey to hijacking pirates. As men- 
tioned in our “Legally Piggily” chapter, when the British Empire came into 
world-around and century-enduring supremacy in 1805, its administrators 
made trade treaties with countries from every region of the world. There- 
after both sides kept their trading on books of import-export accounts that 
were balanced annually, and the debtor nation paid the other by shifting 
their gold deposited in a London bank to the other’s London bank, thus 
keeping the gold off the ships — ergo, out of reach of small-time pirates. 

This is how what is known as the international “balance of trade” origi- 
nated with the powerful industrializing countries of Europe; although rich 
in technical experience and inventive “know-how,” they lacked an adequate 
supply of fundamental metallic and other resources with which to realize 
the industrial potentials for their inventions. They were motivated to estab- 
lish military supremacy over nonindustrialized countries in Africa, South 
America, and the Far East, within which countries the European scientists 
found the metal ores essential to their industries. 

Present-day Ghana provides a good example of the foregoing. Ghana is 
rich in bauxite — the ore from which aluminum is extracted by electrolytic 


202 


Critical Path 


refinement. Ghana also has the Volta River and its basin. The Ghanaians, 
however, did not know of the convertibility of bauxite into aluminum. 
Americans with vast capital came into Ghana, arranged to have all the in- 
habitants of the Volta River basin banished from that basin, then built one 
of the world's largest hydroelectric dams there. They used the electricity 
thus generated to convert the Ghanaian bauxite (which was just so much 
dirt to the Ghanaians) into aluminum ingots. These ingots were, and as yet 
are, shipped to America and Europe, where the aluminum is transformed 
into airplanes, cooking utensils, etc., and sold back to the Ghanaians and 
others around the world at such a markup in price that the Ghanaians' bal- 
ance of import-export trading finds them ever deeper in debt to those coun- 
tries that “developed" their natural resources. The societies in the 
manipulating countries call these source people “the underdeveloped coun- 
tries" or “the Third World." 

There can be no planetary equity until all the sovereign nations are abol- 
ished and we have but one accounting system — that of the one family of hu- 
mans aboard Spaceship Earth. 

Ample food and growing capacity exist on our planet to feed well every 
world human. But the sovereign nations and their international-trade-bal- 
ancing system, and the individual hoarders of foods and other goods within 
the separate nations, prevent the distribution of the foods.* 

World Gaming discloses that humanity will perish on this planet if the 
sovereignty of nations is not abandoned and if the World Game’s world- 
around computerized time-energy accounting is not forthwith inaugurated. 
The first step in bringing about the desovereignization will be the closing 
of the gaps in the world electric power grid. The world-unifying electric 
power accounting will be the beginning of the omnienergy accounting for 
world economic management. 

World Game is a continuing scientific research and physical-prototyping 
development. It is devoted to progressive discovery of how most efficiently 
and expeditiously to employ (1) the total world-around resources, (2) total 
accumulated knowledge, and (3) the total already-produced technological 
tooling of Spaceship Earth, all three to the ever-advancing equal advantage 
of all its present and future passengers. 

World Game is the antithesis of World War Gaming as played by the joint 
chiefs of staff of the world's most powerful sovereign nations' respective mil- 
itary, air, and naval establishments. Predicated upon the British Empire’s 
post-Magellan, historically first, spherical, world-around empire and its first 


♦See the World Game Laboratory publication, Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone , by Medard 
Gabel, Doubleday, 1979. 


World Game 


203 


“inventory of vital statistics of the world,” as assembled in 1805 by the East 
India Company College’s professor of political economics, Thomas Mal- 
thus, and his findings therefrom which we have already described. 

World War Gaming, in contradistinction to World Gaming, assumes 
Thomas Malthus’s theory that there exists a lethal inadequacy of life sup- 
port on our planet. World War Gaming also assumes Darwin’s “survival only 
of the fittest” to be ruling evolution. As already mentioned in Chapter 3, 
this is why the United States and the U.S.S.R. have jointly spent over $200 
billion annually for the last thirty years ($6 trillion total) to buy science’s 
most effective means of destroying their respective “enemies.” World War 
Gaming is the consequence. World War Gaming employs the ever-evolut- 
ingly-advancing, most comprehensive and incisive, scientifically and techno- 
logically feasible capabilities to develop and mass-produce weaponry 
systems that will ever more swiftly devastate all enemy life-support artifacts 
and kill ever more enemy people at ever greater ranges in ever shorter pe- 
riods of time. 

In contradistinction to the inherently vast wastage of World War Gam- 
ing’s objectives, World Gaming takes advantage of ephemeralization — tech- 
nology’s ever-higher-strength-per-weight metallic alloys and chemistries and 
ever-more-comprehensively-incisive-and-inclusive electronic circuitry per- 
formances per volumes and weights of apparatus used — and employs ever- 
progressively-less weight and volume of materials, ergs of energy, and 
seconds of time per each technical function accomplished and employs those 
ever improving functions to produce ever more advanced livingry artifacts 
instead of the killingry weapons of World War gaming. 

World Game assumes evolutionary stages of advancement of its succes- 
sive systems of production, distribution, maintenance, design improvement, 
world-around integrating, precision tool-automating, and mass-producing 
of its ever-advancing livingry service. All these successive prototype stages 
of development are based on my fifty-two-year-maintained omnihistory in- 
ventory of world resources (both physical and metaphysical) and my inven- 
tory of technical trendings and progressively evoluting human needs — both 
group and individual. 

World Game’s now clearly demonstrated capability to produce the high- 
er-than-ever-before-experienced living standard means an ever-healthier, 
ever-less-environmentally-restrained, ever-better-informed and -comprehen- 
sively-educated, ever-more-thoughtfully, -spontaneously, and -cooperative- 
ly-productive total humanity operating as an ever-more-mutually- 
intertrusting and -interconsiderate world family, living in an ever-more- 
generous and less wasteful way, at an ever-more-foresighted and 
-comprehensively-anticipatory level; engaged in ever-more-constructive 


204 


Critical Path 


initiative-taking and cooperative intersupport of one another’s initiatives 
and explorations; an ever-more-truly omniloving, classless, raceless, human 
family of Earth’s planetarians — all engaged competently in local Universe 
information-harvesting and in local Universe problem-solving, in successful 
support of the 100-percent integrity of eternally regenerative Universe, that 
being the function in Universe that World Game assumes occasioned the in- 
clusion of humans and their generalized-principles-discovering-minds in the 
design of Universe. 

Technical artifacts, invented and produced by humans, employing gener- 
alized scientific principles of Universe — such as the principles of leverage, 
optics, magnetics, mass attraction, etc. — to cope successfully with life chal- 
lenges varying among lethal difficult, tolerable, or benign environmental 
conditions, constitute any and all differences existing between the life activi- 
ties of originally naked humans in a few mid-ocean tropical “Gardens of 
Eden” on planet Earth three million years ago and the life-styles of humans 
today in skyscraper cities or in space suits exiting from their Moon-landed, 
space-rocketed capsule to bring back to Earth sample rocks from the Moon 
environment, all the while being intimately satellite-relay-televised in color 
to one billion people on a planet 320,000 miles away from the Moon-landed 
astronauts, the one billion viewers being situated in their environment-con- 
trol homes around planet Earth, as those viewing Earthian billions and the 
Moon-landing astronauts alike are being vitally sustained by foods grown 
elsewhere than where they live, which foods are preserved and shipped in 
environment-controlling cans and packages or in artifact-produced frozen 
or dehydrated conditions. 

World Game’s design science employs all the known generalized princi- 
ples and technical inventions and invents others where artifacts adequate for 
solving the newly emerging and foreseeably arising problems do not as yet 
exist. World Gaming, incorporating ever-more performance per function 
and higher energy efficiencies with ever-less pounds and volumes of re- 
sources, continually redesigns the artifacts and technical systems employing 
those ever-improving materials. 

World Gaming recognizes that there are no unnatural materials. If nature 
permits their chemical-element associabilities, the materials and their func- 
tionings are natural. If nature does not permit or bring about their associa- 
bility, they cannot exist. The substances permitted by nature may be 
unfamiliar to humans, but they are never unnatural — i.e., “synthetic.” 
World Gaming notes that humans’ fear of the unfamiliar often prevents re- 
alization of humanity’s imminent acquisition of improved living conditions 
for everyone. 

World Gaming takes advantage of the ever-changing world-resource pat- 


World Game 


205 


terns, such as that of steel and other metals scrapped from obsolete build- 
ings and machinery as the latter’s designs are made obsolete by the latest 
military-and-naval-produced hardware. Scrap of the discontinued hardware 
constitutes new high-grade ore mines existing entirely above ground. As an 
example: there are no tin mines in the United States. All tin came originally 
either from England, Malaysia, Bolivia, or Tanganyika. Tin was first used 
for making bronze, then pewter utensils, then for tinning bathtubs and cans, 
next for babbitting of machinery bearings, soldering. Outperformed by 
newer, more effective technologies all of these early tin uses became obso- 
lete, and that tin was recovered. Since 1940 U.S. aeronautical production 
tooling has involved so much tin in its soft tooling phases that the inventory 
of ever-remelted tin of the U.S. aircraft industry and its swift-design-change- 
accomodating “soft-kirksite” toolings is now (1980) greater than that re- 
maining in the world mines — ergo, the U.S. requires no further purchases 
of foreign tin. Having originally no tin mines, the U.S. has an above- 
ground source of tin that is now the world’s largest tin “mine.” World re- 
source maps showing only the tin-in-the-ground mines are completely 
misinforming. World war gaming and those economic advisors of leading 
governments use only the in-the-ground-mine data. 

As noted earlier, there are 100 dots on the Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map, 
which is always used as the “playing field” in playing World Game. Each 
dot represents forty-four million people, that being 1 percent of the 4.4 bil- 
lion humans now (1980) aboard Spaceship Earth. 

Each dot is located at the geometrical center for the forty-four million 
people it represents. As the dots show, approximately 90 percent of human- 
ity live north of the equator. The 10 percent who live south of the Equator 
live very close to it. Humanity is a “northern hemisphere” creature and is 
now about to integrate over the North Pole into a one-town world. We have 
entered a north-south, air-and-space-vehicle, world traffic pattern and are 
swiftly abandoning yesterday’s east-west ship and railway pattern. As the 
doing-more-work-with-less-pounds-of-material invisible revolution keeps 
advancing, we have ever-more-powerful and greater-weight-and-capacity air 
vehicles to carry the ever-more-efficient and -lighter machinery and struc- 
tures, which classes of goods were once so heavy as formerly to be shippable 
only by sea or rail. 

As mentioned earlier, all the great rivers of the Earth are clearly shown 
on the world map. The source of these rivers’ water supply to 54 percent 
of humanity comes from a vast frozen reservoir atop the Himalayas — only 
a small fraction of this potential waterpower has as yet been dammed for 
hydroelectric generation and irrigation system development. With such hy- 
dro development the 54 percent of humanity in China, Southeast Asia, and 


206 


Critical Path 


India will all become physically prosperous in high degree. Likewise, the 
great, as-yet-undeveloped hydroelectric and irrigation systems of the other 
continents are clearly demonstrable as holding high standards of living to 
be realized for all humanity. 

It is engineeringly demonstrable that there is no known way to deliver en- 
ergy safely from one part of the world to another in larger quantities and 
in swifter manner than by high-voltage-conducted “electricity.” For the first 
half of the twentieth century the limit-distance of technically practical de- 
li verability of electricity was 350 miles. As a consequence of the post- World 
War II space program’s employment and advancement of the invisible 
metallurgical, chemical, and electronics more-with-lessing technology, 
twenty-five years ago it became technically feasible and expedient to employ 
ultra-high-voltage and superconductivity, which can deliver electrical ener- 
within a radial range of 1500 miles from the system’s dynamo generators. 

To the World Game seminar of 1969 I presented my integrated, world- 
around, high-voltage electrical energy network concept. Employing the new 
1500-mile transmission reach, this network made it technically feasible to 
span the Bering Straits to integrate the Alaskan U.S.A. and Canadian net- 
works with Russia’s grid, which had recently been extended eastward into 
northern Siberia and Kamchatka to harness with hydroelectric dams the 
several powerful northwardly flowing rivers of northeasternmost U.S.S.R. 
This proposed network would interlink the daylight half of the world with 
the nighttime half. 

Electrical-energy integration of the night and day regions of the Earth 
will bring all the capacity into use at all times, thus overnight doubling the 
generating capacity of humanity because it will integrate all the most ex- 
treme night and day peaks and valleys. From the Bering Straits, Europe and 
Africa will be integrated westwardly through the U.S.S.R., and China, 
Southeast Asia; India will become network-integrated southwardly through 
the U.S.S.R. Central and South America will be integrated southwardly 
through Canada, the U.S.A., and Mexico. 

Graphs of each of the world’s 150 nations showing their twentieth-cen- 
tury histories of inanimate energy production per capita of their respective 
populations together with graphs of those countries’ birthrates show with- 
out exception that the birthrates decrease at exactly the same rate that the 
per capita consumption of inanimate electrical energy increases. The world’s 
population will stop increasing when and if the integrated world electrical 
energy grid is realized. This grid is the World Game’s highest priority ob- 
jective. (See Fig. 36.) 

There is no single power source around Earth so great as that of the wind. 
But winds do not blow in synchronization with the time patterning of hu- 


World 


40 
38 
36 
34 
32 
30 

1957 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 


Energy Production: 
Kilograms coal 
equivalent per capita 

37 per thousand 




K 









p »,30 


2000 

1800 

1600 

1400 

1200 

1000 


North America 


30 

26 

22 

18 

14 

10 


Energy Production 
Kilograms coal 
equivalent per capita 


Birthrate 
per thousand 
people 


'•■C / 

X 

r/ 15 


7771 


12000 

11000 

10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 


1957 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 


Spain 


Birthrate V 

per thousand A 

2i 8 people 


/ 



/ 

1* Energy Production: 

A f Kilograms coal 

equivalent per capita 

1957 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 


2300 


USSR 


27 

25 

23 

21 

19 

17 


Birthrate 
per thousand 
people 

f25 4 \ 




X 

2521 




Energy Production: 
Kilograms coal 
equivalent per capita 




5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 

1000 

0 


1957 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 


50 


A 

\ t * \ 
'A \ 

Birthrate ^ 

per thousand 
people 










y 


40 




35 


A* Energy Production 
Kilograms coal 
equivalent per capita 


100 


1957 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 


Figure 36. Birthrate and Energy Production 


207 


208 


Critical Path 


man needs. Generating electricity when the wind blows and feeding it into 
batteries and withdrawing the charge when needed involves a 75-percent in- 
and-out loss of the electrical energy. Since 1975, when it was an efficient but 
new practice, all fifty U.S.A. states have been required by federal regulation 
to allow individual windmill owners to feed their windpower-generated elec- 
tric current directly into the local utility power lines. The individuals get 
credited for their input on their monthly electricity bills. This practice was 
developed by Windworks of Wisconsin, which in turn was founded by a 
mid-1960s World Game prototyping operation. It has been found that with- 
in a 100-mile radius a wind is always blowing. Windmills installed around 
the world converting their direct current into alternating current and feed- 
ing the electric energy into the world network can harvest the planet Earth's 
prime daily energy income source — the wind — and adequately supply all the 
world’s energy needs. 

With the world’s prime resources and its people and its potential integra- 
tabilities evidenced by World Game’s world map, obvious design science in- 
ventions are called for, such as a “backbone” irrigation canal from the 
Himalayas leading south along the central highlands of the Indian conti- 
nent, wherewith all the frequently devastating droughts would be eliminated 
for India’s one-eighth of all humanity. 

With such comprehensive viewability as is provided by World Game and 
its Sky-Ocean World Map, it is quickly realized that (with a few rare ex- 
ceptions) humanity need do very little further mining. The metals already 
scrapped from obsolete machinery and structures, which recirculate on a 
sum-total-of-all-metals-average every twenty-two years, are now able to do 
so much more work with ever less weight per each given function with each 
recirculation as to make the present scrap resources of almost all metals 
adequate to take care of all humanity’s forward needs. 

While World Game discovers and identifies the world income energy 
sources,* it is also concerned with using the energy income in the most ef- 
ficient technologies. In producing liquid-fuel-energy-powered engines, 
World Game’s design science must pay attention to the fact that recipro- 
cating engines such as are installed in all our automobiles are only 15-per- 
cent efficient, turbines are 30-percent efficient, jet propulsion engines are 65- 
percent efficient, and fuel cells are 80-percent efficient. Due to inefficiently 
designed technical equipment and building technology, the overall mechan- 
ical efficiency of the United States economy is in 1980 only 5 percent. This 
means that for every one hundred units of energy consumed, ninety-five 
units go unused — “down the drain.” 


*See World Game Laboratory’s Energy, Earth and Everyone by Medard Gabel, Double- 
day, rev. ed., 1980. 


World Game 


209 


Using only proven and now-available technology, it is feasible to increase 
the overall efficiency to 15 percent. This alone would reduce our overall en- 
ergy consumption by two-thirds. 

There are two kinds of objective engineering designing: objects that con- 
sist of a plurality of intercomplementarily moving parts (machinery) and 
those that do not (structures). Mechanical efficiency denotes the percent of 
work effectiveness accomplished by the machine per units of energy con- 
sumed. Structural efficiency relates to the functions, strength, and durability 
accomplished per each unit of weight of material involved. 

Humanly occupied environment-controlling structures have many ener- 
gy-wasting features, all of which are highly correctable. In designing the en- 
vironment-controlling structural enclosures, World Game’s design science 
heeds the following facts: 

(A) Spherical structures enclose the greatest volume with least surface. 

(B) Geodesic spherical structures, which are inherently omnitriangularly 
framed entirely of great-circle chords, give the strongest structure per 
weight of materials employed. 

(C) Amongst the geodesic great-circle spherical structures, those based on 
the discontinuous compression, continuous tension — “tensegrity” — 
icosahedra give the most environmental enclosure per pound and vol- 
ume of material employed. 

(D) Every time the linear dimension of a symmetrical structure is doubled 
(i.e. 1 -» 2) the surface area of the enclosure increases at a two to the 
second-power rate (i.e., 2 2 ), while the environment-controlling struc- 
ture’s volume increases at a two to the third-power rate (i.e., 2 3 ). 
Wherefore, every time a geodesic dome’s diameter is doubled, it has 
eight times as many contained molecules of atmosphere but only four 
times as much enclosing shell — ergo, each progressive doubling of 
dome diameters halves the amount of enclosing surface through which 
each molecule of interior atmosphere may either gain or lose energy 
as heat. (See “Old Man River’s City” project, pp. 315-23.) Whole 
cities are most efficiently enclosed under one large dome. 

(E) Every time we enclose a geodesic dome within a greater-diametered 
geodesic dome whose radially concentric interspacing is greater than 
the depth of the frost penetration of that area, while at the same time 
avoiding use of any metal interconnections between the inner and outer 
domes’ structuring, the heat losses and gains of the innermost domes 
are halved in respect to those of non-domed-over domes of the same 
dimensions. 

(F) If in producing the geodesic domes-within-domes we make them trans- 
parent or translucent on their sunny side and opaque and inwardly re- 


Critical Path 


210 

fleeting on the nonsunny side, they will entrap progressively greater 
amounts of Sun energy as heat for longer and greater periods of time 
as the diameters are increased. 

(G) If growing vegetation — i.e., trees, vegetables, corn, sugar, ground cov- 
er, etc. — is planted within the dome, the photosynthetic conversion of 
Sun radiation into hydrocarbon molecules will chemically and simul- 
taneously 

(1) convert the monoxide gases given off by human occupants into hu- 
man-supporting (air) atmosphere, thus eliminating all necessity for 
windows or air conditioning apparatus, and 

(2) harvest hydrocarbon molecule-trapped energy as food or as fuel- 
alcohol energy. 

(H) If the wind drag of buildings is employed to turbine-convert wind- 
power into tank-stored compressed air, the latter may be stored within 
the space between the inner and outer domes’ skins as low-pressure at- 
mosphere in quantities adequate to pneumatically and evenly distribute 
any concentrated outer cover loadings throughout all the tensional 
components of the geodesic-tensegrity structures. 

(I) As the Sun’s radiation is outwardly and diffusingly reflected by the 



Figure 37. The dome housed the exhibit of the University of Science and 
Technology, Kumasi, at Ghana’s first international trade fair. 


World Game 


211 



Figure 38. Illustration depicts use of the Bernoulli effect as applied to a geo- 
desic dome. Upward draft is caused by solar heating of outside surface which 
then heats nearby surrounding air. The warm air rises creating a thermal col- 
umn. Air is sucked out of the large openings at the ground level causing reduced 
pressure inside the dome. Reduced pressure causes air near top vent to rush 
in through small opening. Increased flow of air through small opening cools the 
incoming air. 


dome structure’s convex outer surface, vertical thermal-column move- 
ments of the Sun-heated outside atmosphere develop, which spirally 
rising columns of heated atmosphere will draw air out from under the 
dome’s large lower-edge summertime openings, which voluminous out- 
ward drafting in turn pulls air into the dome through the small cross- 
sectioned ventilators at the dome’s apex. This pressure differential 
between the small air entry and large exhaust openings produces the 
Bernoulli chilling effect, which in hot weather will swiftly cool the 
dome’s interior atmosphere. World Game has proven this in geodesic 
domes at the African equator. 

(J) It is clearly demonstrable that the conversion of windpower by dome- 


212 


Critical Path 


within-dome, drag-operated air turbines will power the compressing 
and tank storage of air and will thus produce ample power to operate 
a pneumatic-tool system for all mechanical operating needs within the 
dome. Pneumatic tools avoid the human-electrocution perils of electri- 
cally operated domestic technology. 

(K) Sum 'totally it is now demonstrable that properly designed domes with- 
in domes become energy-harvesting machines that provide more ener- 
gy than is needed for the high-standard life support of their human 
occupants, wherefore such dwelling machines may become exporters of 
energy in variously stored and controlled forms, such as alcohol. 

(L) It has been satisfactorily demonstrated that the reflective, concave in- 
ner surface of the geodesic, dome-within-dome, environment-control- 
ling shells will act as parabolic, Sun-radiation concentrators, focusing 
the Sun radiation income into heating of a circularly arced, liquid-con- 
taining pipe, whereby the Sun’s heat may be stored liquidly in vacuum- 
enclosed subterranean tanks for subsequent use in a variety of ways. 
The by-product heat from the air compressing is used to heat water 
stored in the same reservoir. 

(M) World Game’s design science treats the tensegrity-structured, dome- 
within-dome geodesic environment controls as comprehensive energy- 
harvesting, -storing, and -exchanging devices. Typically, the vegetation 
most efficiently employed includes the growth of corn and the “winged 
bean” in the sunlight area and mushrooms in the hot, dark areas. 

(N) Radiotelephones and income-energy generators render the dwelling 
machine semiautonomous. 

(O) Two sanitary devices as described earlier render the environment con- 
trols independent of water-supply lines and sewage-carry-away sys- 
tems: 

(1) the fog gun for cleaning the human skin and all other surfaces with 
a high-pressure air gun into whose airstream small amounts of 
atomized water are fed; 

(2) the carton packaging and mechanized, convey-away system of hu- 
man wastes to be delivered to elsewhere-located fertilizer or gas- 
generating works or to anaerobic methane gas and dry fertilizer- 
generating equipment of the dwelling machines themselves. 

These two devices eliminate all wet plumbing, which has been respon- 
sible for breeding most of all the infectious bacteria heretofore entering 
human abodes, while also eliminating the infectious splashback feature 
of water-filled bowls and their water-flushed toilets. 

World Game finds that wealth measures the degree to which humans 

have used their minds to discover scientific principles and have used those 


World Game 


213 


principles to invent artifacts and environment-controlling and -implement- 
ing, complex-artifact systems which, as powered only by daily energy in- 
come, can be demonstrably shown to be able to take care of given numbers 
of people for given numbers of forward days. “Taking care” of humans 
means to provide them with “pleasingly,” healthily, satisfactorily stabilized 
environmental conditions under all of nature’s known potential variables 
while adequately feeding them, giving them medical care, increasing their 
degrees of freedom, and increasing their technological options (see Operat- 
ing Manual for Spaceship Earth). 

As already mentioned, World Game finds that the world’s wealth and its 
medium of interchanges — i.e., the world’s monetary accounting systems — 
have been divorced from one another. Those bankers and insurance-com- 
pany managements that have learned how they may legally employ to their 
own exclusive advantage the vast magnitudes of savings of real wealth de- 
posited with them by those who have produced the wealth and who are 
quite unaware that those deposits are taken out of the bank and loaned out 
at swiftly increasing interest rates to others in such quantities as to under- 
write the magnitude of purchasing, production, and sale of products that 
can be produced only by the involvements of such vast magnitudes of real- 
wealth tokens, and may therefore overpower all wealth capabilities of any 
of the individual depositors of the savings-account deposits of the real- 
wealth products. 

World Gaming requires progressive inventorying of condensed recalls of 
already introduced major concepts and their integration with one another, 
plus additional new concepts to produce newer and greater synergetic re- 
alization. 


* * * 

In the reality of physical-resource and knowledge potential we have four 
billion billionaires on our planet, the probating and delivery of whose leg- 
acy, as amassed by the more-with-lessing contributions and loving sacrifices 
of all humans in all history, has been postponed by the game of making 
money with money by those who as yet misinform edly operate on the 1810 
Malthusian assumption that “humanity is multiplying its population at a 
geometric rate while increasing its life-support foods, etc., only at an arith- 
metic rate” — ergo, the money-makers assume that there is nowhere nearly 
enough life support for all. Malthus said the majority of humans are de- 
signed to suffer and die far short of their potential life-span. Darwin’s “sur- 
vival only of the fittest” dictum has combined with that of Malthus to 
persuade the “haves” to be intelligently selfish and to legally fortify their 
“haveness” position against the “have-nots.” 


214 


Critical Path 


With legal planning of their lawyer-advised banking leaders, the “haves” 
have now succeeded in cornering all the world’s monetary gold as well as 
the preponderance of the world’s petroleum sources — along with their re- 
fineries and world-around petro-delivery systems together also with acqui- 
sitions of all the atomic power-generating plants, originally paid for by the 
U.S. taxpayers — and thereafter in severing the monetary system from the 
wealth system while marking up the negotiable equity value of gold and pe- 
troleum tenfold. They also have contrived their own game of international 
monetary banking of international balances of trade and credit accounting, 
greatly aided by the priorly established existence of 150 “sovereign” nations 
around planet Earth. 

The division of world political power into 150 sovereign nations is a con- 
sequence of thousands of years of successive and individually independent 
contriving of history’s most powerful leaders. The number-one strategy of 
the successful leaders of history’s successively established supreme socioeco- 
nomic control systems has always been to induce the spontaneous self-divi- 
sioning of those designed to be conquered and to keep them spontaneously 
self-dividing and their divisions lethally interarrayed against one another in 
order to keep them conquered. The longer the self-divisionings can be self- 
perpetuating, the more spontaneously are the divisions accepted institution- 
ally by the successive generations as being “natural” divisions, seemingly as 
inherently and individually existent as are different hills, valleys, rivers, and 
biological species. The prime vulnerabilities of humanity, which make it 
subject to spontaneous self-dividing, are those of different speech patterns, 
skin color, religions, social customs, class or caste systems, political prefer- 
ences, and all varieties of individually unique “troubles,” suffering, and dis- 
content. 

The historical consequence of this aeons-ago-commenced employment of 
this grand strategy of “divide to conquer and keep divided to keep con- 
quered” accounts for the “natural” acceptance today by world peoples of 
the seemingly “God-given” existence of 150 sovereign nations of the world 
and their respective geographical division of all the world’s dry land (as well 
as for all the specialized categories of human activities). This prime strategy 
of supreme-power wielders accounts for all the many local political divisions 
within the sovereign nations as well as for all the religions and for the of- 
ficially encouraged maintenance of the many languages and proud mainte- 
nance of local dialects. Above all that number-one strategy accounts for the 
emotionally enflamed maintenance of the concepts of different races and 
classes of human beings and their division into highly specialized categories 
as “culturally” maintained by the various systems and power structures 
over all the highly educated individuals and those intellectuals who, if not 


World Game 


215 


focused professionally on highly specialized subjects, might otherwise — as 
comprehensivists — seem potentially dangerous to the rulers. 

It is highly relevant to the foregoing that in 1959 science had incontro- 
vertibly demonstrated that all the known anthropological and biological 
case histories comprehensively and scientifically explored show that the ex- 
tinctions of all human tribes and of all biological species have always been 
brought about by overspecializations resultant upon either willful or envi- 
ronment-induced inbreeding. If, for instance, we inbreed — by mating two 
fast-running horses — there is the mathematical probability of concentrating 
the fast-running genes but also of breeding in this special capability only by 
inadvertently breeding out the general adaptability to cope with the infre- 
quent high-energy-concentrating events. For example, exquisitely designed 
birds’ wings are a hindrance in walking, and the long bills of wading birds, 
which are perfect for marshland foraging, are relatively useless in other less 
specialized feeding. Generalized adaptability is needed to cope with large 
changes in the environment. Here lies the present chief peril of the human 
passengers on Spaceship Earth. 

World Game makes it clear that the world electrical systems’ energy-net- 
work integration and its comprehensive powering of automated, special case 
machinery would most effectively counter the peril of overspecialization of 
the humans and would introduce the omni-Universe-operative, time-energy, 
kilowatt-hours-per-year, commonwealth accounting system. This cosmic ac- 
counting will computer-establish the up-to-the-moment-realized cosmic-en- 
ergy-income-harnessing thus far accomplished; and the technical-efficiency 
levels attained in the various energy-employing technologies operative 
around the world; and the resultant per capita individually employable 
world commonwealth facilities; and the per capita “consumable,” “employ- 
able,” and “enjoyable” “credits” in respect to any specific consumables, 
commodities, services, conveniences, or tools as manifest on the satellite-re- 
lay-integrated world computers and as individually called for and read out 
on each individual’s electronic computer “credit card.” The individually 
available information will govern the individual’s design science choices of 
the highest relative-efficiency systems to be employed. It will also tell people 
whether they can do this or that, and if so, how they can go most swiftly — 
for instance, from New York to Australia — and will “book” a travel reser- 
vation and will prepay the bill for the travel accommodation. All such in- 
formation is continually computer-integrated to produce the commonwealth 
evaluations and their read-out-ability on world-individual’s pocket-comput- 
er “credit card.” These will always register the world individual’s share of 
the ever-increasingly-employable technological savings reserves and their re- 
spective technologically operative capabilities. With humanity employing 


216 


Critical Path 


such a world-around, satellite-relayed, and world-integrated computer ac- 
counting system, the world can, overnight, physically realize the “Omnibil- 
lionaire Commonwealth” of its humans. 

Because (1) the interalloying of metals produces the invisible revolution 
of ever-higher-strength and -durability performance per pound of material 
employed, and because (2) the ever-higher performances produce new con- 
ditions of technological challenge, new alloys and new atomic circuits are 
progressively discovered and developed to provide ever-more-satisfactorily- 
advanced performances, and because (3) the structures and energy-operated 
machines using the ever-improving metal-alloy capabilities progressively 
make obsolete the older machines and structures, the latter become progres- 
sively scrapped and melted. It is World Game’s concern to see that the pro- 
gressively recovered metals are alloyed anew in ever-higher-performance 
atomic arrangements and are ever more promptly re-employed in new ma- 
chinery and structures of ever-higher performance with ever-less weights 
and volumetric bulks. This progression is known in World Gaming as 
“Ever-Progressively- Accelerating Ephemeralization.” 

Wherefore: with every accelerated scrapping, recovery, and recirculation 
the same basic metals and the alloys of those metals progressively serve the 
needs of ever more people at ever-higher standards of performance. Thus 
we discover that the world’s already-mined and -used, ever-recirculating 
metals become the technologically regenerative, universal “bloodstream” 
for realizing the ever-improving know-how of human advancement of its 
ever-increasing ability to cope with vital challenges. The metals, and chem- 
istries in general, have thus become the recirculatable medium upon which 
is loaded the new, advanced design science inventions resultant upon pro- 
gressively advancing experiences and knowledge of humanity regarding how 
to cope more effectively with life’s evolutionarily successive challenges. 

Within the twentieth century this invisible revolution of “continually 
learning how to do more with the same” or “more with less” resources 
(metallurgically, electronically, chemically, mechanically, structurally, aero- 
dynamically, and hydrodynamically) has in only three quarters of the twen- 
tieth century brought 60 percent of humanity into enjoying a vastly more 
effective, healthier, and more realistically informative means of coping with 
life’s challenges than was experienced by the most powerful monarch or fi- 
nancial or political potentate of 1900; furthermore, during this eighty years 
of time the world population has doubled, wherefore the gain has been 120- 
fold. During this same twentieth century’s first eight decades life expectancy 
has been doubled for the 60 percent thus advantaged, and the range of their 
everyday travelability has twenty-folded. During those same eighty years 
that 60 percent of humanity has gone from 90-percent illiterate to 95-per- 


World Game 


217 


cent literate. They are no longer locally rooted peoples. They are on their 
way to becoming omni-world-around living humans preoccupied with local 
Universe’s evolutionary affairs. In 1948 the average U.S. family moved “out 
of town” every five years. In 1978 they moved every three years. 

In 1970 the percent of those unprecedentedly advantaged passed the 50- 
percent mark. Since 1970, and for the first time in history, the majority of 
humanity has become widely traveling “haves,” in contrast to the previous 
multimillions of years of 99 percent of all humans being locally rooted 
“have-nots.” The number of U.S. A. millionaires quintupled in eight years — 
from 110,000 in 1971 to 550,000 in 1979. 

The plotted curve of the rate of gain for increasing proportions of all hu- 
manity being thus swiftly advantaged by the doing more for more people 
with less and less matter and energy per function — all accomplished with 
computers, satellites, alloys, etc. — indicates that 100 percent of all humanity 
will be thus advantaged before 2000 a.d. In less than twenty years (less than 
one generation) all humanity is scheduled by evolution (not by any world 
planning body) to become physically more successful and metaphysically 
more interestingly occupied than have any humans ever been in all knowm 
history — provided that humanity does not commit ignorance-, fear-, and- 
panic-induced total-species suicide. 

Why might they panic? All the present bureaucracies of political govern- 
ments, great religious organizations, and all big businesses find that physical 
success for all humanity would be devastating to the perpetuation of their 
ongoing activities. This is because all of them are founded on the premise 
of ameliorating individual cases while generally exploiting on behalf of their 
respective political, religious, or business organizations the condition of no- 
where-nearly-enough-life-support-for-all and its resultant great human suf- 
fering and discontent. 

Reason number two for fear-wrought panic is because all of the 150 na- 
tions of our planet are about to be desovereignized by evolution; that is,- they 
are about to become operatively obsolete — about to be given up altogether. 
There are millions in the U.S.A., for instance, who on discovery that their 
government was about to become bankrupt and defunct would become ac- 
tivist “patriots,” and might get out their guns and start a Nazi movement, 
seeking dictatorially to reinstate the “good old days.” If people in many of 
the 150 nations succeeded in re-establishing their sovereignties and all the 
customs-barrier, balance-of-trade shacklings, it would soon be discovered 
that the 150 nations represent 150 “blood clots” imperiling the free inter- 
flowing of the evolution-producing metals and products recirculation as w r ell 
as of the popular technical know-how disseminating. 

We have today, in fact, 1 50 supreme admirals and only one ship — Space- 


218 


Critical Path 


ship Earth. We have the 150 admirals in their 150 staterooms each trying 
to run their respective stateroom as if it were a separate ship. We have the 
starboard side admirals’ league trying to sink the port side admirals’ league. 
If either is successful in careening the ship to drown the “enemy” side, the 
whole ship will be lost. 

Long ago the world’s great religions learned how to become transnational 
or more effectively supranational. Next the world’s great ideologies learned 
how to become supranational. Most recently the world’s largest financial- 
enterprise corporations have become completely supranational in their op- 
eration. Big religion, ideologies, and businesses alike found it intolerable to 
operate only within 150 walled-in pens. Freeing themselves by graduating 
into supranational status, they have left all the people in the 150 pens to 
struggle with all the disadvantages of 1 50 mutually opposed economic poli- 
cies. The European Economic Community is a local attempt to cope with 
this world problem. 

The United States of America is not a nation. Nations are large tribes of 
humans that have been geographically isolated for millennia and have pro- 
gressively inbred the physical types surviving under those unique geograph- 
ical conditions. As mentioned, the U.S.S.R. had 146 naturally evolved 
“nations” to integrate, the physiognomies of each U.S.S.R. nation looking 
quite different from the others’. The United States of America is a cross- 
breeding integration of humans from all the nations of the planet Earth; 
though often speaking of itself as the United States of America, it is not 
America. Its population is only one-half that of North and South America. 
The North Americans, consisting of Canadians, the U.S. citizens, and Mex- 
icans, are evolutionarily cross-breeding into a single hybrid family of world 
humans. 

As a sequel to the foregoing scientific data (see Chapter 1, pp. 9-11), 
which proves the invalidity of humanity’s assumption of a plurality of dif- 
ferent races and classes of humans to exist on our planet, the computer will 
be able to help in discovering the swiftest course for humanity to pursue in 
order to free itself of such self-deception. The computer can also disclose the 
economic savings of humanity to be accomplished by elimination of race, 
class, and creed differentials. The computers can and will show the increases 
in commonwealth to be realized by such elimination of false premises in so- 
cial judgments. 

World Gaming produces truthful, ergo corresponding, insights that are 
popularly communicable by world-around, satellite-relayed television, the 
practical workings of which, and their demonstrably favorable results for 
all, may readily induce agreeing vision and courage on the part of all indi- 
viduals of spontaneously and progressively intercooperative humanity. 

It is the invisibility of the alloys and chemistries and of the electronic cir- 


World Game 


219 


cuitry of the design science revolution which finds that revolution to be as 
yet uncomprehended and ignorantly opposed by humanity’s reliance only 
on yesterday’s politically visible means of problem-solving. It is both the in- 
visibility and misinformedness that occasions the lack of spontaneous pop- 
ular support of the invisible design science revolution by the most powerful 
political and money-making systems. Big government can see no way to col- 
lect taxes to run its bureaucracy if people are served directly and individ- 
ually by daily cosmic-energy-wealth income. Money-makers cannot find a 
way of putting meters between people and the wind, Sun, waves, etc. Nei- 
ther big government nor big business pays any serious attention to the fact 
that we can live on our energy income, rather than on nature’s energy sav- 
ings account (fossil fuels), or by burning our Spaceship Earth’s physical 
hull, which consists entirely of atomic energy in the form of matter. 

In 1969 I initiated, and students developed, what have since become an- 
nual World Game seminars, attended by university faculties, students, sci- 
entists, engineers, and government officials — for its first three years at 
Southern Illinois University, next at the University of Southern California, 
and thereafter for four years at the University of Pennsylvania, and for one 
year at the University of Massachusetts. In 1979 the seminar was conducted 
partially at New York University and partially at the University of Penn- 
sylvania; in 1980, at the University of Pennsylvania. 

Seven years ago the World Game’s annual research activity culminated 
in a book written by Medard Gabel, Energy, Earth, and Everyone (Dou- 
bleday, rev. ed., 1980), which demonstrated beyond any argument that hu- 
manity can carry on handsomely and adequately when advantaged only by 
its daily energy income from the Sun-gravity system. World Game also pub- 
lished a second book by Medard Gabel, Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone 
(Doubleday, 1979) — this time on world food resources, which shows that 
we can take ample care of all human food needs. The 1979 World Game 
was participated in by many experts on world food matters. 

World Game will become increasingly effective in its prognoses and pro- 
gramming when the world-around, satellite-interrelayed computer system 
and its omni-Universe-operative (time-energy) accounting system are estab- 
lished. This system will identify the kilowatt-hour-expressed world inven- 
tory of foods, raw and recirculating resources, and all the world’s unique 
mechanical and structural capabilities and their operating capacities as well 
as the respective kilowatt-hours of available energy-income-derived operat- 
ing power with which to put their facilities to work. All the foregoing in- 
formation will become available in respect to all the world-around 
technology’s environment-controlling, life-sustaining, travel- and communi- 
cation-accommodating structures and machines. 

All the sulphur coming annually out of all the chimneys around the world 


220 


Critical Path 


exactly equals the amount of new sulphur being mined and distributed an- 
nually to keep world industry going. The people who let the sulphur go into 
the air are not in the sulphur business. 

World government will require all industries to install the already-suc- 
cessfully-proven technology and therewith precipitate and recover all their 
profitwise-unwanted chemical by-products. Underwriting all those costs of 
installation and operation, world government will give tax credits to all 
those industries complying with the order, so that those industries can com- 
pete with those in the industry who do not have such pollution problems. 
World government will then stockpile all the chemical substances recovered 
from all previous liquid, gaseous, or solid dumpings, fumings, or runnings- 
off — known ignorantly as “pollution.” The value of the recovered resources 
will more than offset the tax rebates given by the government in order to 
enforce precipitation. All the chemical substances in all their states are es- 
sential to the maintenance of the integrity of eternally regenerative Uni- 
verse. Nature has no “pollution.” This is a word coined in human ignorance 
regarding the presence of the right chemicals being released in the wrong 
places by those who profit only through selfish preoccupation and noncon- 
sideration of others. The hour-to-hour changes in the inventory of world- 
government stockpiling of all recirculatable substances will be constantly 
fed into the world-integrated computer together with locations and sum- 
maries of the total inventories available for new tasks. World government 
will replace altogether all the scrapmongers who, to increase prices, hold 
their products off the market until they become scarce. 

World Game records make it clear that the big money-makers of early 
U.S.A. history, those who funded the Harvard Business School, the Whar- 
ton School of Finance, etc., may have made their money in ways that were 
legal but ruthlessly scheming. The students at today’s business schools are 
not given courses on how to cheat your mother-in-law or how to sell your 
friends short. Because the business schools make it plausible that fortunes 
may be won in a legal manner, we have present-day business executives try- 
ing to find legal ways of getting the public’s money. 

World Gaming makes it eminently clear that the simplest way for top ex- 
ecutives of the supercorporations to make profits and keep their own sal- 
aries rising is to make their corporation the first in its field to raise prices 
despite any government, public, or labor opposition. The second way is to 
cut down on personnel at the retailing level and to force customers to wait 
in lines. No single human waiting line seems too formidable by itself, but 
if we consider all those standing in all the lines at all the different airlines 
at all the world’s airports — as the computer does — and all the people want- 
ing to secure an airline ticket waiting for half an hour on the telephone after 
hearing the ticket clerk’s “Please hold,” and all the people waiting for twen- 


World Game 


221 


ty minutes to place their orders in all the restaurants around the world, we 
discover the billions of human hours sacrificed daily by people whose time 
is of high value. Those in lines are being legally robbed of billions of their 
life-hour dollars, which go to the corporate profit account as savings in la- 
bor costs. 

All the banks and airlines are now placing in their foyers chrome metal 
standards suspending velvet ropes within which the queue of customers may 
be neatly snaked. Airplanes have been squeezing paying passengers closer 
and closer together in wider planes until as many as eleven people sit abreast 
today. 

The World Game-maintained inventory of socially abundant resources 
breaks down into eight main categories: 

1. Reliably operative and subconsciously sustaining, effectively available 
twenty-four hours a day, anywhere in the Universe: gravity , love. 

2. Available only within ten miles of the surface of the Earth in sufficient 
quantity to conduct sound: i.e., the complex of atmospheric gases whose 
Sun-induced expansion on the sunny side and shadow-side-of-the-world- 
induced contraction together produce the world's winds , which in turn 
produce all the world’s waves. 

3. Available in sufficient quantity to sustain human life only within two 
miles above planet Earth’s spherical surface: oxygen. 

4. Available aboard our planet only during the day: sunlight. 

5. Not everywhere or everywhen available: water, food, clothing, shelter, vi- 
sion, initiative, friendliness. 

6. Only partially available for individual human consumption, being also 
required for industrial production: e.g., water. 

7. Not publicly available because used entirely by industry: e.g., helium. 

8. Not available to industry because used entirely by scientific laboratories: 
e.g., moon rocks. 

World Game’s integrated world computer system will have the task of 
differentiating out the abundant resources and facilities from the scarce, and 
differentiating the scarce into degrees of scarcity as well as into the day-to- 
day fluctuations of the borderline cases. The computer will keep constant 
track of where the resources are geographically located or where they are 
traveling. That which is in constant abundance is 100-percent socializable. 
That which is scarce must be reserved for tasks that serve all society in gen- 
eral. The element oxygen in the atmosphere is in abundance at sea level and 
need not be distributed by artifacts. Oxygen at 11,000 feet and more above 
sea level is critically scarce and must be compressed into tanks and distrib- 
uted for breathing through masks and tubes. 


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Critical Path 


The gas helium is very scarce on planet Earth. It has very important, 
unique characteristics. Number one, it is not flammable, as is hydrogen, 
though it weighs almost as little as hydrogen. Helium, though the socially 
theoretical property of everyone, becomes useless to anyone if compressed 
into four billion separate bottles, each of which is distributed to each of our 
at-present four billion Earthians. There are a number of technical tasks that 
helium can perform to the advantage of all humanity, all of which can be 
programmed into the computer. 

The relative abundance of the ninety-two regenerative chemical elements 
in the thus-far-known Universe is about the same as the inventory of their 
relative abundance on Earth. The relative abundance of the chemical ele- 
ments is also approximately the same as that of their occurrence in the or- 
ganisms of the human bodies. All this data and all the tasks that can be 
performed by each element to the greatest advantage of all humanity will 
be programmed into the world-integrated computers to make it evident to 
all humanity which eco-technological strategy at any given time will pro- 
duce the highest advantage for all, against which information it can be de- 
termined what alternative advantages might attend implementing and 
supplying the essentials for realization of newly proposed invention initia- 
tives of various humans. 

It was World Game that asked, as described before, one of the world’s 
greatest oil geologists, Frangois de Chadenedes, if he could write an accu- 
rate scenario of nature producing petroleum on planet Earth through the 
photosynthetic transformation-into-hydrocarbon of Sun radiation by the 
vegetation and algae and the succession of events following their transfor- 
mation as the vegetation is consumed by other biologicals, or is transformed 
into various residues, all of which are blown by winds or washed by streams 
and gradually accumulate in various geographical locations and become 
progressively buried within the planet’s outer crust. Thereafter there were 
various heats and pressures (caused by ice ages, etc.), earthquakes, or deep 
burial below water or soil until those chemical heats and pressure conditions 
occurred which are essential to the production of petroleum. De Chaden- 
edes said he could, and after a year he presented us with the scenario with 
all of its time increments and pressure conditions spelled out. We then asked 
him to figure how much it would cost nature per each gallon of petroleum 
for that much pressure and heat for that much time, were it calculated at 
the retail rate for that much energy for that length of time as charged us 
by the public utilities. The cost came to well over a million dollars per 
gallon. 

Since World Game’s accounting system is that of the Universe’s own 
time-energy intertransforming requirements, we must accept as cosmically 


World Game 


223 


unquestionable this costing of petroleum, coal, and gas resources, which na- 
ture has been syntropically importing and accumulating on planet Earth in 
order, ten billion years hence, to turn the Earth into an energy-exporting 
(entropic) star. 

For this reason World Game considers all fossil fuels to be nature’s own 
savings account, deposited in our “Earth bank’’ and not to be stolen by ex- 
ploiters. Everyone knows that we should live on our (energy) income and 
not our savings account. Nor should we burn our capital-account produc- 
tion equipment in order to produce meter-marketable energy, for there will 
soon be no further production capability. Atomic energy by fission or fusion 
constitutes burning our terrestrial production equipment. 

As mentioned, World Game finds that 60 percent of all the jobs in the 
U.S.A. are not producing any real wealth — i.e., real life support. They are 
in fear-underwriting industries or are checking-on-other-checkers, etc. The 
majority of the jobs occasion the individuals using three to four gallons per 
day in their automobiles to go to and from work — at true cosmic costing 
this means four million dollars per worker per day. Obviously the computer 
finds that it would save the planet Earth’s energy account $500 trillion a 
day to give all the non-wealth-producing workers their full pay to stay at 
home. 

In the same way the World Game’s world-around-integrated computers 
will show that it will save-pay handsomely to pay all professors and teachers 
in full to stay at home or in their laboratories and relinquish all teaching 
to video cassettes, whose selectable programs are to be called out by the in- 
dividual students of all ages around the world to be shown on their home 
television sets. The old educational facilities and a small fraction of individ- 
ual teachers who love most to teach will use the old educational facilities 
within which to produce the cassette programs. 

The computer will prove to society that it will pay to introduce automa- 
tion wherever feasible and to allow the machines to work twenty-four-hour 
days while paying yesterday’s workers in full to stay home. Only those who 
love each particular technology will keep the world-around video education 
in operation. Those who pass the exams to qualify for such working will not 
be paid for it. They will act as does any amateur athlete — doing what they 
do for the love of it. This competing to qualify for all the production and 
service jobs will govern all work. The work will not be paid for. Everything 
the individual needs is already paid for. Rudyard Kipling’s “L’Envois” tells 
the story. 


When Earth ’s last picture is painted, 
And the tubes are all twisted and dried. 


224 


Critical Path 


The oldest of colors have faded 
And the youngest of critics have died ', 

We shall rest 

And well shall we need to 
Lie down for an eon or two 
’ Til the master of all good workmen 
Shall put us to work anew. 

Then only the master shall praise us, 

And only the master shall blame, 

No one will work for money, 

And no one will work for fame. 

But all for the love of the working 
And each in his separate star 
Shall draw the thing as he sees it 
For the God of things as they are. 

World Game shows that we can discontinue newspapers and save the 
trees for fuel-alcohol production. World Game finds that all news can be 
disseminated by television and that computers can keep track of all the in- 
formation that fills the advertising and want-advertisement pages, and any 
individual looking for any kind of opportunity can get the matching infor- 
mation from the computer in seconds. Individuals can go shopping by cable 
television. 

Local Universe is the term used by World Game to identify the macro- 
cosmic limits of human observation. These macro-limits are identified as the 
radius of the present maximum phototelescopic-and-radar-reached informa- 
tion (in 1980 the spherical sweepout of an approximately eleven-and-one- 
half-billion-light-year radius) around planet Earth in all directions. 

World Game takes the inventory of relative abundance of all the chemical 
elements present within that radius as spectroscopically analyzed by the 
light received in all directions around us from all the stars of all the galaxies 
within that eleven-and-one-half-billion-light-year radial distance. 

World Game takes the relative abundance of all the chemical elements 
thus far found on planet Earth. The local Universe inventories and the 
Earthian inventory of the relative abundance are somewhat similar, as is the 
relative abundance of the chemical elements present or acceptably present 
in human beings’ bodies. The Earthian inventory includes all the isotopes 
of all the chemical elements and the relative abundance of the latter. In re- 
spect to the Earthian abundance, some of the elements are so relatively plen- 
itudinous as to make them available for various universal technological uses; 
they are therefore socializable, but only when employed with other elements 
in instruments, machinery, structures, medicines, and nutriment. 


World Game 


225 


World Game notes that gold is the most electrically conductive of all el- 
ements. It is also the most highly reflective of all metals, and therefore has 
many functional uses. New computer circuiting and such functions as the 
new laser energy beaming with rubies will occupy the majority of the rare 
metals and jewels. 

Rubies function in producing laser beams, etc. Diamonds, being the hard- 
est of all elements, have many cutting and other technical functions. All the 
rare stones and metals will have industry’s unique industrial tasks to per- 
form. The question then arises as to who will determine which technological 
initiatives should have prior access to the inherently scarce, high-advantage 
functionings of the scarce and rare inventories of chemical elements. 

World Game finds that the computers fed with all the relevant energy- 
efficiency facts will be able to demonstrate which uses will produce the 
greatest long-term benefit for all humanity. 

World Game foresees that the greatest problems for humanity to solve in 
the future will be how to accommodate the initiatives of millions of humans 
who, freed from muscle- and nerve-reflexing jobs, find their inventory of 
past experiences and their minds integrating synergetically to envision ever- 
greater advantages to be realized for humanity. We will realize this age of 
regenerative inventing which is rendering humans very effective in their cos- 
mic functioning as local Universe information-gatherers and local Universe 
problem-solvers in support of the integrity of eternally regenerative Uni- 
verse. 


* * * 

I consider it essential to pay all my bills in the swiftest possible manner. 
In whatever system I find myself I commit myself to “play the game,” for 
I am not a political revolutionary; I am a design science revolutionary. 

Responding to criticism by individuals who said that the reason Buck- 
minster Fuller was not trying to “earn his living” was because he was in- 
capable of doing so, I told one of my audiences in 1947 about Obnoxico, a 
theoretical enterprise I had invented through which I could make vast 
amounts of dollars in one year on an entirely legal basis — but one as typi- 
cally undesirable to me as is all money-making. 

I said, “You have to decide whether you want to make money or make 
sense, because the two are mutually exclusive.” 

I do not consider it to be money-making when I insist upon being refund- 
ed for the development and overhead cost of the services I perform annually 
for others, which performance I undertake only in response to the requests 
of others. 

The private-enterprise corporation called Obnoxico was schematically de- 
signed only to serve as an object lesson. Obnoxico was designed to exploit 


226 


Critical Path 


the most sentimental weaknesses of humanity. In my theoretical Obnoxico’s 
catalog the number-one item suggested that on the last day that your baby 
wears diapers you very carefully remove them, repin them empty, and stuff 
them full of tissue paper in just the shape in which they were when last oc- 
cupied by your baby. You pack this assembly carefully into a strong cor- 
rugated-paperboard container and send it to Obnoxico, which will base- 
metallize the diapers, then gold- or silverplate them and send them back to 
you to be filled with ferns and hung in the back window of your car. The 
easily forecastable profits from this one item ran into millions of dollars per 
year. 

Eagerly my friends of 1947 on being told of Obnoxico joined in the fun 
and began inventing items for its catalog. Next they began sending me Ob- 
noxico items then beginning to come on the market in 1950 for the first time 
and as advertised in magazines: plastic pebbles for your garden walk and 
the now-prevalent, but then-new, plastic flowers. 

I then showed how the contributors of the original items sent to me in 
fun — to keep the joke going — could be persuaded to accept shares in Ob- 
noxico in exchange for their contributions. Then the Faustian aspect of the 
enterprise revealed itself, for it was clearly foreseeable that the stockholders 
would swiftly become so rich that they would tend to take the whole matter 
seriously. Overnight they would lose their sense of humor as their greed was 
stimulated and they became ruthlessly deliberate exploiters of humanity. 

Somehow or other the theoretical Obnoxico concept has now twenty-five 
years later become a burgeoning reality. Private enterprise is now building 
airports with ever-longer walkways and hotels with ever-increasing numbers 
of levels of ground-floor and basement arcades to accommodate the ever- 
more-swiftly multiplying Obnoxico stores. 

Human beings traveling away from home with cash in their pockets, 
thinking fondly of those left behind or soon-to-be-joined loved ones, are 
hooked by the realistic statuettes of four-year-old girls and boys with 
upturned faces saying in a cartoon “balloon,” “What did you bring me, 
Daddy?” 

As the banking system pleads for more savings-account deposits (so that 
they can loan your money out to others at interest plus costs) the Obnoxico 
industry bleeds off an ever-greater percentage of all the potential savings as 
they are sentimentally or jokingly spent for acrylic toilet seats with dollar 
bills cast in the transparent plastic material, two teddy bears hugging an alli- 
gator, etc. 

World Game is Anti-Obnoxico and commits itself to making Obnoxico 
and allied activities obsolete rather than attacking it directly. 


PART III 




CHAPTER 7 


Critical Path: 

Part One 

I N scientific prognostication we have a condition analogous to a fact 
of archery — the farther back you are able to draw your longbow, the far- 
ther ahead you can shoot. For this reason we opened this book with our 
“Speculative Prehistory,” taking us back five million years through four ice 
ages, and at least three and one-half million years of scientifically proven 
presence of humans on Earth. We are confident of the validity of our spec- 
ulative prehistory because it is predicated on naked humans’ physical limits 
of existence and on environmentally permitted and induced human behavior 
and on human artifact-altered environments and their progressive circum- 
stance-delimiting and capability-increasing effects. It is also synergetically 
comprehensive. 

In reviewing the full range of humans’ presence on Earth we discover two 
main evolutionary trendings. 

Class-two evolutionary trendings are all those events that seem to be re- 
sultant upon human initiative-taking or political reforms that adjust to the 
changes wrought by the progressive introduction of environment-altering 
artifacts. All the class-two evolutionary events tend to flatter human ego 
and persuade humanity to deceive itself by taking credit for favorable 
changes in circumstances while blaming other humans or “acts of God” for 
unfavorable changes. It therefore assumes that humanity is running the Uni- 
verse wherefore, if its power-structure leaders decide that it is valid to cash 
in all of nature’s available riches to further enrich the present rich or to pro- 
tect them militarily from attacks by their assumed enemies — all at the cost 
of terminating human presence on planet Earth — that is the power-structure 
leaders’ divine privilege. 

All the class-one evolutionary trending is utterly transcendental to any 


229 


230 


Critical Path 


human vision, planning, manipulation, and corruption. Class-one evolution 
accounts for humans’ presence on Earth. It accounts for their having always 
been born naked, helpless for months, and inexperienced — ergo, ignorant, 
hungry, thirsty, curious, and therefore fated to learn how to survive only 
through trial-and-error-won, progressive accumulation of experience. Class- 
one evolution accounted for humanity’s all-unexpected invention of verbal 
(aural, sound) communication, and thereby the integration of the experi- 
ence-won information of the many, whereby the integrated information of 
the many increased the capability of humanity at large to cope with the ex- 
igencies of life. It is class-one evolution that led, after the progressive inte- 
gration of the total experience-won information, to the unpredicted 
invention of writing or visual communication, by means of which the dead 
could speak to the living and within which total written information history 
human mind from time to time discovered repetitive patterns, which in turn 
sometimes led to the discovery of generalized scientific principles. 

Class-one evolution had human fathers and mothers for multimillions of 
years serving as the memory-bank authority that showed children what they 
could safely eat and how to communicate. The parents told the children 
what they could or could not do to get along with the “system” into which 
they were bom. The parents told the children what they should or should 
not believe. To history’s children the parents were “the authority.” The 
myriad esoteric, illiterate ways in which the parents communicated to their 
children were parroted by the children. Thus were esoteric dialects prolif- 
erated until their many progressive deviations multiplied the many initially 
different world languages. 

It was class-one evolution that in the mid- 1920s disclosed to the world’s 
children and their parents that the voice coming over the radio had more 
up-to-the-minute information regarding many more subjects than had the 
parents. The parents did not tell the children that the radio people had more 
authoritative information — it was self-evident to the children, who wit- 
nessed their parents running next door to the neighbors to tell them what 
the radio people had just told them. 

The people who were selected as broadcasters by the radio stations were 
selected for the commonality of their diction in contradistinction to the mil- 
lions of esoteric jargons with which the parents had communicated. The ra- 
dio people were also picked for the size and richness of their vocabularies 
and the facility with which they drew upon such conventionalized vocabu- 
laries. 

Because it was self-evident to the children that the radio people were 
greater authorities than their parents, the children now emulated the diction 
and vocabularies of the radio people. Not to be belittled in their children’s 


Critical Path: Part One 


231 


estimation, the parents learned the commonly accepted radio people’s pro- 
nunciation of an ever-enlarging conventional vocabulary. Within half a cen- 
tury (two human generations) this completely altered and improved the 
world’s languages. 

The speed of sound is approximately 700 miles per hour. The speed of 
electromagnetic radiation is 700 million miles per hour. Sound can travel 
only in conducting mediums — for instance, in the Earth’s atmosphere. Elec- 
tromagnetic radiation can travel on indefinitely through Universe. The 
amount of information humans can acquire visually is a millionfold greater 
in range, speed, and meaning than is the information they acquire aurally. 

* * * 

The university and college students who became the first to make the 
world news as dissidents in 1965 and 1966 were born in the years TV came 
into the American home. The Class of ’66ers were the first human beings 
to be reared by the “third parent,’’ whose TV voice and TV presence were 
often heard and felt by the children much more than those of the two blood 
parents. TV daily briefed them visually — ergo, vividly — on the world- 
around news, regarding the world’s continual aches, pains, disasters, Olym- 
pic triumphs, etc. 

The young were saying, “I know that Dad and Mom love me to pieces, 
and I love them to pieces, but they don’t know what it’s all about. They 
come home from the office or golf links or hairdressers and sit down to beer 
and small talk or ‘sitcoms.’ They have nothing to do with our going into 
Vietnam. They have nothing to do with our going to the Moon. They have 
nothing to do with anything except earning a living — and spending it on 
TV-advertised goods. The whole world is in great trouble. My compassion 
is for all the people anywhere who are in trouble. Since the older people 
don’t seem to know what is going on and are too preoccupied with irrel- 
evancies, I and my contemporaries must do our own thinking and find out 
what needs to be done to make the world work.’’ 

As we wrote in the opening lines of our “Self-Disciplines,’’ Chapter 4, up 
to the time of the radio the older people were always saying to the young, 
“Never mind what you think. Listen. We are trying to teach you.’’ With the 
TV making it clear to the young that the parents did not know much about 
anything and were not “the authority,’’ the young, responding to intuition, 
said to themselves, “I am going to have to do my own thinking and take 
my own actions.’’ Nonetheless, they were utterly unskilled in world affairs, 
highly idealistic, and easily exploitable. 

The abrupt, spontaneous historical events on the Berkeley campus of the 
University of California and elsewhere occasioned youth’s discarding forev- 


232 


Critical Path 


er the authority of their elders. The Class of 1966 shocked the world by say- 
ing that it felt no special loyalty to its families, its university, its state, or 
its nation. The youth of the Class of 1966 were thought by the oldsters to 
be shockingly immoral and lacking in idealism. Not so! They were as ide- 
alistic and full of compassion as any child has ever been, but their loyalty 
was to all humanity . They were no longer the victims of local class or race 
bias. Their idealism was at first skillfully exploited by the psycho-guerrilla 
warfaring of the communist-capitalist secret operations. Soon the young re- 
alized that they were using their heads for punching bags and cudgel targets 
instead of for thinking. Many of their numbers began to listen to my lectures 
about solving problems by appropriate technology instead of by physical 
struggling or political revolution. Informed by me, they began to say man- 
kind can do anything it wants. “Why don’t our officials and families stop 
talking about their local biases and wasting wealth on warring — all because 
they assume that ‘war is necessary’ simply because there does not seem to 
be enough to take care of even one-half of humanity’s needs.” 

The young ones asked, “Why not up the performances per units of in- 
vested resources and thus make enough to go around?” Their elders repeat- 
ed, “Never mind what you think,” so the young ones stopped asking. 

Occurring after millions of years of the absolute unquestioned caring for 
the young by the authority of the elders, this metaphysical cutoff — like its 
physical counterpart, the cutting of the umbilical cord after the child is born 
and has access to its own oxygen — occurred when humanity had acquired 
enough relevantly critical information to be able to proceed on its own ini- 
tiatives divested of the many misinterpretations by the elders as to the total 
significance of the total information. This cut-off experience is typical of all 
class-one evolution, which is always transcendental to all class-two evolu- 
tion — to human planning, contriving, manipulation, or corruption. 

Also typical of class-one evolution are the two trends we have mentioned 
so many times in the previous chapters — the invisible chemical, metallurgi- 
cal, and electronic production of ever-more-efficient and satisfyingly effec- 
tive performance with the investment of ever-less weight and volume of 
materials per unit function formed or performed — i.e., ephemeralization — 
accomplished within ever-less increments of time — i.e., acceleration. 

These coordinate class-one evolutionary trendings, which have been man- 
ifest for three quarters of a century, are as yet unrecognized by any world 
economists, heads of state, or business leaders. Though there is a popular 
intuition that acceleration may be in evidence, it is not officially heeded. In- 
dividuals amongst political and business leaders are often aware of changing 
conditions, such as that which makes suddenly available a pocket calculator 
or a quartz watch. They do not comprehend that these individual “goodies” 


Critical Path: Part One 


233 


are parts of overall ephemeralization and acceleration trending that, within 
only three quarters of a century, has converted those enjoying an adequate 
and pleasing standard of living from less than 1 percent of all humanity in 
1900 to 60 percent of all humanity in 1980, the latter enjoying an even high- 
er standard of living than had been enjoyed before 1900 by any of the 
world’s kings or financial potentates of all history. Class-one evolution alone 
accounts for the doubling within this century of the life “expectancy” of 
that 60 percent of all humanity which, by 1980, has had its standard of liv- 
ing so spectacularly advanced. 


* * * 

All technical evolution has a fundamental behavior pattern. First there is 
scientific discovery of a generalized principle, which occurs as a subjective 
realization by an experimentally probing individual. Next comes objective 
employment of that principle in a special case invention. Next the invention 
is reduced to practice. This gives humanity an increased technical advantage 
over the physical environment. If successful as a tool of society, the inven- 
tion is used in bigger, swifter, and everyday ways. For instance, it goes pro- 
gressively from a little steel steamship to ever-bigger fleets of constantly 
swifter, higher-powered ocean giants. 

There comes a time, however, when we discover other ways of doing the 
same task more economically — as, for instance, when we discover that a 
200-ton transoceanic jet airplane — considered on an annual round-trip- 
frequency basis — can outperform the passenger-carrying capability of the 
85,000-ton Queen Mary . 

All the technical curves rise in tonnage and volumetric size to reach a “gi- 
ant” peak, after which progressive miniaturization sets in. After that, a new 
and more economical art takes over and then goes through the same cycle 
of doing progressively more with less, first by getting bigger and taking ad- 
vantage, for instance, of the fact that doubling the length of a ship increases 
its wetted surface fourfold but increases its payload volume eightfold. In- 
asmuch as the cost of driving progressively bigger ships through the water 
at a given speed increases in direct proportion to the increase in friction of 
the wetted surface, the eightfolding of payload volume gained with each 
fourfolding of wetted surface means twice as much profit for the same effort 
each time the ship’s length is doubled. 

This principle of advantage gain through geometric size increase holds 
true for ships of both air and water. Eventually doubling of length of sea- 
going ships finally runs into trouble. For instance, an ocean liner made more 
than 1000 feet long would have to span between two giant waves and would 
have to be doubled in size to do so. If doubled in size once more, however, 


234 


Critical Path 


she could no longer be accommodated by the sizes of the great world canals, 
dry docks, or harbor depths. 

At this point the miniaturization of doing more with less first ensues 
through substitution of an entirely new art — David’s slingshot over Goli- 
ath’s club operated from beyond reach of the giant. 

This overall and inexorable trending to do more with less is known sum- 
totally as “progressive ephemeralization.” Ephemeralization trends toward 
an ultimate doing of everything with nothing at all which is a trend of the 
omniweighable physical to be mastered by the omniweightless metaphysics of 
intellect . 

All the missile-hurling arts of man and men’s warring or fighting to the 
death have followed this same fundamental evolutionary pattern of bigger, 
then smaller. 

Assuming that there were not and never will be enough vital support re- 
sources to go around, we conclude that there must be repeating eventualities 
in wars to see which side could pursue its most favored theory of survival 
under fundamental inadequacies. Humanity has continually done more kill- 
ing with less human effort at greater and greater distances and at ever-high- 
er speeds and with ever-increasing accuracy. 

The killing went from a thrown stone to a spear to a sling to a bow-and- 
arrow to a pistol, a musket, a cannon, and so on until man used the great 
weapons-carrying battleships. Suddenly a little two-ton, torpedo-carrying 
airplane sank a 45,000-ton battleship, and then the 2,000-miles-per-hour air- 
plane was outperformed by the 1 6,000-miles-per hour, atom-bomb-carrying 
rocket of minuscule weight in comparison to the bomb-carrying plane. If 
world warring persists as a consequence of the concept of “survival only of 
the fittest minority,” there will come the approximately weightless death 
rays operating at 700 million miles per hour. 

At the present point of history the uranium bomb has been displaced by 
the hydrogen bomb, and then it was discovered that if either side used that 
new greatest weapon, both sides and the rest of humanity would perish, so 
the biggest weapon could not be used. Nor could the equally large and mu- 
tually destructive biological or chemical gas warfaring. Both sides then dis- 
covered that killing of the enemy’s people was not their objective. 

Killing the enemy’s ideology is the objective. Killing the enemy’s people 
brings sympathy and support for the enemy from the rest of the world, and 
“gaining the good opinion and support of the rest of the world” is one of 
the new world-warring’s objectives. 

At this point both sides have started to explore the waging of more war 
with lesser — more limited — killing but more politically and economically 
devastating techniques. Just as ephemeralization employed ever-more- 


Critical Path: Part One 


235 


minuscule instruments and thus took technology out of the limited ranges 
of the human senses into the vast and invisible ranges of the electromagnetic 
spectrum reality, so too has major warfaring almost disappeared from the 
visible contacts of human soldiery and entered into the realm of invisible 
psychology. 

In the new invisible miniaturization phase of major world-warring both 
sides carry on an attention-focusing guerilla warfare (as was conducted in 
Vietnam) while making their most powerful attacks through subversion, 
vandalism, and skillful agitation of any and all possible areas of discontent 
within the formally assumed enemy’s home economics. 

In carrying on this new and unfamiliar world-warring they do not have 
to send ideological proselytizers to persuade the people of the other side to 
abandon their home country’s political system and adopt that of their for- 
mer enemies. Instead they can readily involve, induce, and persuade indi- 
viduals of the other side to look for discontent wherever it manifests itself 
and thereafter to “amplify” that condition by whatever psychological means 
until the situation erupts in public confusion, demonstrations, terrorism, etc. 
The idea is to make a mess of the other’s economy and customs and thus 
to discredit the other’s political system in the eyes of the rest of the world 
and to destroy the enemy people’s confidence in their own system. 

Because the active operators are sometimes engaged on a basis of just 
gratifying their own personal discontent, they are often unaware that they 
are acting as agents. Because almost everyone has at least one discontent, 
a well-trained conscious agent can invoke the multiplyingly effective but un- 
witting agency of hundreds of other discontent promoters and joiners — in 
ever-larger, more amplified, masses. 

As a consequence of this new invisible phase of world-war trending, a 
most paradoxical condition exists. The highly idealistic youth of college age 
who are convinced that they are demonstrating against war are, despite the 
most humane and compassionate motives, often in fact the front-line sol- 
diers operating as unwitting “shock troops.” Meanwhile the conventionally 
recognized soldiers engaged in visible “war-zone” warfare (either of ambush 
or open battle) are carrying on only a secondary — albeit often mortally fa- 
tal — decoy operation. 

This invisible world-around warring to destroy the enemy’s economy 
wherever it is operative, above all by demonstrating its homeland weakness- 
es and vulnerabilities to the rest of the world, and thus hoping to destroy 
the confidence of the enemy people in themselves, is far more devastating 
than could be a physical death ray, for it does everything with nothing. Fur- 
thermore it operates as “news,” which moves around the Earth by electro- 
magnetic waves operating at 700 million miles per hour. 


236 


Critical Path 


At the moment the highly controlled political states have a great defen- 
sive advantage over the “open, freedom-nurturing” states by virtue of the 
former’s controlled “news.” For it is the omniexcitable news in the “free” 
countries that is primarily exploited to publish and spread and thus create 
a chain reaction of dismay throughout any and all of their organized- 
discontent actions. 

With the United States and Russia jointly spending over $200 billion a 
year getting ready for an ultimate showdown between them, they each av- 
erage about $20 billion a year waging psychoguerilla warfare. Both the 
U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. were intent to break down the other one’s economy 
before coming to the far more costly all-out war. The brilliantly trained in- 
dividuals in Russia who came out to train other individuals in America did 
so in such a manner that those trained in America had no idea that what 
they were being excited into doing had anything to do with Russia. The 
American students’ idealism was often brilliantly exploited by Russia to 
break down America’s confidence in advanced education. Theretofore 
Americans had such blind confidence in education that they would elect any 
politicians promising to provide state-financed advanced-education facili- 
ties. 

What the Russians’ strategists knew was that the presidents of the U.S.A. 
universities, public or private, were “sitting ducks” for their psychological 
shooting. The university presidents of both private and state universities 
were primarily involved in the politics of raising funds for their institutions. 
The presidents had no internal “defenses” because they had never had need 
for them. They found that neither the faculty nor the students knew much 
about the presidents and that it would be very easy to attack their on-cam- 
pus positions. They could effectively exaggerate any faults manifest by the 
presidents. 

Within one year the presidents of 100 universities of America were “shot 
down.” None of them were defended by their faculties, whose numbers were 
scared to death of losing their tenure. The determination of the students to 
do their own thinking was readily exploited in attacking the university presi- 
dents. 

While all the foregoing curves of the rising and falling of the technical 
evolution of weaponry have taken place, there has also occurred, all unno- 
ticed by all parties to the warfaring, a vast “fallout” from the “defense” 
technology into the domestic technology of ephemeralization’s doing ever 
more with less. Within two-thirds of a century this unnoticed and inadver- 
tent fallout has converted 40 percent of total humanity from have-not-ness 
to a high standard of living have-ness and makes clear that the only way 
all of humanity may be elevated to such advantage is by further acceleration 
of the technical invention revolution. 


Critical Path: Part One 


237 


It becomes evident that all of youth’s world-around clamor for peace can 
only be realized through technological revolution, which will do so much 
more with so much less per each function as ultimately to produce enough 
to support all of humanity. It is also clear that such a task can only be ac- 
complished by the technical design revolution. 

As those many who have become involved in the new invisible warfaring 
discover that their aims can be attained only through the design revolution, 
all the young world-around idealists will have to face up to the question of 
whether they prefer to keep on agitating simply because they have come to 
enjoy a sense of power and importance by so doing. All who are really dedi- 
cated to the earliest possible attainment of economic and physical success 
for all humanity — and thereby realistically to eliminate war — will have to 
shift their efforts from the political arena to participation in the design rev- 
olution. The latter course involves the development of ever-self-regenerating 
and improving scientific and technical competence. In turn this means that 
the individual must plunge earnestly and dedicatedly into initiating self- 
development, using the resources of the educational system. 

* * * 

All the aforementioned class-one evolutionary trending provides powerful 
long-distance prognostication data. Keeping track of the integrated ephem- 
eralization and acceleration trends and their socioeconomic resultants, per 
each world human, made possible my 1938 Nine Chains to the Moon and 
my 1950 magazine-published Prognostication that by 2000 a.d. all human- 
ity either would be enjoying a higher but generally unfamiliar standard of 
living than any humans had ever known — or would have altogether per- 
ished. 

This book has already mentioned many of these class-one evolutionary 
trendings. 


* * * 

In naval science we have four scientifically developed prognosticating 
arts. In my own semantic formulating “prognosticating” is both subjective 
and objective: subjective — “if I don’t do anything, such and such will hap- 
pen”; objective — “if I do so and so, such and such will happen.” Pure sci- 
ence means “setting in order the facts of experience and therefrom deducing 
generalized principles if and when they are manifest.” Applied science means 
“the development of technological procedures for objective employment of 
a plurality of the generalized principles.” Art means “the skillful realization 
of humanly satisfying or challenging special case applications of the theo- 
retical schemes of applied science.” 


238 


Critical Path 


The number-one naval prognosticating science and art is that of designing 
and producing the generalized tools — machine tools — that, when housed 
and assembled in navy yards or floating dry docks, can produce both macro 
and micro special-case tools — with both the generalized and special-case 
tools operative at degrees of dimensional controls beyond that of human 
sight; at temperatures above and below humans’ organic tolerance; at 
weights and sizes beyond human muscle-maneuverability; at electromagnet- 
ic frequencies beyond the range of human optical or tactile tunability or tol- 
erance; at quantation determination and integration of metallurgical and 
chemical formulations, in temperature and pressure regions beyond hu- 
mans’ direct sensorially apprehending control. 

The number-two naval prognosticating science and art is that in which, 
employing the number-one prognosticating science and art tools, we design 
fleets of ships and special case ships and other special case tools as a com- 
plex of intersupportive technology capable of coping with nature’s condi- 
tions at the interface of sea and sky while traveling on, over, or under the 
seas to any part of the world reachable by the deep water’s continuum — 
i.e., to three-quarters of all the surface of planet Earth; with the sea-trans- 
port capability of integrating the world’s remotely occurring, unique, and 
intercomplementary physical resources; and with the ability to protect such 
sea commerce against any and all pirates or others hostile to class-two evo- 
lutionary phenomena. 

The number-three naval prognosticating science and art is that of celestial 
navigation, which permits us to reliably prognosticate the arrival of our ship 
anywhere around the world at such and such an hour and on such and such 
a date. 

The number-four naval prognosticating science and art is that of ballis- 
tics — “the art and science of controlling the trajectory of an explosively 
hurled missile.’’ Ballistics is divided into two parts — interior and exterior. 
Interior ballistics deals with all the controllable variables governing the tra- 
jectory of the gun’s explosively hurled missile, which controllable variables 
are operative before the gun is fired; exterior ballistics deals with all the con- 
trollable variables operative after the gun is fired. These controllable inte- 
rior- and exterior-ballistics variables altogether govern the trajectory of the 
gun’s explosively hurled missiles. 

Interior-ballistics variables include the design of the gun, its bore, its 
length, its metallurgy, its expansion and contraction in changing tempera- 
tures, and similar factors. Interior ballistics is also concerned with the de- 
sign of the missile itself, with the gunpowder to be used, and with the 
temperature of that powder. The interior variables are exhaustively studied, 
scientifically recorded and controlled. 


Critical Path: Part One 


239 


The exterior-ballistics variables relate to the direction and velocity of the 
winds blowing between the firing ship and the target ship. The exterior-bal- 
listics variables include all weather conditions. They are concerned with the 
course and speed of the gun-firing ship as well as of the target ship. The ex- 
terior-ballistics variables are numerous but not as numerous as the interior- 
ballistics variables. The exterior-ballistics variables include the information 
regarding the relative accuracy of the previously fired missile and the swiftly 
calculated corrections to bring the trajectory on to the target. 

In the science of ballistics the variables entering into the problem of firing 
from a swiftly moving, steerable ship on a heaving sea at a variably steerable 
target ship moving at unannounced variable speeds on a heaving sea are 
much more numerous than the variables entering into the firing of a gun 
from a fixed position on the dry land toward another fixed-position target 
on the same dry land. 

In naval gunnery in the precomputer days large charts, containing titles 
and spaces for all the known variable data of both interior and exterior bal- 
listics, were printed. These charts were laid out and tacked to a great table 
in the “plotting room” in the most structurally protected positions within 
the bowels of the ship. All the interior-ballistics data was corrected when 
any of its data changed and was immediately entered onto the chart. There 
was no use entering any exterior-ballistics data until the enemy ship was lo- 
cated, after which all the up-to-the-minute-and-second changing data of the 
exterior ballistics were entered onto the charts. When all the data were in, 
complex mathematical integration of the data took place, and the proper an- 
gles of elevation and horizontal compass orientation of the guns themselves 
were arrived at. Guns were at first individually, then coordinatedly, aimed 
at the target ship by both horizontal and vertical angle controls, being sep- 
arately and continuously human-eye-and-hand aimed at the target ship by 
easily spun hand-wheels geared to power-driven equipment that kept the big 
guns in constant adjustment to the rolling, pitching, and yawing of the firing 
ship. The rate of changing of interior-ballistics data was — and as yet is — 
very slow compared to the rate of change of the data of exterior ballistics. 

As a naval officer I was once concerned with all these matters. I became 
gradually interested in the possibility that all the variables involved in naval 
ballistics might be identified with all the variables operative in the most 
complex problems of Universe. I intuited that the combined sciences of 
navigation and ballistics might embrace all the variables governing Uni- 
verse-event prognostication. It could be that: (1) navy yard industrializa- 
tion, (2) fleet operation and individual ship design, (3) astronavigation, and 
(4) ballistics constituted the four “special case” corner complexes of a gen- 
eralized tetrahedral complex of variable design factors governing all human- 


240 


Critical Path 


mind-controllable participation in all cosmic, alternative-intertransforming 
potentials. 

It was eminently clear that astronomy, enormously advantaged by New- 
ton’s mass-interattraction law, having acquired comprehensive data regard- 
ing the ever-changing interpositioning of celestial bodies, groups of bodies, 
and galaxies of bodies, was extremely successful in prognosticating for many 
years, centuries, and millennia ahead the relative interpositioning of all 
known celestial bodies to split-second accuracy almost anywhere within mil- 
lions of light-years around and away from Earth. We could say that the 
more cosmically comprehensive the consideration, the more accurate the 
prognosticating. 

I therefore decided to always include the most micro-macro cosmically 
inclusive data in all my prognosticating. Obviously this was not “crystal- 
balling” nonsense but a very elegantly inclusive and incisive integration of 
the four naval sciences and arts of prognosticating. 

Quite clearly the four special case design systems of the naval sciences 
and arts can be generalized to accommodate the realization of all the ob- 
jective initiatives of humanity. The four-cornered tetrahedron is the mini- 
mum structural system in Universe. It excludes all the irrelevant 
information of Universe and includes all the information relevant to the sys- 
tem. The tetrahedral structure system has six unique interrelationships ex- 
isting among the system’s four unique groups of system variables. 

We have also mentioned elsewhere in this book and in other books the 
differentiation between craft and industrial tools — i.e., craft tools are all the 
tools that can be invented and produced by one individual alone in the wil- 
derness, such as spears, bows and arrows, pottery, baskets, fire, etc., where- 
as the industrial tools are all the tools that cannot be produced by one 
human. Because it takes two humans to produce the need to communicate 
and to invent the means of that communication, we say that the spoken 
word was the first industrial tool. “In the beginning [of industrialization — 
i.e., technologically effective human cooperation] was the word .” The spo- 
ken and comprehended word greatly expedited the development of human- 
ity’s information on how to cope with life’s challenges. 

The four naval sciences and arts make it possible for us to sort out the 
human capabilities provided by class-one-evolution-developed industrializa- 
tion as a human-cooperative-interadvantaging system — differentiated from 
all the illusory propaganda of industrialization’s exploitation by exclusively 
monetary-profit-motivated business or personal-kudos-profit-motivated 
politics. Our “Legally Piggily” chapter clearly recounts the manner in 
which business took over industrialization for its own special-case self-ad- 
vantaging. See this Time magazine item of August 6, 1979, to clarify the 
aptness of the word “Piggily.” 


Critical Path: Part One 


241 


Those Record Oil Company Profits 

With memories of long gasoline lines still fresh, the earnings reported by many 
oil companies last week could hardly be expected to be greeted by cheers. All 
told, the industry had its best second quarter ever. Profits of the 23 biggest U.S. 
firms totaled $5.47 billion, a rise of 66% over the same period last year. Among 
the five large international companies, Texaco’s earnings leaped by 132% to 
$365 million. Earnings of the others: Exxon, up 20% to $830 million; Mobil, 
up 38% to $404 million; Socal, up 61% to $412 million; and Gulf, up 65% 
to $291 million. These gains came on top of strong earnings in the first quarter. 
For the first half, the combined profits of the five giants came to $4.6 billion, 
or an increase of 49% over the same period last year. 

See also p. 401 of Chronology in Appendix II. 

The strictly government-operated NASA Apollo Project — its Cape Ca- 
naveral blast-off base in Florida; its Mission Control Center in Houston, 
Texas; its design- and theory-development base in Alabama; and its admin- 
istration headquarters in Washington, D.C. — employed business’s industrial 
facilities but was a human-endeavor cooperating project. It held at bay any 
importantly diverting manifests of selfishness, even amongst its dramatically 
publicized astronauts. Their individual names have faded into a dim admix- 
ture of identities — omnisublimated by the magnificent demonstration of hu- 
manity’s industrially cooperative capability to accomplish history’s most 
imaginatively “impossible,” scientifically “possible” feat — rocket-ferrying of 
humans over to the Moon and returning them safely back on board our 
Spaceship Earth. 

We now directly address the accomplishing by humanity of a less visually 
dramatic but far more difficult task — that of rendering comprehensively and 
eternally successful a failure-prone, competitively greedy, selfishly wasteful, 
fearful, and inferiority-conditioned humanity — and of doing so in a decade. 

Starting in 1927 (fifty-three years ago) I developed an as-comprehensive- 
as-possible inventory of relevant scientific and industrial data and set about 
making systemically scientific prognostications regarding trends affecting 
our Spaceship Earth and all of its passengers. This attempted scientific prog- 
nosticating involved the comprehensive inventorying of resources aboard 
our Spaceship Earth. These resources broke down into all the energy asso- 
ciative as matter and all the energy dissociative as radiation. The metaphys- 
ical resources broke down into all the inventory of generalized principles 
and all the inventory of special case knowledge considerations. 

To ensure that I was comprehensively adequate in dealing with cosmic- 
scale prognosticating, I undertook in 1927 and thereafter to discover and 
scientifically demonstrate nature’s own mathematical coordinate system. I 
had intuitively initiated that search in 1899, at the age of four. This latter 
search and its successful discovery of that cosmic-coordination system is 


242 


Critical Path 


treated with both comprehensively and incisively in my two-volume Syner- 
getics (Macmillan, 1975 and 1979) — each volume about 800 pages. All those 
who would like to understand the relatively high accuracy of my prognos- 
ticating science will find it necessary to become students of those two vol- 
umes of Synergetics . They make clear that I have found a method of 
guaranteeing that my prognostications include all relevant variables. 

For those who do not have time to study Synergetics or my books such 
as Nine Chains to the Moon , I will point out such studies as my 760-year- 
long chart of the chemical element isolations by humans, which discloses 
the interrelationship of pure science with technological science as applied to 
world-encircling, human-protecting and -transporting, environment con- 
trols and the accelerating acceleration in human evolution that it undeniably 
discloses. 

In 1942 I sought a means of discovering whether any regular rate of oc- 
currence of scientific events existed. I, of course, discovered that the relative 
importance of a suitable cut and classification of the events into pure and 
not-so-pure scientific events had first to be accomplished. 

As I started so to do, I immediately realized that there was one single 
pure-science set of events that belonged to one family — that is, the history 
of human scientists’ progressive isolation of the family of ninety-two regen- 
erative chemical elements — a family of exactly and successively numbered 
members whose membership qualifications could not be confused — one 
electron, one proton; two electrons and two protons. I decided to make a 
chart of the isolations plotted against time. 

The first known isolation by a human — that of arsenic — occurred in Italy 
in 1250 a.d. So I designed my chart to be 760 years long, running from 1250 
a.d. to 2010 a.d. I made my chart high enough to accommodate twenty 
posturanium isolations, should any occur. One year after I made and posted 
my chart, the first posturanium element was isolated. The last of the first 
ninety-two to be isolated — promethium, chemical element #61 — was not 
discovered until 1954, twelve years after I designed and posted the chart. 
The preuranium element isolations did not occur without regularity. 

I planned the designing of my 760-year-long chart in such a manner that 
vertical room was left for 112 horizontal steps, so that as each element be- 
came isolated, the position of it went one step higher. When history opens, 
humans had already at some earlier times isolated and put to use nine 
chemical elements. Nobody has any idea how, when, and where the isola- 
tions of carbon, lead, tin, mercury, silver, copper, sulphur, gold, and iron 
occurred. They were found already in use in different parts of the world 
when humans first made record of the fact long before 1250 a.d. Because 
nine isolations had already occurred, I started plotting my chart nine steps 



244 


Critical Path 


high. I posted arsenic, chemical element #33, on the tenth step. The next 
isolation came 200 years later — chemical element #51, antimony. This was 
followed by a 220-year hiatus running to 1670, when science isolated chemi- 
cal element #15, phosphorus. Another sixty-two-year lag brought us to the 
isolation of chemical element #27, cobalt, in 1732, and later in the same 
year element #78, platinum. Thereafter they arrived at an average rate of 
one every two years. 

The rate accelerated markedly for the next forty years until element #5, 
boron, was isolated; during those forty years thirty-one other elements were 
isolated. Between boron, in 1810, and gallium, element #31, there is a slow- 
ing down in the rate, with seventeen more elements being isolated. Between 
gallium and europium, chemical element #63, another twelve were isolat- 
ed. There is a very steady rate of acquisition by humans of the next five iso- 
lated chemical elements — from europium to polonium, element #84. Then 
there is a marked slowing down of the rate of isolation from actinium, #89, 
to rhenium, #75. In the isolation of the next five elements, technetium, 
#43, to plutonium, #94, there is an almost vertical rate of isolating, all five 
isolations taking place during 1930-1931 although not announced until 
years later. Between 1932 and 1969 ten elements were isolated, from cur- 
ium, element #96, to lawrencium, element #103 — the 103rd successive 
isolation. Not only is there a very steady rate of climb of these transuranium 
element isolations but all of them are successively isolated in the order of 
their successive atomic numbers, whereas none of the pre-uranium — before 
element #92 — isolations occur by their successive numbers. 

What we have been witnessing is a series of accelerations and slowdowns. 
The accelerations always occur in peacetime and the slowdowns in wartime. 
In wartime the military uses what the scientists developed in peacetime. 
Quite clearly the purest of pure science activity, chemical-element isolating, 
occurs under peaceful conditions. 

This whole 760-year curve of pure-science isolations is altogether a curve 
of acceleration against calendar time. 

I then recalled that what pure science does today does not get into the 
academic curricula for a few years. A few years later again applied science 
makes special case objective use of the pure-science finding as some inven- 
tion. Use of the invention by industry begins to alter the environment of the 
everyday happenings. The altered environment calls for an evolutionary ad- 
vancement of everyday human life. 

I then said to myself that history makes it clear that environmental ad- 
vancements alter life-styles and introduce new economic eras. 

Because environmental-technology advancements embodying the techni- 
cal advancements are clearly implemented by pure science’s discoveries, and 


Critical Path: Part One 


245 


the altered environments introduce new eras in human experience, I asked 
myself to isolate out from all other inventing of history the unique stages 
of human-advantaging environment controls that made it possible for hu- 
mans to thrive under conditions in which the humans would, but for the 
new environment control, perish and, from within the uniquely advanced 
life-style within the environment, accomplish control of energies operating 
outside the environment control, and therewith propel the environment- 
controlling device and its human occupants in one occupant-controlled 
complete circuit of the Earth. 

Along the top of the chart, in 1520, we see how Magellan used a sailing 
vessel in which he went most of the way around the world before he was 
killed. His crew completed the circumnavigation, which took two years. 
Three hundred fifty years later, humans circumnavigated the globe in a steel 
steamship. Seventy-five years later, they circumnavigated in a special-alloy 
aluminum airplane. Thirty-five years later, they circumnavigated in an ex- 
otic metals rocket. The wooden sailing ship took two years to circumnavi- 
gate; the steel steamship, two months; the aluminum airplane took two 
weeks and the exotic metals rocket capsule took only a little over one hour 
to encircle the planet Earth. 

In the successive circumnavigation arts no one at each successive stage 
could dream of the next stage of circumnavigation. We have on this chart 
the curve of the basic acceleration of science accomplishments as plotted 
against time. 

We have on the chart a second-degree acceleration manifest in the con- 
traction of the lags between the successive circumnavigation from 350 years 
to sixty-five to thirty years between four states of the art of circumnaviga- 
tion and a third-degree acceleration manifest in the contraction of time tak- 
en to circumnavigate from two years ... to two months ... to two weeks 
... to one hour. It is implicit in the rate of contraction between completely 
inconceivable later arts that by 1985 we should be able to transmit humans 
around the globe by radio scanning or an equivalently unexpected means. 

* * * 

For those who wish to gain only a cursory concept of my prognosticating 
I point to my fifty-three-year-maintained curves of ephemeralization as 
manifest in a number of charts — for instance, the one recording the annu- 
ally decreasing pounds-per-delivered-horsepower of aircraft engines. The 
tenth-anniversary issue of Fortune magazine (February 1940) has an article 
I prepared on industrialization in which many charts of ephemeralization 
in various technologies are shown. 

In such comprehensive surveying of human experiences and the lessons 


246 


Critical Path 


we have learned it became progressively clearer that humans were given 
their minds to discover generalized principles and to employ those princi- 
ples objectively in special case technologies. That led me to assume that the 
class-two evolution was a designed-in but sometime-to-be-terminated phase 
of class-one evolution. It seemed logical, as humans progressed from abso- 
lute ignorance — learning only by trial-and-error — that they would go 
through a very long period of doing all the right things for all the wrong 
reasons. Quite clearly nature did not tell the honeybee to go out and cross- 
pollinate the vegetation. What nature did was to chromosomically program 
the honeybee to go after honey and inadvertently — at right angles — to cross- 
pollinate the vegetation. What nature told humanity chromosomically was, 
“I’m hungry, my kids are hungry; I’m cold, my kids are cold. Go after that 
food and that coat. They cost money — go after money. They say you have 
to earn it. OK, I’ll earn it.” Buzz, buzz, honey-money bee. No human chro- 
mosomes say make the world work for everybody — only mind can tell you 
that. 

In support of the integrity of ecology’s complex regeneration of life on 
planet Earth, class-one evolution first designed all the vegetation to photo- 
synthetically (syntropically) convert the randomly occurring entropic Sun 
radiation into highly orderly molecular structures, which are consumed by 
other orderly molecule-proliferating biological organisms. That syntropic 
complex of ecological interactions not only made possible the gradual con- 
duct of human society by mind instead of by cunning and muscle but also 
led to human minds’ consciously acting as local-in-Universe information- 
harvesters and local-in-Universe problem-solvers, all in support of the integ- 
rity of eternally regenerative Universe. 

It seemed that the time would come evolutionarily when humans might 
have acquired enough knowledge of generalized principles to permit a grad- 
uation from class-two (entropically selfish) evolution into class-one (syntro- 
pically cooperative) evolution, thereafter making all the right moves for all 
the right reasons. 

This book should make it quite evident that I think humanity has now 
reached that critical moment of potential transformation of humans’ affairs 
from class-two evolution into class-one evolution. Assuming that to be so, 
we look upon “Legally Piggily’’ (see Chapter 3) as the last and highest tide 
of doing all the wrong things for the unknown right reasons, just before 
reaching the condition of all of humanity having acquired enough of the 
right information to graduate from class-two evolutionary entropic non- 
sense into consciously competent syntropic participation in class one’s eter- 
nally intertransforming evolution in support of the integrity of cosmic- 
scenario-Universe’s eternal regeneration. 

Prognostication is often a subjective science — it anticipates what is going 


Critical Path: Part One 


247 


to happen to us. Navigation and ballistics are always objective sciences, for 
they make possible prognostication of what will happen if we employ the 
full family of mathematically integratable factors governing local systemic 
intertransformabilities, as permitted by the generalized principles, which al- 
ways provide six alternative moves with every turn to play in “the game of 
Universe.” These permitted six moves for each turn to play are the six edges 
of the tetrahedral system and are clearly explained in Synergetics , vol. 2, § 
537.40. 

Class-one evolution has succeeded in ever increasing the range, frequency, 
and safe velocity of human travel, exploration, and information growth. 
Further, humans have developed environment-controlling vehicles and local 
environment-controlling habitats that permit their survival under conditions 
uncopable-with prior to the technological evolution. All these are resultant 
upon human mind’s being given access to the generalized principles govern- 
ing the design of the successfully operating, eternally regenerative, scenario 
Universe. 

The space programs entered into by the Russians and the Americans, be- 
cause of the military implications of possible containment of one by the oth- 
er, were class-two evolutionary events; however, they opened the possibility 
for humanity to participate consciously in class-one evolution’s continual in- 
crease in the range, speed, and frequency of humanity’s travel and informa- 
tion-gathering in local Universe as well as its participation in ever-more 
local problem-solving within the ever-greater ranges of Universe thus 
reached. 

The space program integrated the sciences of navigation, ballistics, astro- 
physics, metallurgy, chemistry, and bio-anthropology. Bio-anthropology is 
the positive class-one evolution’s anticipatorily undertaken improvement of 
both subjective and objective, energetic, environmentally controllable events 
in order to keep already-healthy life even healthier, whether in safely pen- 
etrating environments theretofore lethally hostile to human life or in just 
improving the chances for the healthiest to continue their optimum health 
or in multiplying the numbers of humans who enjoy optimum health — 
working eventually toward avoiding any humans ever losing their optimum 
health. 

Bio-anthropology is class-one evolution’s takeover and expansion of class- 
two evolution’s medicine, which copes essentially only with humans who 
have lost their good health. 

The space program, as an integration of the plurality of projective-objec- 
tive sciences, called for the employment of what is known as the “critical 
path” as the comprehensive design science’s individual parts production, 
subassembly, general assembly, progressive full assembly testings, and 
launch scheduling. 


248 


Critical Path 


A critical path develops an exhaustive list of all that has to be accom- 
plished in order to arrive successfully at a given objective theretofore never 
reached. The Apollo Project was the official name of the undertaking that 
was to ferry humans over to and land them on the Moon and return them 
safely to mother — Spaceship Earth. 

The critical-path organization of the Apollo Project disclosed some two 
million tasks that had to be successfully accomplished before the human as- 
tronauts were to be returned safely to Spaceship Earth. NASA’s Apollo 
management then put a scientifically and technically competent control 
group to work to identify all the approximately two million tasks, a million 
of which required technological performances the design, production, and 
successful operation of which had never before been undertaken by humans. 

In this book we have set down our prehistory, our techno-social history 
of “Humans in Universe,” and then in the “Legally Piggily” chapter we 
have chronicled the overall pattern of class-two evolutionary events that 
have, during the last half-century, gone critical — bringing humanity to a 
moment of crisis adequate in magnitude to springboard humanity into obliv- 
ion or into a relatively utopian future. 

Because automobiles were becoming ever-more popular in the 1920s and 
because they were using inherently exhaustible fossil fuels, such an ap- 
proaching critical moment in human history as we are now experiencing 
was clearly visible to me and many others a half-century ago. I did not, 
however, know of any other humans who thought there was anything that 
they personally could do about this problem and any other such “too big” 
problems. Nonetheless, I committed my life to dealing only with total 
Spaceship Earth and all its passengers’ regeneration. I have therefore in- 
cluded the chapter on the self-disciplines I adopted at thirty-two years of 
age at the 1927 outset (or soon thereafter) of my lifetime commitment. 
These disciplines were adopted in view of the physical magnitude and the 
metaphysical integrity involved in the balance-of-my-life commitment. 
Many of the disciplines are importantly relevant today in respect to the way 
in which unknown, economically insecure, individual humans may function 
effectively in this world crisis. 

Soon after 1927 I developed the World Game as an especially important 
integration of the complex of self-adopted disciplines and tasks I found my- 
self progressively adopting as the years passed and as my inventory of dis- 
covered errors and lessons thereby learned multiplied. Our chapters on the 
Geoscope and the World Game provide important frames of reference in the 
formulation of a critical-path chart of what humanity must accomplish 
within a decade — or probably perish. 

This last section of the book focuses on the critical path itself and con- 


Critical Path : Part One 


249 


stitutes my own single human being’s inherently limited, 1927-and-there- 
after, anticipatory formulations of the order of absolutely essential tasks to 
be successfully accomplished between 1927 and crossing of the epochal 
threshold into happy continuance of all humans in Universe. Others can and 
will vastly improve upon my critical path. What is now needed, however, 
is an “icebreaker” critical-path submission. Here it is, in the order of my 
spontaneous formulations of it. 

In presenting it I need first to develop, if possible, some powerfully in- 
tegrating generalizations of already-introduced concepts. For instance, we 
have developed the earlier concept of a system as dividing all the Universe 
into all the Universe outside the system — the presently tuned-out, irrelevant 
macrocosm — all the Universe inside the system — the presently untuned-in, 
irrelevant microcosm — and all the small remainder of the present, individ- 
ually tuned-in Universe of which the Universe-dividing system consists, to- 
gether with all of its presently integrated, common knowledge of tuned-in, 
omnirelevant considerations. Systems scientifically describe conceptual 
ramifications of thoughts and ideas. This omnicosmic, four-dimensional, 
geometrical conception of a system is a scientific generalization (see “Sys- 
tem — 400.00” in Synergetics , vols. 1 and 2). 

Human organisms are systems. They are complex but very important sys- 
tems of energetically operative, integral tools. Some of them are internally 
operative in manufacturing, maintaining, repairing, and replacing the whole 
inventory of specialized interior as well as generalized exterior tools. All of 
the integral exterior tools such as the human hand and eyes have highly gen- 
eralized but circumstantially limited capabilities — for instance, they cannot 
work nakedly above or below a very small temperature range, but within 
their temperature limits their uses are myriad. 

Human mind, discovering principles, devises special case, less frequently 
employed, nonintegral, from-self-detached, craft tools. In due course human 
mind, discovering more principles, uses the organically integral tools to op- 
erate the simple, detached craft tools such as the stone hammer and knife, 
to produce much more effective generalized industrial tools, such as a 
blacksmith’s forge and anvil, metal hammers and tongs, with which the 
smith in turn produces even more specialized tools, such as metal horse- 
shoes and forged metal carpenter’s hammers, to outperform wooden mallets 
and stone hammers. Human mind, stimulated by the succession of experi- 
ences attendant upon hitching an ox, a water buffalo, a camel, or an ele- 
phant to an earth-working tool, came to the discovery of the windmill and 
the waterwheel, and then coupled the windmill or waterwheel with a grain- 
grinding stone milling wheel; then in time conceived of the principle of us- 
ing energy other than human muscle to operate a class of tools known as 


250 


Critical Path 


the machine tools, consisting of lathes, drill presses, metal planers, milling 
machines, grinding machines, shapers, slotters, etc. Each such machine tool 
performs in far finer, more powerful degree the metallic-substance-forming 
and surface-finishing functions initially performed in principle but under 
much more limited conditions only by the human hands and other of the 
integral organic exterior tools. 

All of the foregoing involves energy as work and as matter and a complex 
of energy interexchanging. All such complex internal and external energy 
intertransforming and exchanging can be spoken of as interior and exterior 
metabolics. 

We are gradually working toward a complex integration of many of our 
already-introduced complex concepts into a generalization of interior and 
exterior ballistics, which as energy intertransforming and exchanging can be 
spoken of as interior and exterior metabolics. 

How apt a name for the human organism is “an interior and exterior met- 
abolic system/’ We find that in these interior and exterior metabolic sys- 
tems, the interior tooling is highly generalized, while the exterior tools are 
highly specialized and able to cope with many variables, but that the data 
regarding the different toolings vary hardly at all, which is to say that the 
more nearly generalized the system, the less variable the inventory of its 
constituents, wherefore the great scientific generalizations are eternal and 
never vary. We find in the succession of naval science and arts that the navy 
yard machine tools varied hardly at all, being improved upon only slowly, 
and that the number-two science and art of designing fleets and ships and 
their integral interior ballistics varied more frequently than did the design 
of the navy yard machine tools, whereas the exterior ballistics and naviga- 
tion dealt with swiftly changing sea and weather conditions, though the 
navigational mathematics of spherical trigonometry itself consisted of eter- 
nally invariant generalized principles. 

We find our concept of industrialization to be an exterior-to-humans met- 
abolic system. 

We find our critical path to consist of a succession of omnirelevant, fre- 
quently varying, widely ranging, highly specialized exterior metabolic sys- 
tems, being operated by humans, which humans themselves are limited- 
range, rarely variant, interior and exterior metabolic systems. 

A. In the “Self-Disciplines” chapter of this book, I recounted that the 
larger the number of humans I undertook to serve, the more effective 
I became, wherefore I concluded that if I committed myself to serving 
everyone, I would be optimally effective. 

B. I find the foregoing (A) to be sociologically akin to the hard-science 


Critical Path: Part One 


251 


fact that astronomy and astrophysics — dealing in total-known-Uni- 
verse — enjoy humanity’s farthest-ahead-in-time, reliable prognosticat- 
ing record by a reliably proven prognosticated-events-margin of 
hundreds of years. 

C. There seems to be a scientific generalization at work here that relates 
intimately to the phenomena synergy — behavior of whole systems un- 
predicted by the behavior or integral characteristics of any parts of the 
system when the parts are considered only separately. What is inferred 
here is that a competitive employment of the whole family of gener- 
alized principles employed to serve the successful human functioning 
in Universe renders one maximally effective. 

All scientific generalizations are synergetic — that is, they describe 
scientifically discovered interrelationships of system parts that vary in 
respect to one another at only mathematically describable different 
rates of change, which interrelationships are in no way suggested by 
separate inspection of any one part of the system. 

D. The generalization discovered to be commonly operative in the fore- 
going paragraphs A, B, and C says, “To be optimally effective, under- 
take at outset the most comprehensive task in the most comprehensive 
and incisively detailed manner.’’ 

In undertaking our critical-path development of a practically realizable 
means of bringing about all humanity’s spontaneously realizable escape 
from fearfully ignorant self-destruction — and entrance into a design-science- 
artifacts-produced-and-induced, sustainable, and unprecedentedly high 
standard of living for all, to be accomplished within a generation — we are 
being taught by the foregoing paragraphs A, B, C, D, to immediately “un- 
dertake the greatest task with thorough commitment of attention to every 
detail.’’ 

We are being taught by all the foregoing to assume as closely as possible 
the viewpoint, the patience, and the competence of God. 


CHAPTER 8 


Critical Path : 

Part Two 

I N THE PRECEDING chapter, “Critical Path: Part One,” I sought to fore- 
stall any hesitance on the part of humanity to go “for the works.” It is 
to be everything for everybody or oblivion. 

While it is fairly simple to write a list of socioeconomic conditions we 
consider to be fundamental to omnihumanity’s sustainable physical and 
metaphysical success, we must remember that our grand strategy is based 
on producing the artifacts that will induce the right behaviors rather than 
depending on politically enacted and enforced reforms. What we count on 
is political reaction in its bipartisan tail-of-the-dragon function, now flap- 
pingly, now snappingly, yielding one way or the other to society’s vivid re- 
alization of the arrival of historically unprecedented crises and dawning 
awareness of the availability of possibly effective but unfamiliar techno- 
physical means of coping with the ever-more-frequently-occurring crises as 
are occasioned by the practical development and availability of hitherto- 
nonexistent artifacts. Much of the successive emergencies will prove to be 
caused by society’s adoption of only a few of all the artifacts — development 
only of those artifacts that could be turned into the most immediate profits 
as fostered by the armaments appropriations. 

The emergency-wrought political adjustment will go on until, in the stress 
of ever-greater emergency, society spontaneously adopts all of our critical 
path’s artifacts. The great emergencies may finally force political society to 
“do the right things” for the right reasons. (I found my way into so doing, 
half a century ago, as occasioned, however, only by total crises in my own 
life — why should not others do so?) If political society does decide to do the 
right tasks for the right reasons, it will probably find our critical-path arti- 
facts to be both cogently and specifically essential. 


252 


Critical Path: Part Two 


253 


In contradistinction to the critical path of the Apollo Project — one-half 
of whose two million or so tasks to be accomplished involved the develop- 
ment of technology that was nonexistent at the outset of Apollo — our criti- 
cal path’s inventory of essential technologies consists of 100-percent- 
already-developed technologies (see Appendix I, “Chronology of Scientific 
Discoveries and Artifacts”). Most of these are in use but in the production 
of the wrong systems — in the “weaponry” systems or in the “money-mak- 
ing-for-the-few” systems instead of in “high-wealth-livingry-production-for- 
all” systems. 

For the foregoing reasons most of the tasks that need to be attended to 
in such a manner as to make all humanity sustainingly successful involve 
only the right application of the already-developed technologies which have 
been funded and applied to the wrong tasks. It must be remembered that 
the overwhelming reason for their being applied to the wrong tasks is the 
assumption of those commanding the political and economic power struc- 
tures that there is a fundamental inadequacy of life support on our planet — 
that it has to be “you or me,” nowhere nearly enough for both. 

Our 1927 and thenceforth developed critical path has no as-yet-to-be- 
accomplished technologies. It needs only the education of the world regard- 
ing the fact that invisible ephemeralization and acceleration now make what 
had previously seemed to be inadequate life support for all humanity to be 
rendered bounteously adequate. 

The development of our omni-world-integrating electrical-energy network 
grid, which will realistically put all humanity on the same economic ac- 
counting system and will integrate the world’s economic interests and value 
systems and lead most swiftly to the realistic elimination of the 150 sover- 
eign-nation systems, needs only a relatively few geographical interlinking 
operations. It does not need the invention and development of new technol- 
ogies. 

Inasmuch as society’s educational system’s conditioned reflexes are half a 
millennium out of gear with the discovered facts of cosmic operation, a TV- 
accomplished, swift reorientation of humanity’s reflexes to accord with the 
discovered facts is a high-priority critical path task. If humanity’s reflexes 
were already updated and we were as yet behaving as ineptly as we are at 
present, then there would be no hope. You may recall that I have scientif- 
ically demonstrated the half-millennium-out-of-gearness with facts by dem- 
onstrating the misconditioned reflexes of humanity’s leading scientists — I 
have tested many audiences of scientists, who all admit they are as yet see- 
ing the Sun “go down,” though science has known for 500 years that this 
is not what is happening. Remember the wind blowing from the northwest 
when a low pressure to the southeast of us is drafting the wind by us. Re- 


254 


Critical Path 


member we have established that there is no “up” or “down” in Universe, 
no “wide-wide-world,” no “four-corners of the Earth,” etc., etc. 

It was the fact that my 1927 fifty-year critical-path technological stages 
had already been acceleratingly completed that made it possible for me to 
make public announcement ten years ago that it was feasible within a ten- 
year design science revolution — while melting all weaponry and using those 
metals for livingry — to have all humanity living at a sustainably higher stan- 
dard of living than any humans have ever experienced while simultaneously 
phasing out all further use of fossil fuels and atomic energy — because we 
can live comfortably and luxuriously on daily energy income from the Sun 
in its many derivative phases. 

Because all the technology inventing and all the metals mining and other 
chemical materials necessary for developing sustainable, omniphysical, and 
increasingly metaphysical success for all humanity have already been ac- 
complished, our critical path’s overall strategy of realization differs greatly 
from that of the Apollo Project. 

Our critical-path realization requirement is one of an omnihumanity TV 
and printed-media familiarization with the retrospective inventory, by dates 
and items, of history’s totally known scientific discoveries and artifacts, all 
of which have been influential in such a manner as to induce the chain dis- 
covery of the relevant next-to-be-discovered-and-invented items, but also 
the social uses of them and the resultant reconditioning of human reflexes 
thereby brought about. The synergetic effect of all the discoveries and arti- 
fact inventions altogether plays a major part in implementing realization of 
the function of humans-in-Universe in support of the omni-self-regenerative 
scenario Universe. This whole history of already accomplished scientific dis- 
covery and technological invention is intimately relevant to our ten-year de- 
sign science revolution wherein we divert all that accomplished technology 
from exclusively weaponry or money-making objectives to omnihumanity’s 
omnisustainable physical success. Realization of this physical success is en- 
abled by the now existence of the critical-path technologies needing only to 
be redirected from killingry to livingry purposes. What must be accom- 
plished is the world-around TV and printed-media reorientation of human- 
ity by the realistic scenarioing of the peaceful uses of the already- 
accomplished half-century accrual of the 1927-to-1979 critical-path-artifacts 
developments. 

We discover, of course, that our half-century critical-path undertaking — 
designed and initiated in 1927 — is a class-two (or humanly contrived) evo- 
lution, which by good fortune (or by God’s guidance) has coincided, along 
almost all of the half-century-long way, with the Universe’s class-one evo- 
lutionary development — possibly because we undertook at outset to design 


Critical Path: Part Two 


255 


our human-contrived path as closely as possible to the way our mind told 
us “God” would design it. 

I had, in 1927, little of the experience that people have today in critical- 
path designing. I did, however, think of it in exactly those same operational 
terms and stages as those employed by the Apollo Project’s conceivers: 
“What are the first-things-first?” — the number-one, -two, -three, and so 
forth artifacts to be accomplished in order to develop the ultimate environ- 
mental controls whose artifacts would be so safely, obviously operable and 
economically favorable as spontaneously to persuade humanity how to be- 
have in grave moments of emergency in order to make decisions leading ex- 
peditiously to economic and physically sustainable success for all humanity. 

Here follows my critical-path program of realization as first inscribed in 
1927 and many times revised thereafter as Part IV of what I call: “Com- 
prehensively Anticipatory Design Science’s Universal Requirements for Re- 
alizing Omnihumanity Advantaging Local Environment Controls, Which 
are Omniconsiderate of Both Cosmic Evolution Potentials and Terrestrial 
Ecology Integrities.” 


Phase I, Individual 

CRITICAL PATH TO ULTIMATE 
IV. Realization 

The whole program of realization is to be considered in the following 
order, which breaks into two primary categories or phases: (A) the ini- 
tial work to be undertaken by the individual prior to engagement of the 
aid of associates, and (B) original and initial work to be undertaken by 
the first group of associates. These two phases may be organized as fol- 
lows: 

A. Research and development by initiating individual — prior to inau- 
guration of design action and development action involving full- 
time employment of others. Inauguration of a general work pattern 
as a natural pattern coinciding with best scientific procedure, to 
wit: 

Preliminary 

Initiation of diary and notebook 
Initiation of photographic documentation 
Initiation of tactical conferences 

1. Comprehensive library study of accrued arts 

a. Past 

b. Contemporary 


256 


Critical Path 


c. Theory of design — pertinent arts to be studied by the initi- 
ating individual include: 

(1) Anthropological data 

(2) Energetic-synergetic geometry — the philosophy of 
mensuration and transformation, relative size 

(3) Theory of structural exploration 

(4) Theory of mechanical exploration 

(5) Theory of chemical exploration 

(6) Energy as structure 

(7) Dwelling process as an “energy exchange” 

(8) Dwelling process as an “energy balance sheet” 

(9) Theory of structural complex 

(10) Theory of service complex 

(11) Theory of process complex 

(12) Theory of structural and mechanical logistics 

(13) Theory of complex resolution 

(14) Tensioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, mag- 
netic means 

(15) Compressioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, 
magnetic means 

2. Listing therefrom of authorities available for further informa- 
tion: 

a. Local, personal contact 

b. Remote correspondence 

3. Pursuant to information thus gained, calling at suggested local 
laboratories: 

a. University 

b. Industry 

c. Setting up of informative tests for firsthand knowledge in 
own laboratory 

4. First phase of design assumption: 

a. Consideration of novel, complex interaction unique to proj- 
ect 

b. Preferred apparatus from competitive field 

c. Design of appropriate flowsheets 

5. Flowsheets submitted to: 

a. Those competitive specialists who have proved helpful in 
steps 3b and 3c 


Critical Path: Part Two 


257 


b. Industrial producers of similar equipment and assemblies 

c. Make informative tests for closure of gaps supporting as- 
sumed theory 

6. Submit specifications and drawings of general assembly and 
unique component parts for informative bids by manufacturers: 

a. Second redesign of flowsheet based on available and suggest- 
ed apparatus, price information, etc. 

7. Prepare report consisting of diary of above, supported by pho- 
tographic documentation and collected literature — with trial- 
balance conclusions in indicated economic advantage (which, if 
positive, will inaugurate Phase II) 

Phase II, Collective 

IV. B. Design and development undertaking — involving plural-authorship 
phase and specialization of full-time associates. Consideration of re- 
lationship of prototype to industrial complex by constant review of 
principles of solution initially selected as appropriate to assump- 
tions. Adoption of assumptions for realization in design of pertinent 
principles and latest technology afforded. 

1. Comprehensive survey of entire sequence of operations from 
original undertaking to clientele synchronization. Realization 
strategy number 1 by individual (Phase I). Realization strategy 
number 2 by associates (Phase II). 

a. Physical tests in principle of the design assumptions’ unique 
inclusions not evidenced in available data 

b. General-assembly drawings (schematic) providing primary 
assembly drawing schedule reference 

c. General-assembly assumption, small-scale models, and 
mock-up full size 

d. Primary assembly, subassembly, and parts calculations 
(stress) 

e. Trial balance of probable parts weights, direct manufactur- 
ing costs (approximately three times material costs; includes 
labor, supervision, and inspection), forecast of overall cost 
magnitudes, and curve plotting — at various rates of produc- 
tion, ratioed to direct costs per part and “all other costs” — 
i.e., “overhead,” tool and plant “amortization,” “contingen- 
cies,” “profit” 

f. “Freezing” of general assembly and its reference drawing 


258 


Critical Path 


g. Drawing for first full-size production prototype commences 
in general assembly, primary assembly, subassembly, and 
parts 

h. Budget of calculating and drawing time is set, with tactical 
deadlines for each 

i. Parts drawing and full-size lofting and offset patterns 

j. Prototype parts production on “soft tools” commences 

k. Subassembly and primary assemblies replace mock-up parts 

l. Physical tests of parts and subassemblies with obvious cor- 
rections and necessary replacements (not improvements or 
desirables, which must be deferred until second prototype 
is undertaken, after all-comprehensive physical tests have 
been applied) 

m. Photography of all parts and assemblies 

n. Full assembly completed and inspected — cost 

o. Static load tests 

p. Operation tests 

q. Assembly and disassembly 

r. Photography of all phases 

s. Packaging and shipping tests 

t. Estimates of savings to be effected by special powered field 
tools 

u. Opinion testing 

v. Final production “clean-up” prototype placed in formal cal- 
culation and drawing with engineering budgeted deadlines 

w. Parts cost scheduled by class A tools and time 

x. Production tool layout fixed 

y. Production tools ordered 

z. Production dates set 

a-1 Lofting and offsets produced of full-size test “masters” and 
templates 

b-1 Fabrication of special jigs and fixtures 
c-1 Production materials ordered 
d-1 Production tool-jig-fixture tune-up 
e-1 Parts and assembly testing 
f-1 Field operation scheduling 
g-1 Field tools ordered 

h-1 Distribution strategy in terms of initial logic limitations 
i-1 Field tests with special tools 

j-1 Field tools ordered or placed in special design and fabrica- 
tion 

k-1 Test target area selected for first production 


Critical Path: Part Two 


259 


1-1 Production commences 
m-1 First field assemblies with power tools 
n-1 Maintenance service instituted and complaints 

(1) Alleviated 

(2) Analyzed 

(3) Change orders of parts instituted 

o-l Plans for “new” yearly model improvement run through all 

or previous steps — for original production 
p-1 Cycle repeated 

2. Production and distribution velocity assumption 

3. Plotting the assumed progressive mass-production curbs to de- 
termine basic velocities of new industry 

4. Tensioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic 
means 

5. Compressioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic 
means 

6. Consideration of manufacturer’s basic production forms — rela- 
tive to proposed design components for determination of mini- 
mum steps, minimum tools, and minimum waste in realization 

7. Establishment of priority hierarchies of effort 

8. Time-and-energy cost budgeting 

9. Assumption of industry responsibility for field practices, not 
only in mechanical and structural, but in economic design 

10. Designing for specific longevity of design appropriate to antici- 
pated cycles of progressive obsolescence and replacement ability 
as ascertained from comprehensive economic-trend curves 

1 1 . Designing with view to efficient screening of component chemi- 
cals for recirculated employment in later designs 

12. Maxima and minima stated and realized performance require- 
ments per unit of invested energy and experience, and capital ad- 
vantage of tools and structures employed and devised 


260 


Critical Path 


13. Logistics assumptions, compacted shipping considerations as 
original design requirement in 

(a) Nesting 

(b) Packaging 

(c) Compounded package weight 

(d) Relationship to carriers of all types 

(e) Field delivery 

(f) Field assembly 

(g) Field service and replacement 

14. Consideration of tool techniques 

15. Consideration of materials’ availability 

16. Consideration of materials’ ratio per total design 

17. Elimination of special operator technique forming 

18. Elimination of novel soft-tool designing 

19. Numbers of 

(a) Types 

(b) Repeat parts 

(c) Subassemblies 

(d) Primary assemblies 

20. Number of forming operations 

21. Number of manufacturing tools by types 

22. Schedule of forming operations included on parts drawings 

23. Decimal fraction man-hours per operation 

24. Designed-in overall one-man-ability at every stage of operation 

25. Schedule of design routines and disciplines 

26. Establish a “parts” inventory of “active” and “obsolete” draw- 
ings — from beginning 


Critical Path: Part Two 


261 


27. Establish a “parts” budget of “required” designs of “parts” for 
assemblies and major assembly and general assembly and molds 

28. Drawing dimension standards 

29. Establish a numbering system of controlled parts 

30. Establish purchasing techniques, jig-and-fixture, lofting tech- 
niques 

C. Public relations — to run concurrently with all phases of IV (B) 

1. Education of public 

Rule 1: Never show half-finished work 

a. General magnitude of product, production, distribution. But 
no particulars that will compromise latitude of scientific de- 
sign and production philosophy of IV (B) 

b. Publicize the “facts” — i.e., the number of steps before “con- 
sumer realization” 

c. Understate all advantage 

d. Never seek publicity 

e. Have prepared releases for publisher requests when “facts” 
are ripe 


* * * 

That my 1927 half-century critical path’s realization is seemingly two 
years overdue is an illusion — it took two years to design it, so it did not be- 
come effectively operative until 1929 — which is just over a half-century ago. 

My 1927 path designing was deliberately undertaken with the following 
first-things-first objectives: 

I must avoid setting too short an overall consummation period for my 
critical path. It was of prime importance that I adopt a target date so far 
in the future as to avoid making uneasy any of the power structures of 
1927 — which might feel that their interests were threatened by what I was 
proposing. It was necessary that I reach so far beyond the power structures’ 
research-determined vision of their most forward development that my con- 
cepts would appear to be either a pleasant “pipe dream” or innocuous non- 
sense. 

I was able to do exactly that. The most powerful people I knew found 
me utterly unaccreditable but “interesting” — and to some “fascinating.” 
This induced them to invite me to their parties to entertain their guests with 
my “dreaming out loud.” For this reason the power structure’s press very 


262 


Critical Path 


frequently gave my projects prominent publicity — because they found my 
concepts popularly entertaining, they published them ever more frequently 
and prominently, hoping for advertisements-inducing, increased readership. 
In 1930 the author of “Buck Rogers” told me that he frequently used my 
concepts for his cartoons. 

I will now discuss the probable order of livingry-reoriented realization of 
the socioeconomic results of our already-accomplished, half-century, criti- 
cal-path-artifacts development. I will discuss the operationally introduced 
sequence of their realizations in terms of the many critical-path-relevant 
subjects that I also have introduced throughout this book. 

For instance, we have pointed out that the geologist Frangois de Char- 
denedes wrote for me a scenario of the technology of nature’s producing pe- 
troleum which disclosed that the amount of energy employed by nature as 
heat and pressure for the amount of time required to produce each gallon 
of petroleum, if paid for at the rate at which the public utilities now charge 
retail customers for electricity, must cost over a million dollars a gallon. 
Combine that information with the discovery that approximately 60 percent 
of the employed in U.S. America are working at tasks that are not produc- 
ing any life support. Jobs of inspectors-of-inspectors; jobs with insurance 
companies that induce people to bet that their house is going to be destroyed 
by fire while the insurance company bets that it isn’t. All these are negative 
preoccupations . . . jobs with the underwriting of insurance underwriters by 
other insurance underwriters — people checking up on one another in all the 
different departments of the Treasury, the Internal Revenue, FBI, CIA, and 
in counterespionage. About 60 percent of all human activity in America is 
not producing any physical life protection, life support, or development ac- 
commodation, which physical life support alone constitutes real wealth. 

The majority of Americans reach their jobs by automobile, probably aver- 
aging four gallons a day — thereby, each is spending four million real cos- 
mic-physical-Universe dollars a day without producing any physical 
Universe life-support wealth accredited in the energy-time — metabolic — ac- 
counting system eternally governing regenerative Universe. Humans are de- 
signed to learn how to survive only through trial-and-error-won knowledge. 
Long-known errors are, however, no longer cosmicly tolerated. The 350 tril- 
lion cosmic dollars a day wasted by the 60 percent of no-wealth-producing 
human job-holders in the U.S. A., together with the $19 quadrillion a day 
wasted by the no-wealth-producing human job-holders in all other auto- 
mobiles-to-work countries, also can no longer be cosmicly tolerated. 

Today we have computers that enable us to answer some very big ques- 
tions if all the relevant data is fed into the computer and all the questions 
are properly asked. As for instance, “Which would cost society the least: 
to carry on as at present, trying politically to create more no-wealth- 


Critical Path: Part Two 


263 


producing jobs, or paying everybody handsome fellowships to stay at home 
and save all those million-dollar-each gallons of petroleum?” Stated ever- 
more succinctly the big question will be: “Which costs more — paying all 
present job-holders a billionaire’s lifelong $400,000-a-day fellowship to stay 
at home, or having them each spend $4 million a day to commute to work?” 
Every computer will declare it to be much less expensive to pay people not 
to go to work. The same computers will also quickly reveal that there is no 
way in which each and every human could each day spend $400,000 staying 
at the most expensive hotels and doing equally expensive things; they could 
rarely spend 4000 of the 1980-deflated dollars a day, which is only 1 percent 
of a billionaire’s daily income. 

Why would all the people not continually buy all kinds of expensive 
things? Answer . . . because they will want to travel around the world, and 
they will quickly discover that while you can’t take it with you into the next 
world, you also can’t take it with you around this world. They will each dis- 
cover for themselves that the greatest luxury in the world is to be able to 
live unencumbered while able to get any information you want in split sec- 
onds and any desirable environmental condition you want in a day. 

The actuarial curve indicates an eighty-year life expectancy by 2000 a.d. 
This amounts to 700,800 hours per lifetime. I would like to make some as- 
sumptions regarding the future use by humans of those hours. I’m assuming 
the present average is a forty-hour work week and forty-nine work weeks 
per year. This amounts to 156,800 potential birth-to-death work hours per 
lifetime. If we spent only forty of our eighty years at work, that would be 
78,400 lifetime work hours. As of our present life-style, we would be giving 
1 1 percent of our lifetime to work in producing for self or for others. 

For instance, a four-day work week of five hours per day with a three- 
day weekend would result in living in the same spot and clogging up the 
highways with local weekend to-and-froing. We now propose instead of 
chopping life into work-week increments that we consolidate our work ser- 
vice potential into a few years of continuous six-day-per-week, eight-hour- 
per-day service as in the military or medical internship. 

Assuming that as a result of technological advances, the machines can 
produce adequate life-support in half the present time. Present-day custom 
would adopt a three-day, five-hour-per-day work week. This means twenty 
hours per week is all that is necessary to tend the machines that accomplish 
adequate life-support production. The internship service concept is com- 
posed of an eight-hour-per-day, six-day work week, a total of forty-eight 
hours per week. Because of mechanical advance, we are now assuming that 
the forty-hour week is reducible to a twenty-hour work week. This means 
that our originally required lifetime work service of 78,400 hours has 
through technical advance been reduced to 36,200 lifetime work hours. At 


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the constant intern service rate of 48 hours per week, the 36,200 hours of 
lifetime production can be accomplished in 754 weeks or fourteen and a half 
years. 

We are now going to assume a college- or university-level education avail- 
able to all humans — probably to be effected through a stay-at-home, video 
call-up procedure involving six years in all. We assume that there is great 
advantage to the individual of having work-years’ experience intervening be- 
tween the bachelor degree and graduate work. We assume entry into bach- 
elor work at eighteen years of age. This means that at twenty-one years of 
age the students can enter upon their internship production service consist- 
ing of forty-eight-hour work weeks. The students will then enter upon four 
years of this total fourteen and a half years of production service respon- 
sibility. This brings them to age twenty-five. They will then enter upon their 
three years of graduate work greatly informed by their production-work 
years. At twenty-eight the graduate students will enter upon their final ten 
years of production service. At thirty-eight they will have completed their 
service in direct production support of humanity. With their wisdom prob- 
ably evolved, they will have more than half their lives still to live. They will 
be extremely well informed. They will be free to initiate their own mind- 
informed commitments to the improvement of human functioning in sup- 
port of the eternally regenerative integrity of Universe. 

It is very probable that the technological advances will be far greater than 
those of the foregoing assumptions. 

At present all the great new city office buildings have fancy plumbing 
(with which only the typewriters sleep) while a majority of city people sleep 
in inferior quarters with poor plumbing. The moment we start giving every- 
one those handsome life fellowships, we will find almost all the great new 
business buildings in the cities being depopulated to such an extent that we 
shall, in quick order, be able to turn those buildings into great apartment 
houses and hotels to accommodate the free-will residential convergences of 
humanity in central cities. Although such skyscrapers are far less efficient 
than the “ultimate” city buildings, they will provide a satisfying step for- 
ward in accommodating humanity’s successively occurring desires and 
needs to deploy into wilderness country or archeological research country 
or sports country or to converge to meet with other humans for conferences 
or other collateral developments of which there will be an ever-multiplying, 
exciting availability. 


* * 


* 


Along with making it economically feasible to permit a large majority of 
people to remain at home in country or city, to think fearlessly and unsel- 


Critical Path: Part Two 


265 


fishly, we will permit all children to study at home, eliminating the school- 
house, schoolteachers, school janitors, and school-bus systems, which cost 
unnecessary trillions of dollars world-around each school year. At home we 
shall provide each child with a private room, television set, and video-edu- 
cation cassettes as well as world-satellite-interrelayed computer and con- 
trolled video-encyclopedia access. These will make it possible for any child 
anywhere to obtain lucidly, faithfully, and attractively presented authorita- 
tive information on any subject. 

Students will be able to review the definitions and explanations of several 
authorities on any given subject, as there are different viewpoints of a num- 
ber of great scholars on any given subject. The system will never get tired 
of answering the questions or even the same questions asked and answered 
until the child is sure that he or she has understood. To make children ever- 
more confident of their understanding and useful enjoyment of their 
thoughts, each will be given access to basic tools and direct experiences in 
the purposeful use of the tools. 

Children and grown people will be able to get their continuing intellectual 
education ... at their home terminals. They will get their social experience 
and tool-handling education in locally organized neighborhood activities 
when humans wish to converge. 

All those who have attained high scholarly capability assure us that the 
only real education is self-education. They also say that this self-disciplining 
is most often inspired by great teachers who make it seem apparent that it 
will be excitingly worthwhile to take the trouble to bring oneself to appre- 
hend and then comprehend variously pertinent data, phenomena, and de- 
rived principles. The intimate manuscript records of all the great self- 
educated individuals show that they discern intuitively when and what it is 
that they want to learn. Thereafter they arrange to do so by four main strat- 
egies. The first is by self-conducted experiments, if they are scientists. The 
second is by going to those live humans who have educated themselves from 
direct experiences. The third is to contact through books those who have 
discovered and learned but are now dead. Fourth, they sometimes have re- 
course to the esoteric and often exquisitely valuable information contained 
within the word-of-mouth information system relayed almost exclusively 
from generation to generation by the craftsmen-artists. 

At heart fearful of losing their jobs, the tenured professional educators of 
today and all those earning a living by teaching are relentlessly fighting vid- 
eo. Since it would damage their position to tell the truth regarding their mo- 
tives, the tenured pedants rationalize, “What the children need is the 
personal equation.” What I’ve long observed in the moving picture world 
is millions and millions of human beings falling in love with female heroines 


266 


Critical Path 


or male heroes, though knowing only their photographic images cast upon 
a blank wall. All “the personal equation” was, and as yet is, transmitted 
probably a little more poignantly by electronics than would ever be feasible 
in ordinary, personal-contact life. 

After beginning to receive their home-research lifetime fellowships and 
trying the video educational system themselves, professors and researchers 
won’t protest anymore about loss of the “personal equation” in education. 

I am certain that none of the world’s problems — which we are all perforce 
thinking about today — have any hope of solution except through total 
democratic society’s becoming thoroughly and comprehensively self-educat- 
ed. Only thereby will society be able to identify and intercommunicate the 
vital problems of total world society. Only thereafter may humanity effec- 
tively sort out and put those problems into order of importance for solution 
in respect to the most fundamental principles governing humanity’s survival 
and enjoyment of life on Earth. 


* * * 

I find one result after another of the last half-century’s critical path of 
now-fulfilled, relevant artifact-inventions and developments demonstrating 
unexpectedly intimate interrelatedness and unanticipated synergetic ecoso- 
cial productivity. Number one, we shall find that we do indeed have enough 
“good-life resources” to go around. The computer will continually direct us 
back to basics. The computer will call our attention to the many relevant 
new potentials of the synergetic integration of critical-path events. If we 
continue to use our resources — metaphysical and physical — properly, there 
will continue to be ample to take care of all humanity: food, energy, shelter, 
travel, research, cultural development, inventive initiative in all the technol- 
ogies, etc. 

Obviously the first step is to pay people the handsome fellowships to stay 
at home and say to themselves, “What was I thinking about before I was 
first told, convincingly, that I had to ‘earn a living’ by doing what someone 
else said I had to do?” Then let them discover that their fellowship income 
will permit them to travel objectively to search and research and engage in 
creative or productive endeavors anywhere around the world. 

With complete freedom of choice, much of humanity will begin to dis- 
cover that it loves to work at tasks of its own choosing — that it loves to dis- 
cipline itself to demonstrate its competence to others — that it will compete 
with the many to demonstrate its competence to serve on one of the mul- 
titude of production teams. There would be no pay for the work. It would 
be like qualifying for the Olympic team to be allowed to do what you want 
to do. You would have to prove that you could do the job you wanted to 


Critical Path: Part Two 


267 


do better than anyone else available to get onto the production teams. Per- 
mission to serve on the world’s production teams will be the greatest priv- 
ilege that humanity can bestow on an individual. There is no joy equal to 
that of being able to work for all humanity and doing what you’re doing 
well. It is difficult to match the gratification of not just crudely crafting a 
plaything for one child (which indeed can be very rewarding), but of pro- 
ducing exquisite somethings for a billion children. Activities of this kind are 
reinspirational to a mystical degree. 

As with all humanity there would be no life-support problems whatever 
for those on the production teams. There would be no attempt to block 
automation to keep human muscle and repetitive-selection jobs operative. If 
any individual wants to leave a team to have other experience or to serve 
elsewhere, a replacement would be found on the waiting list of others who 
want to take on the job. There would be the continual inspiration to invent 
more automation — to emancipate humans from performing only sterile 
muscle-and-sorting functions. Those who are real craftsmen and are good 
at developing the tools-that-make-tools and love their work will be the heart 
of the production teams. There will be no need to earn more because your 
fellowship will always get you more than you want. You won’t be able to 
buy any nonconsumables — you will only be able to rent. If you are renting 
more than you can use, the system will call the excess back. 

Those who love to teach and have something valuable to teach can dis- 
cipline themselves to qualify for membership on the subject-scenario-writing 
teams or on the video-cassette or disc production teams. Great scholars will 
thrive — whatever their fields may be. They will be free to devote their entire 
time to their labors of love. Vast numbers will discover that they are earnest, 
capable independent-research scholars. What they have to say, if unique, 
can become the subject of a video-cassette, world-satellite-relayed encyclo- 
pedia entry. 

In 1927 the only plastics we had were celluloid — a nitrocellulose devel- 
opment, by-product of explosive nitroglycerine. Celluloid was hygroscopic 
and highly flammable. Quite clearly plastic materials of many kinds were 
desirable substances, as transparent and waterproof as glass but not easily 
breakable and of much lighter weight. We had in 1927 hard rubber fountain 
pens and casein (milk-derived) poker chips but nothing larger. Wanting bet- 
ter materials and looking at one’s own fingernails, one could say that such 
and such a material is ostensibly feasible, so it will be developed. You then 
made a comprehensive list of all the desirable materials, and you kept a 
dated list of the times of their actual accomplishment. With a list of all the 
desired technologies you also kept a chronological chart of their successive 
realizations. You then compounded the information these observations were 


268 


Critical Path 


providing with your list of all the successively advancing structural-strength 
and mechanical-workability properties of all the metals. You continually 
compared these development records with your list of desired materials — 
those that would make possible solutions of various livingry problems. Such 
scientific research and engineering development of prototyping technologies 
to ever profit the total life-support and accommodation facilities will be one 
of the most popular production-team tasks. 

The critical path already accomplished in the last fifty years makes all 
this and much more immediately possible of development. It would not be 
possible to consider many of these strategies prior to the invention on this 
planet of certain artifacts: for example, the rocketry-accomplished satellites 
or recent decades’ proliferation of computers would not have been possible 
without the discovery of transistors, which would not have been possible 
without the prior discovery and development of all the discovering and in- 
venting of all history. (See Appendix I.) 

It was, however, possible in 1927 to see that such only-now-in- 1980-phys- 
ically-possible capabilities were and would always be desirable for society. 
Without being able to predict the discovery of transistors, chips, optical fi- 
bers, etc., it was easily possible to dream in 1927 that anything we needed 
to do could be done — never mind how — and to say to oneself, “I want a de- 
vice like a fairy wand, which I need only wave while stating audibly the re- 
sults I wish,” and that this would be accomplished by subvisible, atomic 
behaviors. Whether this was to be done at the push of a button was of no 
real consequence. It is what we need and want to do that is reasonable that 
counts. My fifty-three-year critical path has proven that. I did not just state 
what was desired. I saw that it was my responsibility to undertake to design 
the artifacts that would best produce the desired results. Then, as first pre- 
sented with new discoveries and developments by others, I must redesign 
my artifacts to take advantage of the now-proven additional technical ca- 
pabilities. 

For a number of reasons I felt doors that would open automatically on 
a human’s approach would be desirable, and so I specified such automati- 
cally opening doors in my 1927 Dymaxion House. I also specified that they 
should fold sidewise in accordion pleats, so that the opened door-edge 
would not intercept the approaching human and cause a collision. My 
brother was an engineer on the Pittsfield, Massachusetts, staff of General 
Electric. A year after I had incorporated the foregoing equipment in the de- 
sign of my proposed Dymaxion House, my brother telegraphed me to let 
me know that a General Electric scientist had just invented the photoelec- 
tric cell which, upon interruption of a light beam focused upon it, would 
activate a door opening by a miniature electric motor. As a practical and 


Critical Path: Part Two 


269 


very reliable engineer, my brother considered my serious inclusion, in my 
designing, of technology that had not as yet been invented to be “lying” to 
myself and others. The critical-path concept had not as yet been conceived 
and incorporated in engineering-school curricula, so his telegram read, 
“Thank God, the just-invented photoelectric cell has saved you from being 
a liar. You can get one from General Electric for seventy dollars.” The ac- 
cordionlike foldable door also had not yet been invented in 1927. It was in- 
vented ten years later, once more saving me from “being a liar.” So it went 
with hundreds of my half-century-to-come critical-path artifact inclusions 
of 1927. 

Therewith I made the working assumption that “wishes are reasonable,” 
that wishes defined the functions of not-as-yet-in vented but highly desirable 
technology. It is, in fact, the as-yet-ungratifiable everyday needs that always 
inspire inventors in general. What you want for yourself may never be grat- 
ified. What you want for everybody, because you can see the total benefits 
that can accrue, is usually reasonable and technologically gratifiable, and to 
be realized possibly within your own generation. 


CHAPTER 9 


Critical Path : 

Part Three 

W ITHOUT LOSING SIGHT of all the foregoing, to which I will return lat- 
er, I’d like to turn our attention to soil and land conservation and its 
essential functioning in support of total ecological regeneration and the 
work of those who would like to be on the productivity teams for reforesting 
the world as well as those working on ways to hold onto and regenerate the 
fertile topsoils — the people who are concerned in a very major way with the 
planet Earth as a total crystalline, hydraulic, and pneumatic system. 

We can harness great streams and let gravity pull water inward to the sea 
while returning and reducing the runoff of topsoil-carrying-water. We can 
dam areas to recover washed-away topsoil as yet resident in freshwater lakes 
and streams and, using off-peak wind-power generation, repump bottom 
silts to dry land to enrich the soil’s surfaces. 

The engineering and planning teams of our post- 1980- 1990 world crisis 
period will look at our whole planet only omniconsiderately, whether deal- 
ing with the conservation of the soil or with how to employ gravity hydrau- 
lically, in an omni-intelligent and omniconsiderate manner: for instance, to 
irrigate most effectively, never again thinking in terms of individual local 
economies or individual material advantage terms, but thinking only in 
terms of the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe as aided locally by 
total planetary ecology support and thereby omnihuman support. In respect 
to optimum omniecology conservation there are some immediate-past-his- 
tory experiences to be considered. 

As recounted in our “Legally Piggily” chapter, during the time of the 
1926 “bad hog market,’’ which led to the 1929 Great Crash, which led in 
turn to the 1933 New Deal, after all the farmers had been displaced by the 
banks foreclosing on their farm mortgages and their farm machinery, the 


270 


Critical Path: Part Three 


271 


no-longer-worked-and-irrigated land dried out, and the wind-storm “dust 
bowls” began to grow and to blow away the topsoils; this sequence, followed 
by heavy rains, brought about vast land erosion. 

The 1933-inaugurated New Deal instituted a program to rebuild the soil 
and get the farmers back on the land. They erected what they called “shel- 
terbelts,” produced by high hedges initially produced with swiftly and thick- 
ly growing Osage orange trees augmented progressively with other varieties 
of slower- but higher-growing bushes and trees. These high hedges enclosed 
square “sections” — quarter square miles — of potentially rich farmland. 
These shelterbelts wrought miracles in recapturing the as-yet-wind-borne 
soils and new, daily, stardust receipts of our planet. Altogether they rebuilt 
the soil throughout the last flat plains and prairies of the United States. 

Using the knowledge gained in producing the U.S.A. shelterbelts, the re- 
covery of fertile land from desert in Israel, accomplished twenty years later, 
was an extraordinary vindication of the New Deal agricultural department’s 
soil-building theory. The Israeli shelterbelts were started in deserts with the 
water-capturing eucalyptus trees — all of whose roots collect local ground 
water. In the shelterbelt growth there is a decade-long series of planting of 
different kinds of tree and bush growths, which growth finally forms huge, 
high, dense, linear barriers of trees and bushes. 

As they put farmers back on the land, the New Deal discovered that the 
productivity in America was such that with only 7 percent of the world’s 
population here in North America (including the people of Canada and 
Mexico), the North American farms greatly overproduced its people’s 
needs. Had they been able to look realistically at the whole Earth in terms 
of total productivity of the planet and the needs of all its people, adminis- 
tered by one world government, it would have been a different story. It still 
can be a different story. 

Until after World War II there was no mechanical refrigeration of rail- 
way or highway vehicle transport. From 1900 until 1950 we had progres- 
sively re-iced refrigerator freight cars for railway transport of fresh meat 
and fruit. So many of the artifacts that now make possible special-environ- 
ment-maintaining container-car conditions were not available until after 
World War II. In 1933 the technology was not yet suitable for serving the 
rest of the world’s food needs from America, so farm overproductivity be- 
came frequent. In the game of food marketing in America entrepreneurs 
gain as money , in minutes of market trading, the major portion of the real 
life-support wealth produced by the farmers’ year-long labor. For instance, 
cattlemen produce the original cattle that are sold to feeding and fattening 
farms in a series of price markups before the food finally reaches the dining 
room table. Of the present price paid by you and me for beefsteak, the 


272 


Critical Path 


cattlemen receive only a small percentage. Incidentally, all the corn and oth- 
er grains fed to the cattle to fatten them renders those grains and kernels 
saleable as fat for prices tenfold what they bring simply as grain. The fat 
is useless to the buyer, but the hoax-myth that it makes the meat more pal- 
atable makes it impossible to buy the beef without the fat. If all the corn 
and grain going into useless fat were converted into alcohol for driving our 
cars, it would take care of much of our energy fuel needs. 

In the 1920s and 1930s overproduction in U.S.A. farming frequently 
drove the prices paid to the farmer substantially below his costs, let alone 
his unpaid-for labor and worry. So the New Deal established what it called 
“the ever-normal-grainery,” which recognized the farmer as the one to be 
protected. In “the ever-normal-grainery” the U.S.A. government stockpiled 
against periodic crop shortfalls. Under this program local representatives of 
the government would seal the farmers’ harvests in local grain bins and pay 
them a fixed price adequate to cover their operating costs. Keeping surplus 
grain off the market kept the prices up. The New Deal U.S.A. government 
was, in fact, engaging in across-the-board price-fixing of everything — met- 
als, oils, rents, wages, bank loans, etc. The farmer was paid to keep much 
of his land out of production, thus fostering productive acreage crop rota- 
tion for rebuilding the soil and other sound cultivating practices. For insti- 
tuting all of those periodically unproductive acreage practices the 
government awarded the farmer a generous annual per-acre bonus. 

This is how the government came to pay farmers for keeping acreage out 
of production as well as fixing prices so that farmers would not be victim- 
ized by the greed of the middlemen. Now for the “Legally Piggily” side of 
the story. 

During the half-century since 1926 another set of class-one evolution 
events occurred which often seemed to be only-humanly-planned-and-con- 
trived class-two evolution. In the “Legally Piggily” chapter we noted how 
the farmers’ machinery was seized by the banks when the banks foreclosed 
on the farms. When the New Deal arrived, the banks owned vast quantities 
of farm machinery. It was rarely sold back to the individual farmers. They 
had no money or income enough to warrant a loan to them. Private-enter- 
prise mobile brigades for mechanically planting, cultivating, and harvesting 
were formed and bought much of the bank-replevined farm machinery, 
which they transported by trucks from state to state, town to town, and 
farm to farm. These mobile farm-operating brigades start in the Deep South 
in early spring, moving north with the spring and their truck-mounted farm 
machinery. They travel together in caravans, with human mechanics aboard 
to operate the machinery which they unload at their local stops. Their crews 
occupy all the motels in the small farm towns along the way. Plowing and 


Critical Path: Part Three 


273 


sowing seeds all the way northward, they turn around at the northern bor- 
ders of the U.S.A. and return to the South to progressively reap the now- 
ready harvest with their CB radiotelephone-interlinked reaping-machinery 
crews. The grain harvested is now stored in the former “ever-normal-grain- 
ery” bins. The mobile-harvesting teams’ managers then go to the local banks 
and are given certificates of receipt, which they then forward to the offices 
of the no-longer-locally-resident owners of the farmlands. These owners are 
no longer “farmers” or even nonfarmer individual humans. They are great 
business conglomerates. 

In most areas of the American economy huge conglomerate money-mak- 
ing businesses have swept together many smaller money-making acquisi- 
tions; no single product name can adequately describe the vast money- 
making characteristics of these new conglomerates. Only a unique collection 
of alphabetical letters now identifies them. These conglomerates had noth- 
ing to do anymore with the “personal equation” idea of history’s originally 
locally-owned-and-managed businesses. 

“Practical”-size farm acreages rapidly grew from a hundred to thousands 
of acres, serviced mechanically by the already-described roving teams of 
workers. When the great corporations bought these farmlands, they bought 
with them the U.S.A. government’s agreements to pay annual per-acre bo- 
nuses to the owners to compensate them for their nonearning, soil-conserv- 
ing, rotationally unused acres. 

Sponge-sucking together of a plethora of profit-wise-successful small en- 
terprises — both of the invisible, metallurgical, chemical, and electronic rev- 
olution and of the highly profitable, successful, older visible-product 
companies — has produced conglomerates so powerful as to overwhelm the 
credit and business-doing capabilities not only of approximately all small 
single-category-of-production corporations but of all the old individually 
owned general store businesses. 

Just as humans’ names at one time indicated their occupations — Smith 
was a blacksmith, though successive generations of his progeny Smiths no 
longer smote — in the same way today’s corporations’ names mean nothing. 
International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT) company now owns and op- 
erates book publishing companies, makes musical instruments, bakes bread, 
and engages in hundreds of other essentially unrelated businesses. For this 
reason these super-supermarket conglomerates are now adopting multi-ini- 
tial names and logos without providing the public any means of knowing 
what the initials stand for. 

Many of the great conglomerates have such power and size — as, for in- 
stance, Exxon, GM or IBM — that any one of their annual business acreages, 
values of machinery, numbers of employees, budgets, etc., dwarf the corre- 


274 


Critical Path 


sponding acreage, plants, structures, budgets, and population of many of the 
world’s nations. 

A man named Edward Higbee was the first ever to write an article on 
this subject for Time magazine (June 29, 1962, pp. 10-1 1). Everyone at that 
time assumed that the American farmer was on the land and was a great 
political power. As I’ve mentioned earlier, when I was young, 90 percent 
of humanity in America lived and worked on the farms. “There resided the 
great grass-roots votes.” Today only 7 percent live and work on the farms. 
Higbee caught on long ago to the fact that the farmers were no longer living 
and working on the farmland, though all the politicians in Washington 
thought they were on the land. The politicians were misinformedly doing 
everything they could to curry the voting favor of those vast-majority-of- 
the-population “farmers” supposedly living and working “out there” on the 
land. There were, however, almost no real, live human farmers out there on 
the farms whose votes they could curry with their favors. In a magnificently 
well-written two-page article in Time Higbee suddenly brought some but 
not all of the politicians to the realization that their picture of the “farmer” 
was mistaken. Many of the politicans found it “worth their while” to main- 
tain the old picture in the public’s concept. It provided invisible latitude for 
their wheeling and dealing. 

Because everybody was living in cities, thousands of miles away from the 
farms, the public illusion that all the farms were being lived on and were 
being worked by those farmers has persisted to this day. The illusion persists 
despite the fact that superhighways- and automobile-touring Americans 
drive and fly ever more frequently across the vast farmlands of the country. 
The illusion is sustained by the clusters of tree-surrounded farmhouses, 
barns, chicken houses, silos, and sometimes windmills, which always lie on 
the horizon because the farmers did not wish to live or have their livestock 
near the roads, and the superhighways have been led along the outer “sec- 
tion lines.” The fact that they are unoccupied cannot be seen at remote dis- 
tances. Once in a while one of those farms is occupied by a conglomerate 
superintendent. The smoke from his house implies that all the farms are oc- 
cupied. Seen from airplanes, the same illusion exists. 

The big corporations have been taking advantage of all the favorable-to- 
the-corporations’ sentimental illusions of the presence of farmers, gaining 
along with their enormous uncultivated farmland acquisitions large subsi- 
dies paid out by the U.S. government for “farmers’ ” rotationally unused 
farmland acreage. Billions of dollars of government subsidies now go to the 
conglomerate farmland owners. 

In the “Legally Piggily,” lawyer-capitalism-controlled time of Eisenhow- 
er Assistant Secretary of Agriculture Butz said, “You conglomerates can 


Critical Path: Part Three 


275 


cut out all the green belts. There is a tremendous amount of valuable bonus- 
earning unused acreage under those shelterbelts.” Suddenly all the shelter- 
belts were bulldozed away, so the conglomerate farmland owners could now 
legally claim the bulldozed-into-existence unplanted land to be “withheld 
production acreage,” upon which they could realize very sizeable govern- 
ment subsidies. In vain did the few Mennonite and other religious sect farm- 
ers of Kansas’s — and other states’ — corn and wheat lands complain about 
the returning dust bowl occasioned by the bulldozing away of those shel- 
terbelts. 

We’ve talked in this book about entropy and syntropy: The entropic stars 
exporting energy as radiation; and the syntropic loci in Universe where en- 
ergy is being imported and converted from radiation to matter. We noted 
how, despite Boltzmann’s brilliant reasoning, the syntropic importing loci of 
Universe have not been scientifically accreditable as existing because they 
are astronomically invisible. They are invisible because of not giving off any 
radiation. We noted that the planet Earth is one of those syntropic energy- 
importing places — the only one we know of — where the entropic Sun radi- 
ation is constantly being impounded by the syntropic photosynthesis of the 
vegetation and converted from random radiation receipts into beautiful, or- 
derly molecular structures (matter), with other living creatures and organ- 
isms in turn consuming the vegetation-produced molecules and thereby 
syntropically “growing” physically by themselves, producing large numbers 
of chemically orderly molecules. We observe this great syntropic operation 
pattern to be manifest in the natural ecology of our planet. 

Some of the businesspeople described in “Legally Piggily” and others in 
political bureaucracies are willfully entropic, arguing that “ends justify 
means.” For instance, almost all businesspeople undertake to make all the 
money they can in as short a time as possible both for their stockholders 
and themselves. The money they make is not the medium of exchange — 
gold, silver, and copper coinage — but the entirely “abstract,” matterless 
numbers of digit dollars entered into their respective, legally valid credit ac- 
counts in the bank ledgers, or as manifest in the stocks and bond portfolios 
of individuals certifiably owning the corporate shares. Such abstract dollar 
entropic “worth-making” is the antithesis of syntropic-energetic-wealth- 
making by producing more service function with ever-less weight and vol- 
ume of material, or by vegetation-and-its-physical-growth by ever- 
multiplying and -regenerating molecular structuring. The business and 
political entropy occurs in many ways. For instance, to make the most mon- 
ey with least costs, corporations put fumes into the sky and other wastes 
into the sluiceways; they cut out the shelterbelts, letting the topsoil blow 
away; they cut out employees to save money, while making the customers 


276 


Critical Path 


stand in line for long periods of time, often wasting the valuable productive 
time of those in line. Furthermore, the banks loan your (real-life-support, 
wealth-representing) dollars to others at 10 percent or more interest, which 
10 percent the bank keeps, wherefore the banks’ transaction, having pro- 
duced no additional physical life-support wealth itself, means that the banks 
simply took their legally attested 10 percent away from your real-wealth ac- 
count. 

By and large the function of life on the planet is designed to be syntro- 
pic — to impound the radiation, conserve it, and use it to produce further 
syntropic functioning in overall support of the syntropic integrity of eter- 
nally regenerative Universe. The tendencies of many human beings — want- 
ing to cultivate the soil, to care for the animals, the drive of artists to create, 
of artisans to build, of inventors to invent and develop time- and trouble- 
savers for others — are all manifests of the designed-in syntropic propensities 
of humans. The generous, compassionate propensity of humans is primarily 
syntropic. The selfish are “entropic.” In order to keep Universe regenerative 
nature has placed human beings on this planet for their syntropic function- 
ing. 

We may safely assume that class-one evolution is syntropic and that class 
two is often entropically diseased. The drive to make money is inherently 
entropic, for it seeks to monopolize order while leaving un-cope-with-able 
disorder to overwhelm others. We must remember that the majority of those 
convincedly committed to “making money” are motivated to do so primar- 
ily because of their mistaken conviction that there is a fundamental (exter- 
nal) inadequacy of human life support on our planet. That has been true 
until yesterday. They were right until the syntropic, class-one evolutionary 
accelerating ephemeralization reached a point of doing so much more work 
with so much less effort, because of the reduction in weights per strength 
ratios, that we came ten years ago to the point where we could, by proven 
design, take care of everyone at standards higher than any have ever known. 

In the vast majority of humans there is an innate inclination, propensi- 
ty — even drive — to make sense and to produce order in consonance with 
universal order. The assumption by many humans that there is only entro- 
pic disorder seemingly present in Universe is brought about by looking only 
at the phases of energy separating out from any one system and by not look- 
ing at the same disengaging energies always joining syntropically in the pro- 
duction of other systems. 

We will now consider other ramifications of the about-to-be-realized syn- 
ergetic integration of all the objectives of the great half-century critical path. 

All the artifacts needed for its synergetic fulfillment have been accom- 
plished. (See historical table of realized scientific and technical accomplish- 


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211 


ments, Appendix I.) The generalized principles calling for their inclusion in 
the critical-path conceptioning of fifty years ago have been realized objec- 
tively in special-case discoveries, inventions, or designs taking place only 
during the last half-century. 

It is a fact that we can now technologically recover and sort out the valu- 
able chemistries in all the chimney-escaping or sluiceway-escaping 
“wastes,” which, though unwanted by the local manufacturers, are neces- 
sary chemical-element components in the overall syntropic success of eter- 
nal regeneration of Universe. Nature has no pollutions — it has very valuable 
chemistries that function only under special conditions, so the critical-path 
strategy is to get all the money-maker-unwanted chemistries shunted into 
all their syntropically functioning routes. Pollution is simply energy — in the 
form of unfamiliar matter — which the timing of the omniregenerative cos- 
mic system cannot immediately use but must use later. 

We will now seek for the causes and solution of smog as a special case 
syntropic problem — whose solution, however, leads to understanding of 
how many other such problems will be solved. 

We have places on our planet, like Los Angeles, that are world-famous 
for what is called “smog.” 

With the Earth revolving from west to east, the morning Sun heats the 
eastern slopes of mountains. In the afternoon it heats the western slopes as 
the eastern slopes cool off. The Northern Hemisphere’s prevailing winds are 
being sucked from the northwest highs by low-pressure areas of the tropics 
in a southeast direction for the Northern Hemisphere observer, which phe- 
nomena we misidentify as “northwest winds.” They are in reality southeast 
drafts. These prevailing southeast drafts dominate the environmental con- 
ditions of the 90 percent of humanity living north of the Equator — the ma- 
jority of our planet’s moist, life-support land is also north of the Equator. 
From the vast expanses of the North Pacific cool airs of the evening impinge 
upon the warm western slopes of all the Pacific islands and upon the West 
Coast mountains of the United States. 

In the 1950s physics discovered that temperature differentials are equiv- 
alent to electrical-potential differentials and that what we have been calling 
“condensation” into water of water vapor is, in fact, electrolytic formation 
of atoms into water molecules. We have heating on one side of the moun- 
tains and cooling on the other. This produces an electric-potential differen- 
tial between the eastern and western slopes as well as between the warm 
western slopes and the cool Pacific Ocean air. 

Since what we used to call “condensation of moisture” is in fact electro- 
lytic fixation — the low-floating, West Coast mist clouds of California are 
produced by the cool airs impinging on the warm mountainside, bringing 


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about electric-potential differential and electrolytic fixation, which produces 
those lovely mists riding the western mountain slopes, particularly of South- 
ern California, but also of all the western slopes of all the mountained Pa- 
cific islands. 

We next observe the great twentieth-century influx of industry onto the 
California coast. Overnight settlements became towns and towns became 
cities, each with its own chamber of commerce doing its best to attract ever 
more industry. In order to pay for town governments taxes are necessary. 
In order to pay political obligations the elected town administrations need 
money to hire people to carry on all the legislatively conceived tasks — some 
of them necessary, many of them unnecessary, but all requiring large sums 
of money. 

The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and the Los Angeles govern- 
ment did everything they could to invite industry to move into their domain 
because industries produce the greatest amount of taxable money-making. 
Industries also produce jobs and thereby in turn wages that can be taxed. 
Los Angeles did everything it could to attract industries and businesses. 
Having many locally occurring petroleum wells, one of the most logical of 
industries brought into Los Angeles was that of oil drilling, pumping, re- 
fining, storage, and shipping, such as those of the concentrated operations 
of the oil fields and harbor area of Los Angeles’s Long Beach. Los Angeles 
built a vast number of huge refineries in the southwest part of the city. On 
its southeastern side Los Angeles positioned its steel mills to satisfy the large 
demand for steel products in the building of the oil refineries, their storage 
tanks and pipelines. 

The fumes from these industries then loaded the mist and the warm airs, 
and the Sun-exposed upper cloud surfaces and their shaded lower surfaces 
produced temperature differentials, which in turn produced layer inversion, 
with the fumes locked in on the underside, which then acted as a widespread 
lower atmospheric lid, holding the industrial gases and fumes close to the 
ground throughout the whole Los Angeles basin. Thus smog became an in- 
dustrially produced phenomenon. 

Los Angeles’s citizens became politically articulate about this “air pollu- 
tion’’ and went to their city government saying, “We mustn’t have this in 
our city.” The city government then went to the utilities, refineries, and 
steel manufacturers and said, “Stop putting your smog-producing fumes 
into our sky. We’ve looked into the situation and find there exists equipment 
that makes it possible to precipitate that fume. But you don’t have that 
equipment.” The companies responded, “If we put in that fume-precipita- 
tion equipment, it will cost us so much more to produce here in L.A. than 
it does companies producing in places that don’t have such controls that we 


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279 


won’t be able to compete in our industry. We’ll be forced out of business. 
So we’re either going to have to cut out this nonsense about fume precipi- 
tation or move out of your city.” The municipal government said, “For 
Heaven’s sake, don’t leave. Your tax base is essential to our political sur- 
vival. We’re politicians, we’ll fix it up in some other way.” 

Soon thereafter the L.A. city government made the following pronounce- 
ment: “People, the smog is your fault. It’s your backyard incinerators that 
are producing this smog.” The people said, “Sure enough, we are inciner- 
ating in Los Angeles. We are in the wrong. We must stop incinerating.” So 
a law was passed saying that nobody could incinerate within the city limits. 
The people did stop incinerating, and the smog abated — but only in minor 
degree. The real offender was the industrial fumes. Along came World War 
II, and the issue was buried under more immediately pressing matters. 

When World War II was over, great numbers of additional citizens 
moved into California. Suddenly the smog problem was back, and the whole 
act of pre- World War II was repeated. The people complained to the mu- 
nicipal government, and the omnichanged government personnel had entire- 
ly forgotten about what had happened twenty years earlier. They went after 
the big corporations, which threatened to leave town, and the city once 
again pleaded, “Don’t leave town. We need you here.” 

Once more the city blamed the people: “It’s the fumes from your auto- 
mobiles that are producing the smog. We have taken samples, with scientific 
instruments, of the below-the-smog air, which samples when analyzed 
proved the obnoxious fumes to be those of your automobiles.” With their 
greatest election-fund support coming from the oil men, and with the most 
powerful regulation lobbying being carried on also by the oil men, the poli- 
ticians of America took up the cry, “It’s the automobiles.” The people said, 
“Why, sure enough. We’ll have to do something about it. We’ll pass laws 
to limit the level of fumes coming out of each car and require the manu- 
facturers to produce and install special smog-control equipment in each 
car.” The automobile companies loved that. It meant more accessories to 
be manufactured and sold and an obvious way to rationalize increasing the 
price of their cars. 

Christmas and New Year’s Days are celebrated everywhere in America, 
but Los Angeles, being a relatively new and gigantic social body, is able to 
alter its celebration customs. The L.A. refineries and heavy industries have 
learned that the people of California want to take a Christmas vacation. So 
the holiday becomes a ten-or-more-day vacation starting the weekend before 
Christmas and continuing through the weekend after New Year’s Day. It 
pays all the refineries and other heavy industries to shut down their plants. 
As the holiday proceeds, the air gets clearer and clearer, until on New 


280 


Critical Path 


Year’s Day — the traditional Rose Bowl Day — you find throughout Los An- 
geles a dreamy-clear view of all the surrounding, often snow-capped moun- 
tains. If you went out with scientific devices to measure the fume-level from 
the cars, your instrument would read approximately zero. The only reason 
that auto fumes were previously measurable was that the industrial-fume- 
laden ceiling held the auto fumes down and locked them in at the level at 
which you and I are breathing. I have taken many New Year’s Day pictures 
from the hills of Los Angeles showing it to be absolutely clear. Then, on 
back-to-work industrial Monday, you see a vast, molasses-brown cloud roll- 
ing in from the southwest gradually to obscure the whole of Los Angeles. 

There is no question about it. It is the refineries, the steel and other mills, 
and the public utility fumes that produce the smog. But no municipal gov- 
ernment anywhere in America is going to let its industry go away. There- 
fore, cities are always going to find political ways of absolving the industries 
while blaming the people. Air does not stay in any one place. There is a pre- 
posterously stubborn myth about “this being my or someone else’s air- 
space. . . . This is my air.” Air keeps moving right through the geometry of 
our environment to continually recircle the Earth. The air belongs only to 
everybody on our planet. 

We’re going to have to gradually recognize that whatever our central gov- 
ernment be — whether it’s our United States government or a world govern- 
ment — it is going to have to put in equipment to precipitate fumes — no 
matter what it costs. Companies must install the precipitators or be put out 
of business. No one will be allowed to put fumes into the sky or noxious 
chemistries into our waters ever again. We do have the well-proven physical 
equipment to deal with this problem today. At the end of the year, when 
we figure a company’s taxes, we will rebate the company taxes by whatever 
the cost of the fume- or chemical-precipitating equipment and the cost of 
its operation may be. All companies will be able to compete on a fair basis 
despite the initial and operative cost of the equipment. But the valuable re- 
covered chemistries must be turned over to the government by the compa- 
nies. Society must become aware of the high value of these recovered 
chemistries. For example, the amount of sulphur coming out of all the chim- 
neys around the world annually exactly equals the amount of sulphur mined 
from the ground and purchased annually by industry to keep its wheels 
turning. The computers will quickly show that the value of the recovered 
chemistries turned over to the government will more than pay back the cost 
of their rebates to the industrial companies. The computers will also show 
that the reduction in cost of respiratory ailments and other deleterious smog 
effects brought about by elimination of the smog constitutes an out-and-out 
profit to society. 


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The recirculation of metals and other chemistries is now being handled 
only by what we call “mongers.” Before World War I society wrongly as- 
sumed that metals and chemicals traveled only a one-way street to the rust- 
ing dump heaps. A company that produced iron assumed it to be consumed 
like food or rusted away until it had entirely disappeared. All physical sub- 
stances were assumed to be entropic — i.e., to waste away, never to return. 
It was not until the enormous amounts of metals produced in World War 
I began to come back again into the market in the 1930s that those con- 
cerned with such matters began to recognize the economic advantages ex- 
isting in obsolete-form metals returning as scrap, which metals were more 
highly refined and concentrated than were the newly mined ores. Scrap be- 
came extremely important. 

The scrapmongers are in business to make money. They sell their scrap 
metals only when they feel sure they are getting the highest possible prices. 
To increase prices the profit-motivated mongers held onto their scrap. As 
a consequence their yards get bigger and bigger as well as more and more 
unsightly. This constitutes a blockage in the world’s metals-recirculatory 
system. This means that world government is going to have to take over al- 
together all the functions of recirculation. 

Talking about scrap, which is more accurately to be called recirculation, 
is analogous to talking about the bloodstream or other circulatory systems 
of humans and other organisms. We are an integral stage in an omniregen- 
erative cosmic system. The Universe is 100-percent regenerative. Terrestrial 
ecology has been but is no longer 100-percent regenerative. Recirculation is 
regenerative. Blockages in that recirculation occur when money-making 
people, seeking special economic advantage for themselves, hold back the 
flow of regenerative essentials to increase their prices. 

Governments are going to have to take over the function of eliminating 
any and all stoppages in the recirculatory integrity of our planet. All cor- 
porations are going to have to turn over to the government all the chemicals 
they recover by fume precipitation or filtered sluiceway condensations. 
Hoarding of any kind must be banished from human affairs. Today, in the 
copper industry, the quantity of recirculating scrap copper is so great that 
it dwarfs the newly mined copper production, which provokes the world 
copper-mine-owning cartel into maintaining a powerful Washington lobby 
that seeks to increase government stockpiling of copper. 

All special-interest lobbies are entropic. Class-one evolution is progres- 
sively eliminating all blockages to recirculation. Regenerative recirculation 
of metals has the unique function of realizing the twenty-two-and-one-half- 
year recirculation cycle. It is these cyclically produced technological gains 
that make it possible to take care of ever-more humans at ever-higher stan- 


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dards of living with ever-less pounds and volume of matter and ever-less 
ergs of energy and seconds of time per each technical-function performance. 

I was able to arrive at that figure of a twenty-two-and-one-half-year met- 
als-recirculating cycle in 1936. I was working for the Phelps Dodge Com- 
pany, who had asked me to give them some prognostications about the uses 
of copper in the future of world industry. 

Copper is the most plentiful of the most efficient electric-power-produc- 
tion and -conduction metals. World War I was a power-production war. 
And copper is the most plentiful of nonsparking metals and is therefore log- 
ically employed in connection with gunpowder-handling equipment such as 
the shells inserted into the gun breeches. Because of these facts, the demand 
for copper in 1917 was epochally great. 

Not long before World War I and its huge demand for copper, copper- 
ore-to-pure-metal reduction by the vastly less expensive flotation process 
and the also much less expensive electrolytic refining brought the cost of 
mining and refining copper so low that the cash value of the average 
amounts of recoverable gold and silver co-occurring with the copper — 
which gold and silver are automatically purchased by the U.S. government 
mint — exactly paid for all the mining and refining of the copper itself. The 
whole price paid for copper was profit. The mineowners then decided to 
mine only when the prices bid for copper were at a peak. The prices bid al- 
ways peaked in wartime. With World War I over the world copper cartel 
waited and worked for the start of World War II. 

In the 1930s the big copper companies were badly bothered by the influx 
of copper scrap into the marketplace. Up to the time when I came to study 
the copper situation, the rates of evolutionary change were so slow that the 
mineowners had no idea that the copper they sold would ever come back 
on the market to disturb their price. 

By 1936 the copper price controls were completely challenged by the 
scrap influx. Phelps Dodge asked me to do some research on the problem, 
so I reviewed all the known, published data of the metals world. In the met- 
als world very accurate records are kept about how metals have been and 
are now being used. Very profitable publications are maintained by the af- 
fluent metals businesses. Very accurate inventories exist detailing, for in- 
stance, how much of any given metal is built into an automobile. In 1936 
there was only about thirty pounds of copper in each American automobile. 
Copper is expensive, and the auto manufacturers try to keep the use of ex- 
pensive metals to a minimum. However, considerable copper is used in a gas 
station — for instance, in all the gas-tank-filling nozzle equipment — because 
it is nonsparking. You couldn’t possibly use a sparking metal such as steel 
around gasoline. 

I was able to arrive at that previously undiscovered twenty-two-and-one- 


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half-year recycling figure by very carefully integrating the total inventory 
of the in-use tonnages of metals in all the main categories of their use — for 
instance, the inventoried copper in all extant buildings, in old roofings, gut- 
terings, and flashings, brass pipes, and so forth. The total inventory of cop- 
per in old buildings, both business and residential, is an inventory that 
becomes obsolete and is scrapped and recirculated on an overall average of 
once every fifty years. Within the building category copper comes out faster 
from big city buildings than from single-family country residences. 

What makes obsolete any of the major categories of metals in use is the 
rate at which the new technologies occur that make obsolete the older tech- 
nologies. In the electronics industry there exists only a two-year lag between 
the discovery or invention of new functions and improved techniques and 
their acceptance and employment by the electronics industry. This short lag 
is occasioned by the fact that the physical phenomena involved operate at 
subvisible-to-human-sight levels. This means that the behaviors are consid- 
ered only on a basis of figures. If this one works better than the others to 
a sufficient, numerically expressible degree without lowering contiguous be- 
havioral efficiencies, it can be reliably calculated that adoption of the newer 
facility will produce universal advantage. No human opinions on the merits 
or demerits of the discoveries and their invented technical realizations are 
involved. 

In the aeronautical arts — airframe, power plant, instrumentation, airport 
facilities, and ground-controlled flight-pattern technologies — there is a five- 
year gestation period between invention and industry’s adoption for use. 
The discoveries and technical inventions in the aeronautical arts are both 
visible and invisible. When invisible, the decisions to adopt are made scien- 
tifically through instrumentally derived numbers — where visible, the deci- 
sions are made on past experience and opinionated comparisons. Where 
there is room for opinion and personal prejudice, the decisions to reject or 
to adopt take longer. The more science and the less opinion is involved, the 
quicker the new technology is adopted. It is the rate at which new inven- 
tions are adopted that spells the rate of obsolescence of the technologies they 
are to replace. 

By taking the invention-gestation rates in the different industries, which 
we’ve discussed elsewhere in this book (two years in electronics between in- 
vention and use, five years in aviation between invention and use, ten years 
in automobile manufacturing, fifteen in railroad, twenty-five years in big 
buildings, and fifty years in single-family dwellings), we integrate the 
amount of copper in each use-category and their respective number of years 
of use, and thus find the average rate at which copper (and all the metals) 
come back as scrap to be every twenty-two and one-half years. 

The unprecedentedly great World War I copper production occurred pri- 


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Critical Path 


marily in America. In one year, 1917, humanity took more copper out of 
the ground, refined it, and put it to work than had been cumulatively pro- 
duced in all the world throughout all previously recorded history’s years. 

This produced in 1917 a vertical cliff on the “all-history charts of world 
copper production.’’ Adding twenty-two and one-half years to 1917 would 
bring the date of reappearance of the crest of that 1917 world-record pro- 
duction scrap to July 1939. So I told Phelps Dodge in 1936 that three years 
later, in July 1939, they were going to be overwhelmed by scrap. Mean- 
while, I became the science and technology consultant on the editorial staff 
of Fortune magazine in 1938. In July 1939 the head of research for Phelps 
Dodge called me up on the telephone and said, “Bucky, your twenty-two- 
and-one-half-year scrap-return prediction is absolutely right. Go down to 
the New York docks and observe.’’ I did so. Alongside all the great cargo 
ships were cargo barges filled with scrap metals, piled enormously high. 

Copper is plentiful enough to be trustworthily used but scarce enough to 
be used only in the most efficient manner. Copper is a sensitive metal — the 
so-called bellwether of the metals. Whatever copper does indicates exactly 
what the other metals are going to do in the price and production markets; 
for instance, steel scrap was also coming back at exactly the same rate as 
copper — twenty-two-and-one-half years after production from newly mined 
ore. Hoping to protect their anticipated very high prices when World War 
II came along, and all unbeknownst to the general public, all the U.S.A. 
metals owners in 1939 were selling all their scrap metal to Germany and 
Japan to fire back at America two years later when World War II did come 
along. It was not a moral thing for the scrapmongers to do. The public in 
general had not the slightest idea what was going on — the American busi- 
ness public didn’t catch on to the idea of metal-scrap recirculation until long 
after World War II was over. The American and world public at large have 
not as yet caught on to the significance of recirculating scrap metals making 
almost obsolete further mining of metallic ores in general. The authors of 
the Club of Rome’s “Limits to Growth’’ had never heard of scrap-metals 
recirculation. 

I now point out again that with acceleration of ephemeralization — doing 
more with less — came the acceleration of the rate of gaining information on 
how to do more with less in the invisible world of electronics, metallurgy, 
chemistry, and atomics. By the time the metals came around in their twen- 
ty-two-and-one-half-year cycles, we had learned so much more that we 
could take care of many more people at a much higher standard of living 
with the same amount of metals. Wherefore, as we have earlier pointed out, 
metals became the very bloodstream-of-realization of class-one evolution — 
which class-one evolution is nature’s way of taking care of ever-more people 


Critical Path: Part Three 


285 


at ever-higher standards of living accomplished with the same quantity of 
metal — until all are cared for, at ever-higher standards of living, without 
further thought of anyone having to earn that right to live. This coming re- 
alization of sustainable physical success for all humanity has been earned 
by all the lives of all people in all past time. 

I am progressively reviewing the evolutionary integration of all these 
now-timely and available technologies that together produce a situation un- 
like any encountered ever before in this planet’s multibillion-year history — 
that of all humans becoming economically sustainable at higher standards 
of living than ever known and doing so without consciously earning that liv- 
ing. Meanwhile the people have begun recirculating around the world, in- 
troducing their thoughts and experiences to all countries. All the great 
religions have become transnational, each operating in every country per- 
mitting them so to do. Backed by wealthy central headquarters, various of 
the most powerful religions of history were amongst the first to send their 
monks and missionaries around the world to build the strength of their par- 
ent organizations. Not only the religions but all the big ideologies have now 
become transnational. Neither “free enterprise” nor “socialism” recognize 
any geographical limits. Today, big business, as detailed in “Legally Piggi- 
ly” (Chapter 3), is completely transnational. 

Now only the world’s people are left bound within their respective 150 
national pens. The separate national pens were evolutionarily logical in for- 
mer times, when nature deployed all people so that they could learn how 
to cope only under the special conditions occurring at specific loci around 
our planet Earth. But now the full family of different experiences and the 
therefrom-developed technological artifacts are being integrated by class- 
one evolution. 

Something transcendental to any organized human planning happened in 
America in the early 1930s, something that exhibited the cosmic-scale qual- 
ities of class-one evolution. The record of consistently increasing annual im- 
migration to America and the United States since the Mayflower landed in 
1620 peaked in 1910 at over a million persons a year. In the early 1930s, 
however, for the first time the number emigrating began to exceed the num- 
ber immigrating to America. A 300-year pattern had reversed. The people 
of the world had come in to the United States, had cross-bred, and had start- 
ed to become outbound again, but this time as cross-bred and as yet further 
cross-breeding world people. 

Overall class-one evolution, as manifest in Chapter 1 of this book, showed 
us how humanity first established itself in the southwestern Pacific Ocean 
(Austronesia) of planet Earth. It showed us how, having built rafts, Pacific 
Ocean humans drifted north and eastward on the Japan Current to Alaska 


286 


Critical Path 


and then southward along the west coast of North and South America, then 
westward again to where they had started. This drift pattern left small colo- 
nies vast millennia ago, whose progeny are now intermixed with much later 
arrivals. 

Next came the westward, overland migration. Artifacts of history show 
us how people — pioneering ever westward and mildly northward — coped as 
successfully as they did. In due course the swords and later the guns of the 
ever-faster-westward-colonizing or gypsying human families and individuals 
offered protection against unfriendly intruders until the colonies gradually 
developed common defense on an ever-larger scale. Mobile tribal hordes 
eventually became settled farming nations, and then built up so-called na- 
tional defenses. We have reached the class-one evolutionary point now in 
the last half of the twentieth century where the largest and most powerful 
abstract institutions — religious, financial, and political — have all become 
transnational. Humans, trapped in 150 nation-state pens, are being manip- 
ulated from outside the nations by big ideological, religious, or big-money 
interests. The power of lobbying imposed on local governments by big world 
money or big world ideological systems is incredibly corrupting. Preemption 
of the metals supply by the expanding arms industry plus the trade barriers 
prevent the free circulation and recirculation of metals. This means we have 
150 sovereign blood clots interrupting our recirculating metals, which 
would otherwise serve as the industrial, productive lifeblood with which we 
might realize our class-one evolutionary gains. 

Class-one evolution makes it clear that all 150 of the world’s sovereignties 
must go. There was a time when the United States was incredibly power- 
ful — right after World War II. Today most of the people in America still 
think of their nation as being the most powerful of world nations — ergo, free 
to make its own most constructive moves. Quite the opposite is now true; 
as we’ve shown in the “Legally Piggily” chapter, the United States is both 
internally and externally bankrupt — it is also overpowered by Russia’s navy 
and conventional arms. 

The Senate Foreign Relations Committee asked me to speak to them five 
years ago, as documented in the Congressional Record of May 22, 1975. 
They asked me where our country and its people were going, and I said, 
“Not only have all the big corporations become transnational and taken all 
the former U.S.A. gold and other negotiable assets with them, but they have 
also left all the world’s people locked into their 150 national pens, with 
those 150 nations blocking the flow of lifeblood metals without which we 
cannot realize the increasing know-how of all humanity. Very soon the na- 
tion-state sovereignties will have to be eliminated,’’ or humanity will perish. 

A nation’s dictator need not consult with his people at all. A dictator can 


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287 


make a deal with another dictator to give up their respective sovereignties. 
A dictatorial party, such as the Russian Communist party, which is com- 
posed of only 1 percent of the Russian people, can make a deal with other 
dictators or dictatorial parties to give up their respective sovereignties. In 
a quasi-democracy such as America the president or prime minister’s first 
oath of office is to protect the nation’s sovereignty against all foreign incur- 
sion. 

If any president of the United States or prime minister of any other quasi 
democracy even so much as discussed possibilities of desovereignizing, he 
or she would be immediately impeached. In discarding its sovereignty the 
United States of America faces the most difficult of all situations. Therefore 
class-one evolution is about to put the U.S.A. out of business through in- 
ternational bankruptcy. This will be a powerful example of class-one evo- 
lution at work. The bankruptcy need not be the end. It is simply nature’s 
way of ridding the planet of the most powerful of yesterday’s sovereignties 
and thereby setting off a chain of 149 additional desovereignizations, alto- 
gether removing the most stubborn barrier to the free circulation of the 
Earth’s world-around metals, foods, and income energy supplies and people. 

We are now in a position to get rid of the 150 sovereignties and have a 
recirculatory, interaccommodative, world-around democratic system. 

We now have the immediately realizable capability to exercise our often- 
repeated option to make all the Earth’s people physically and economically 
successful within only a decade by virtue of the already-executed fifty-year 
critical path of artifacts development which has acquired all the right tech- 
nology. 

In support of that statement we will now examine a live case history of 
“critical path’’ planning that I engaged in thirty-eight years ago on behalf 
of Brazil, a plan whose full-scale realization was set for 1993. Because this 
plan is successfully gestating at a rate that indicates fulfillment by 1993, it 
should give high credence to the whole of this book. 

* * * 

We have already noted in Chapter 5, “The Geoscope’’ (p. 186), that at 
Churchill and Roosevelt’s pre- World War II secret meeting in the Bay of 
Fundy, Roosevelt accepted Churchill’s grand strategy, which called for the 
initial landing of the Allies’ armed forces in Europe’s “soft underbelly’’ — 
i.e., landing in Sicily from the North African coast. 

As we have also noted, implementation of the “soft-underbelly’’ strategy 
called for the U.S.A.’s swift extension of its radio-triangulated surveying 
from the already radio-triangulated northeastern U.S.A. to be extended 
southwestward through Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, and Amazo- 


288 


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nian Brazil to two of easternmost Brazil’s South Atlantic coastal points — 
Pernambuco (Recife) and Rio. Next, Pernambuco and Rio were radio- 
direction-finder-triangulated with Ascension Island in the mid-South At- 
lantic. Ascension Island was next radio-triangulated northwardly with 
Dakar on Africa’s northwestern coastal bulge and northeastwardly with La- 
gos on the coast of Africa’s Equatorial Gulf of Guinea. These two adequate- 
ly-far-apart African points were finally radio-intertriangled with two North 
African Mediterranean coast points occupied by the U.S. armed forces. 

What has not been recounted, which is of great relevance to this book, 
is the story of the price Brazil’s then-dictator President Vargas demanded 
of U.S.A.’s President Franklin Roosevelt for permission to do all that com- 
prehensive radio surveying over Brazil. What Vargas wanted in exchange 
was a well-informed and far-forwardly-sighted plan for the industrialization 
of Brazil. 

Roosevelt’s staff gave the planning task to the U.S. engineering company 
that had organized many of J. P. Morgan’s foreign, electric-power-generat- 
ing, private enterprises. Vargas rejected their planning as prejudiced exclu- 
sively in favor of U.S. A. capitalism’s exploitation of Brazil. 

At this point the U.S. A. secondhand-machinery business heard through 
the J. P. Morgan engineering firm that Brazil was considering a comprehen- 
sive industrialization. This seemed their opportunity to realize an enormous 
profit on their gargantuan inventory of secondhand machinery of all kinds, 
which the dealers had bought at superbargain rates as the U.S.A.’s indus- 
trial economy was swiftly modernized for its World War II needs. Vargas 
saw through their scheming and would have none of it. 

Vargas then told Roosevelt that he — and his Brazilian advisors — had 
read all the known authoritative publications by the Russians and other ex- 
perts regarding the Russians’ successive five-year incremented planning of 
comprehensive industrialization. Vargas and his experts were convinced 
that much was omitted by those publications regarding the behind-the-po- 
litical-scenes master strategy of conceptioning and realization of the succes- 
sive planning stages under the special physical circumstances of Russia’s 
geography and its adjacency to capitalist economies controlled by those who 
were hostile to communism. 

As inspection of my Dymaxion Sky-Ocean World Map will disclose, the 
whole northern periphery of Russia is in the Arctic and has no adjacent en- 
emy lands. The length of this most-often-frozen northern border of the 
U.S.S.R. constitutes more than half of all its periphery. The other half is 
mostly in desert and mountain land. Consequently the U.S.S.R. had rela- 
tively few vulnerable, natural border entry points to guard. With a popu- 
lation in the 1920s of 150 million — 95 percent illiterate, hungry farm 
workers, whose lives were to be reimplemented and reorganized into a pri- 


Critical Path: Part Three 


289 


marily industrial economy — the U.S.S.R. required instant adoption of a 
schedule of “first things first” to be accomplished, followed by a logical se- 
quence of successively most important acquisitions and functioning capabili- 
ties. During the first two of the U.S.S.R.’s five-year-plan realizations 
approximately eighteen million of their population had to die of starvation 
in order to obtain their final goal, which was to produce a thereafter-ongo- 
ing adequacy of life support for all. The price to be paid in human want and 
suffering, great as it was, seemed a pittance in comparison to continuance- 
to-etemity of the “life-grinding-to-death” agrarian serfdom. 

Under the circumstances of millions dying and many millions more in 
want, enemies of the attempt by communism to demonstrate that it could 
produce a better life for its people than that enjoyed elsewhere — which 
would, however, take two whole generations to prove — obviously produced 
a highly subvertible social condition, provided only that enemies could 
readily penetrate and themselves subsist under the restricted life-support 
condition. Study of the world map shows that Russia’s limited physical ac- 
cess gave their five-year planning the optimum chance of succeeding. 

Such information as the foregoing discussion of the U.S.S.R. border-con- 
trol conditions was typical of what Vargas found missing in all the then- 
published data regarding the U.S.S.R.’s undertaking. 

Vargas reminded Roosevelt that, coincident with the 1929 economic 
Great Crash of the Western world, Russia’s first five-year plan had discov- 
ered much gold and that the U.S.S.R. had been able to make gold pay for 
contracts with the theretofore leading but in 1929-33 idle primary produc- 
tion corporations of the U.S.A. These contracts sent proven-“know-how” 
engineering teams to Russia to supervise the building, equipping, and start- 
up of prototype factories in all categories of industrialization: hydro and 
steam electrical generating, mining, blast furnaces, steel and other metal 
producing, glassmaking, cotton and wool fabricating, petroleum producing 
and refining, etc. Vargas said to Roosevelt, “Almost all of those U.S.A. cor- 
porate executive engineers must as yet be alive. Being so expert, they must 
all be performing very responsible tasks in the U.S.A. today. What I would 
like you to do for Brazil is to have someone in the U.S.A. contact and in- 
terview all those U.S.A. engineers who took part in the across-the-board 
Russian five-year plans’ technical initiations.” 

Vargas felt that those U.S.A. engineers must have learned a great deal 
more about the realities of the U.S.S.R. five-year planning than could be 
found in the literature. 

The White House sent this task to the engineering department of the 
U.S.A.’s Board of Economic Warfare for action. As head mechanical engi- 
neer of the board, and in consideration of my background — as, for instance, 
in plotting the forward trends of world industrialization for the Phelps 


290 


Critical Path 


Dodge Company (at the time the third largest copper producer in the 
world) or my experience as science and technology consultant on the staff 
of Fortune magazine — I was given the task prescribed by Vargas. 

The first thing I did was to contact Loy Henderson of the U.S. State De- 
partment, who had occupied the U.S.A. “desk” in Moscow in 1929 before 
ambassadorial relationships were established with Russia by Roosevelt in 
1934. Henderson located for me a member of his 1929 Moscow staff, a man 
named Habicht who had handled all the travel arrangements for all the 
U.S.A. engineers who went to Russia in fulfillment of those prototyping 
contracts. Through Habicht I learned who all those engineers were as well 
as which ones were most esteemed by the Russian engineers with whom 
they dealt. I was able to locate them all in the U.S.A. By 1943 most were 
heads or senior vice presidents of their original companies. All agreed to 
hold interviews with me, since I had U.S. presidential authority. Thirty-two 
individuals in twenty-one corporations were interviewed, all of whom had 
participated in the first three of the successive five-year plans of the 
U.S.S.R. 

My commission was not only to seek nonpublished angles on the U.S.S.R. 
planning strategy, but also to interpolate the principles into a plan for Bra- 
zil, where the geographical conditions were exactly the opposite of Russia’s. 
Anybody could enter Brazil from almost any direction. Since that was so, 

1 had to develop use of the principles in an altogether different manner. I 
inverted the equation. If you couldn’t keep exploiters out, you made it easy 
for them to come in, and if foreign interests wanted, for instance, to explore 
for and produce important metals for export, they would be permitted to 
do so provided they also produced for Brazil a stockpile quota, which would 
always provide Brazil with a quantity of that metallic element equivalent to 

2 percent of the quantity of that element known to exist on planet Earth — 
since Brazil’s population was 2 percent of the world’s population. 

To prepare myself for serious discussion of such comprehensive world in- 
dustrial planning, before leaving Washington to visit these U.S.A. engineer 
executives I contacted the presidents of the four leading U.S.A. foreign-en- 
gineering-project corporations. All four of them had heard that Brazil was 
considering adoption of a plan for comprehensive industrialization. 

I asked each to give me a statement of the primary tasks to be accom- 
plished in the industrialization of Brazil, listed both in order of relative im- 
portance and in order of production inception. All four corporations, eager 
for such business, submitted cogent lists. 

I then started on my succession of interviews. The following surprising 
experience occurred as each of my successive interviews commenced. The 
corporate engineering officer I was interviewing would say something like 
this: “When I was starting that factory in 1929, the Russian team with 


Critical Path: Part Three 


291 


which I worked would keep reminding me that we were not only building 
a cotton mill (or whatever type of production unit they were the experts 
for), we were also building a fortress.” My interviewee would say: “I 
thought they were crazy talking that way. But now, today, look at those 
headlines in today’s paper. My factory is indeed serving as a fortress. It is 
under attack by Hitler right this minute! What else did they say to me of 
importance to which I tended to pay little or no attention?” 

This startling retrospective realization on the part of all my interviewees 
greatly enlivened their memories, and their recalls were many and highly 
relevant. 

On the day following my recording of these Russian experiences and re- 
called strategic principles, I would discuss the application of their recalled 
Russian planning-strategy principles to the industrialization of Brazil, a 
matter in which these corporation officers were also inherently interested. 

I then returned to Washington and wrote a plan for Brazil based on all 
I had learned. I had my plan typed in a narrow vertical column on one side 
of legal-size paper, leaving plenty of room for readers’ note-making. Copies 
were sent by registered mail to each of the thirty-two interviewees. Each re- 
turned their copies with many marginal pencil notes: “Good,” or “I didn’t 
say that,” or “This is what I said about that ...” I then rewrote the whole 
plan, throwing out any items that did not have a sponsor from amongst the 
U.S.A. corporations’ leading engineering executives. I then sent the only-by- 
senior-engineering-executives-sponsored inventory of items of the plan to all 
thirty-two of the interviewees. 

Their responses to the first draft were: 

2 were unequivocally against it. 

2 were cranky in their letters for extraneous reasons, but distinctly in 
favor of various items. 

7 were without comment. 

4 did not express themselves in their covering letters, but indicated 
approval by comments written on page margins of my texts. 

17 were unequivocally for the document, as indicated both in their 
covering letters and in their itemized comments — proving that the 
outline did properly report and interpolate the “area of agreement” 
(17 of 21 firms or offices favored the outline). They itemized a total 
of 13 objections and gave 146 itemized approvals, covering 125 in- 
dividual paragraphs in the outline, and made 52 suggestions for ad- 
ditions or modifications. 

Just as my plan was complete, Vargas was deposed as president of Brazil. 
Forwarding of it to Brazil’s new political leader might well be construed as 


292 


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an affront. The president of one of the major U.S.A. corporations involved 
in my “Compendium” thought so well of it that he took it informally to 
leading industrialists and powers behind the political scenes of Brazil. From 
time to time in the subsequent thirty-seven years I have heard of features 
of my plan being manifest in Brazil’s economy. 

In March of 1980 I was invited to visit Brazil by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Sao Paulo, its leading commercial-industrial city. I thought of the 
“Compendium,” which had been sitting in my files for thirty-seven years. 
I had Xerox copies made and took them with me to Brazil and gave copies 
to many of its economic leaders. It was their consensus that the plan is now 
appropriate to their needs in almost all ways. They felt it to have been sig- 
nificant that I had thirty-seven years ago recommended that they switch 
their energy fuel from petroleum to alcohol, which is exactly what they are 
now doing. 

The “Compendium,” as I called it in 1943, and the 1943 reaction to it 
on the part of leading U.S.A. corporations’ engineering vice presidents, now 
follows. No alterations have been made. It is printed exactly as typed in 
1943. Not included are approximately 100 pages of the developmental 
phases of the undertaking, which included letters from individuals, etc. 


A COMPENDIUM 

OF CERTAIN ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES 
PERTINENT TO BRAZIL’S CONTROL OF 
IMPENDING ACCELERATION IN ITS 
INDUSTRIALIZATION 

Accrued to Experience of U.S. Engineers and Firms 
Who Participated in the First Three of Russia’s 
Graduated Program of 5-Year Plans 


* 


August 13, 1943 
R. Buckminster Fuller 
Chief, Mechanical Engineering Section 
U.S. Board of Economic Warfare 


293 


As a DIGEST of the investigation, thoroughly documented in the main 
body of this report, the following admonitions, listed in order of interdepen- 
dent significance, may be forwarded to those Brazilians concerned with con- 
trol of their future industrialization as truly representing the majority 
opinion of the U.S. engineers concerned and experienced in this field. 

Number One, it was pointed out by all those interviewed that Brazil must 
make its own plan. 

This must be realistic and not a matter of their being coerced into some 
foreign-designed role, wrapped up under a Brazilian label printed elsewhere. 
No matter how excellent the consultative advice they may obtain from ex- 
periences outside their economy, they must themselves insure the success of 
their own program by the inherent strength of their own authority, which 
in turn must derive from specific requirements of their own political trend 
and from a deep consciousness of the adequacies of their own declared pur- 
poses and sequitur decisions. 

It was also the consensus of opinion of the interviewed engineers that: in 
order to plan successfully , there must be more than a singleness of purpose; 
there must be a dramatically tangible objective. 

Determination to raise the standard of living or to “do good” in this 
world lends no specific design guidance, which latter is essential to effective 
economic planning. Obviously everyone must do a certain amount of eating 
and sleeping. They have been doing that for a long time and will continue 
to do so in some degree without any planning. 

It is the conditions under which the planned-for lives are to be lived, as 
determined by the tangible objectives, that in turn determine the set of phys- 
ical principles most expediently to be employed. 

With a dramatically tangible objective or, better, a progressive series of 
tangible objectives to be reached and passed as milestones, any sincere plan- 
ning, no matter how relatively immature, so long as it springs from an edu- 
cated base, will provide successful survival in some measurable degree 
superior to any unplanned overall existence. 

INTERPOLATED CONCLUSIONS: 

1. A workable, overall objective of air-minded Brazil upon which to pyr- 
amid its successive stages of plan would be: 

(a) To make Brazil the leading skyport of the world. This, of course, 
means in effect a network of airports, which, in the world integration 
trends, are functionally called for by the fact that Brazil will represent the 


294 


Critical Path: Part Three 


295 


increasing air switchyard for (A) all the tropical air traffic which will be 
advantageously west-bound on the tradewinds from the Near East, Eu- 
rope, and Africa to the Americas, and (B) north- and south-bound Pan- 
American traffic. 

(b) That all highway systems shall radiate from the air and water ports 
of Brazil to its natural resources. That the initiative of individuals tending 
to explore for resources may thus be expedited. 

(c) That Brazil, because it is unfeasible to maintain closure of its borders, 
employ that fact to advantage, instead of opposing it ineffectively, and 
therefore plan to make Brazil the easiest country in the world to come to 
or leave — in effect a nation-wide, ever-renewing world’s fair. This should 
help keep their external purchasing power high. Since Brazil’s boundaries 
touch those of every other South American country except two, commu- 
nity of interest, specifically pertaining to modernization, must be stimu- 
lated throughout all South American countries to prevent border 
animosities — no trade barriers, etc., as with Canada and the U.S. 

(d) That they should subdivide the whole geographical area of Brazil into 
approximately 300 small resources-exploration areas of approximately 
10,000 square miles each, efficiently interconnected and balanced for in- 
terdependence, so that they may never become politically disunited, i.e., 
Silver, Cotton States, etc., in U.S. 

(d.2) Each area should contain its own super airport center or city. 
These would be centered approximately 100 miles from each other in 
all directions. This distance is chosen as representing the practical ho- 
rizon relay distance for an eventual electronics, television, and power 
network. The means to create this transit system should be established 
and the Brazilians should apply their surplus human energy to the pro- 
curement thereof or there will be no appreciation nor understanding of 
how or why they became so blessed. 

(d.3) That each area not already searched be explored radiantly from 
the airports. 

(d.4) That in choosing the appropriate locations of the decentralized 
industries, and in determining the methods of original development, 
stockpiling, and production of discovered resources, that the decisions 
always be predicated on “work” surveys which will determine approxi- 
mately the most efficient overall expenditure of energy to the total econ- 
omy. 

(e) That by virtue of the manifold, super airport network development, 
amplifying Brazil’s already established 500 airports, the population will 
be decentralized from the southeastern coastal area throughout the whole 
of the country in such a manner that the center of the population will 


296 


Critical Path 


trend towards its geographical center, an essential to stabilization of the 
economy and to its economic security and its most efficient development 
energywise. 

2. That Brazil must, without vacillation, determine upon the specific math- 
ematical language of its industrialization. 

(a) It was the consensus of opinion that they should standardize on the 
metric system, to which U.S. producer (but not consumer) industries are 
already adjusted. 

(b) That they nominate immediately 60-cycle generation of power. (This 
choice in power standards will coincide mathematically with require- 
ments of the decimal system of 12, should the latter continue, as indicated 
by present trend, to be scientifically desirable in Brazil.) 

3. That in order to take advantage of the present state of industrial and sci- 
entific advance throughout the world, Brazil rent out to appropriate, skilled 
U.S. engineering firms the development of all its resources to the raw or 
stockpile stage. This should in no way be construed to refer to their pro- 
duction organizations for domestic consumption. The contracts will be kept 
in force by virtue of guaranteed schedules of performances; they shall be 
subject to strict regulation in the matter of labor conditions, interchangeable 
standards adopted by Brazil, monetary exchange rates, etc., the profits of 
export of natural resources to be retained in Brazil and “plowed back” into 
further development of resources. 

(a) That all equipment brought in by these concerns shall, if the devel- 
opment leases are terminated, remain in Brazil as part of the nation’s ac- 
cruing resources; that equipment be admitted duty free. 

(b) That the rental for these concessions shall be paid to Brazil not only 
in (A) United States dollar credits, but also in (B) increments in kind of 
the respective resources thus developed . 

(c) That the schedule of increments shall be such that Brazil's approxi- 
mate proportion of world population (i.e., 2%) shall be protected and in- 
strumented in such a manner that the known world quantity of each 
resource element involved shall never be reduced to less than 2% remain- 
ing available above grade in concentrated storage within Brazil. This in- 
crement must be provided to Brazil before any product may be taken out 
of Brazil. Thus, as Brazil’s industrialization develops, no matter what the 
design configuration may be, its proportion of the world’s chemical ele- 
ment resources naturally occurring within its borders will remain such 
that its population may enjoy no less than the average standard towards 
which the whole world trends, i.e., towards equilibrious per capita distri- 


Critical Path: Part Three 


297 


bution of the chemical elements serving in industrial functions enjoyed by 
an increasing proportion of all population: — therefore, towards dynamic 
equity of all elements per world person in mutually enjoyed services. 

(d) That the choice of optimum overall sizes of equipment and choice of 
process methods, etc., be left entirely to the discretion of the licensees. 
This will eliminate this always inadequate phase of detail planning from 
government officials, leaving technical expediency to private initiative. 

4. That Brazil recognize: 

(a) That at present the best world source for industrial tools, power, and 
prime movers is the U.S., by virtue of the most recently overhauled and 
integrated standards attained by the U.S. economy for war purposes, and 
to the superior interchangeability of parts developed by the U.S. 

(b) The highly developed psychological relationship of the worker and 
the segregated mass functions of each industrial operation designed into 
U.S. tools and at present providing the highest overall rate of service or 
product output per worker, and percentage of overall horsepower effec- 
tively distributed per unit operation in the world. 

(c) That this initial outfitting at the hands of unit economies shall not be 
an exclusive, long-time policy, but merely an initial efficiency. 

5. That the number one natural advantages to be thus developed will be 
those of energy sources of all categories. Increments from these energy de- 
velopments are to be considered in terms of a continuing energy income, to 
be rapidly amplified by a concept of energy reinvestments for the whole 
economy. That the power of the Amazon watershed be harnessed and con- 
sidered by designers as an integrated, moving assembly line for finally car- 
rying forward whatever its major heavy products may be as a feeder gravity 
assembly line, possibly for mass-production house-assembly line. 

6. That the number one immediately available physical resource to be devel- 
oped (over and above those already functioning) is that of Brazil’s hard- 
woods. 

That complementary to the hardwood product developments, phenolic 
resins and other appropriate plastics and adhesives essential to fabrication 
of compound curvature plywoods be domestically developed to satisfy the 
manifold structural and container and vehicular body functions hitherto sat- 
isfied essentially by the materials used by expediency in much earlier indus- 
trial economies. 

That the weight-strength factor of such compound curvature hardwood 
plywood be recognized as providing an advantage over any of the produc- 


298 


Critical Path 


tion steels or aluminum alloys yet developed, while at the same time em- 
bodying superior rigidity and other successful features relative to proofness 
against fire, insects, moisture, corrosion, distortion by heat, etc. Speaking by 
and large, “equivalent” design solutions in compound plywood weigh 1/6 
those of solutions in steel; 1/3 those in aluminum alloys. 

7. That insofar as possible, all domestic requirements be solved through the 
most modern or even new designs for the employment of these integrated, 
lightweight plastic products — plywood being in effect a plastic material re- 
inforced by wood-fiber. 

8. That Brazil, being by natural geography the beneficiary of vast annual 
vegetable increment, determine upon a national fuel policy developed from 
alcohols derived from vegetable sources, and that vigorous continuing re- 
search be maintained in the direction of new vegetable alcohol sources and 
products. 

9. That a national policy of accelerated universal education be incepted, 
augmented throughout by the latest moving picture techniques developed 
for war instruction, particularly relating to translation of theoretical knowl- 
edge to technical application. 

(a) That individual moving pictures be developed relative to each and ev- 
ery external mechanical function of man: (1) a picture for the best use of 
all simple tools, then (2) their extension into the machine tools, (3) always 
compounding the use of the machine tools with the inherent mathemat- 
ics. 

(b) The conversion of all principles of physics and theoretical chemistry 
into moving picture demonstrations and their further integration through 
pictures into pilot plant and mass production tool-up processes. 

(c) That all primary school work be completely integrated with the vesti- 
bule schooling of decentralized local industries , the present war trend be 
amplified to include their concomitant industrial nurseries, and the whole 
industrial activity be considered in effect an extension of the old house- 
hold life, or its subsequent pre-industrial guild life. In effect, that the in- 
dustrial world and home world are to be realistically integrated to provide 
improved conditions for both. 

(d) That Brazil recognize that the standards of industry are now ad- 
vanced by prosaic efficiency requirements of the war to realistically in- 
clude physical conditions so complementary to the human as to make 
these industries in effect as pleasant if not pleasanter work than hitherto 
characterizing work organized solely within the home. 


Critical Path: Part Three 


299 


(e) International exchange of students in advanced education. Govern- 
ment must subsidize building and equipping technical schools — even sub- 
sidizing students if necessary at first. 

Brazil should consider the leased development services of U.S. engineer- 
ing firms or any consulting services rendered by the latter to Brazil’s plan- 
ning authorities to constitute not an admission of weakness on the part of 
Brazil, but, on the contrary, to represent the availment of a natural scientific 
principle often employed but never before clearly comprehended as such; 
i.e., that the function, for instance, of U.S. engineers in Russia was not so 
much the well-advertised service of providing the original “know-how,” 
which knowledge Russians could in time have as well gained by traveling 
abroad, but one of functioning as an unprejudiced third party concerned only 
with operation of physical laws , who, not even comprehending the local 
tongue, could unconcernedly break the ice jams of political theory or expe- 
diency in an unorthodox manner, thus providing gains that might otherwise 
be greatly delayed or never attained, because the stranger could break the 
rules with impunity. 

As a corollary to this “relentless robot” sort of function — “jamming 
ahead with the work, irrespective of personal feelings or local prece- 
dence” — there was also available to Russia in the U.S. services the incalcu- 
lable advantage of a scientific perspective upon their plans, developed from 
outside the framework of reference, the number one essential of all scientif- 
ically determined progress. 

This perspective ability, gained by foreigners upon any economy, has been 
well known; for instance, to classical students of government and history. 
At the turn of the present century, English scholars considered Professor 
Lowell of U.S.’s Harvard University the greatest living authority on English 
government and legal precedent. At the same time U.S. authorities recog- 
nized Lord Brice of England as the greatest authority on U.S. political his- 
tory and government. 

We here in the United States are today receiving, from Japan in partic- 
ular, a mortally expensive lesson on the subject of the advantage gained by 
international perspective. Japan’s keen appraisal and selection of the es- 
sences of our industrial advantages, from out their settings of concomitant 
disadvantages — the latter bred out of local cultural habits — provided the 
means for Japan’s accelerated advance into a challenging position of our 
economic prerogatives, despite inferior original position in natural re- 
sources. 

In other words, Brazil should confidently expect the U.S. engineers to do 
in many ways a better job for them than those same engineers in many in- 


300 


Critical Path 


stances did for Russia. Under the outlined circumstances, Brazil may expect 
from U.S. an even more up-to-date industrial bill of fare than has ever be- 
fore been concocted, even for the latest war effort, if they will leave the de- 
cisions on technical organization of resources development to those American 
engineers, reserving for Brazilians themselves the philosophy of consumer 
utilization of their resources, i.e., complete determination of the design of 
domestic services and products. 


BIG “DON'T”: 

Number one error in “plan” principle discovered by U.S. engineers in Rus- 
sia was that of their “ economic planning. ” The Russians divided their whole 
program into “economic” and “technical” categories. The economic was 
supposed to come first. The economic planners made the mistake of assum- 
ing that the configuration of the latest worldwide industries as discovered 
at that moment would never change. The economists supposed that by ana- 
lyzing each industry by materials employed that they could deduce the final 
technical requirements. Theirs was a static viewpoint. They never got to 
first base. 

To comprehend their failure in this division one must inspect our own im- 
portant errors. Many ill-advised public relations councilors in the United 
Nations [i.e. Allied nations] thought that their great productive machine 
could be valved over to production of any product at a moment’s notice, 
like a soda fountain. Thinking themselves wiser than their engineers, they 
failed to understand that each product must be tooled from the bottom up; 
that none of the production set-up, even including its buildings, would be 
subject to conversion to production of other products. It was those non-me- 
chanical-minded political economists who brought us into the costly mess 
of non-preparedness. 

It was economic planning of political economists in Russia, completely 
unversed in theoretical, let alone practical mechanics, that almost lost their 
cause before it was started. The latter decided, for instance, to mass produce 
tractors, simply because these fitted the political propaganda need of wild 
promises to farm labor whose support they wooed. They gave priorities to 
tractor production materials and great tractor factory buildings before con- 
sidering acquisition of production tools, and the machine tools which must 
come ahead of them, and the steel which must come ahead of the latter, etc. 
The plant went tractorless for years after building completion and finally 
functioned best as a fortress at Stalingrad. Some said this was because the 
Russians had slyly planned for it. This was not so. It was just thoroughly 
over-built on paper, which made it a good fortress. Russia got the tractors 
all right, in the end, but only after introduction of proper engineering meth- 


Critical Path: Part Three 


301 


ods at U.S. urging which comprehended the completeness of tooling-up 
problems. 

This kind of “economic planning” would, if incepted in 1500 A.D., have 
assumed that the power utensil industry was the final word of the Almighty 
on how to solve all equipment problems. It would have started all economic 
analysis with inspection of the type and content of materials in coaches, se- 
dan chairs, doublets, and have then attempted to say that cumulative totals 
of lead and tin equivalents represented the desirable priority stockpiling out 
of which to evolve their forward economy. This accountant type of econ- 
omist, unfamiliar with mechanics as a dynamic experience, but glib with the 
classifications, always fails as a planner. Such men were essentially respon- 
sible for the progressive failure of the U.S. banking system to anticipate the 
needs of science-borne industrial evolution. They did not recognize it as a 
continuing process. They looked upon it as a fixed or finite investment. 

Amongst the very real accomplishments of U.S. engineers in Russia was 
their hard-won success in converting the Russians from European profes- 
sional engineering practices, which conveyed university science and engi- 
neering graduates directly to responsible positions. It was unheard of that 
such graduates should soil their hands. 

Now, as a result of American engineering intercession, all Russian sci- 
ence, engineering, and technical students must after graduation spend two 
complete years in out-and-out shop and field jobs as laborers and mechan- 
ics’ helpers. As a result of the lessons of error in the five-year plans, U.S. 
engineers say that if anything the Russians have now carried this practical 
side of all education too far. 

In this connection a measured drawing replica prepared by technical ac- 
countants and draftsmen for Brazil of U.S. industry as is would be as lifeless 
an affair as was accomplished by the U.S. architectural profession for three- 
quarters of a century following the Civil War. Their measured copying of 
the classical “orders” of European architecture was not only inappropriate, 
wasteful, and useless, but it had the deleterious effect upon U.S. culture of 
adopting false standards and an inferiority complex regarding its own innate 
character and ability. The effect of this was to obscure from public recog- 
nition the fact that the “unarchitecturalized” engineering forms and build- 
ings springing up to house a new industrial society were the unpresuming 
and unique architectural form of their own — grander than any before con- 
ceived in history. It took the perspective of clever designers in the very Eu- 
rope from which U.S. professional architects were copying the “orders,” 
upon the U.S. industrial engineer’s forms, to discern the birth of a healthy 
new modern architecture. They adopted its form, superficially called it in- 
ternational architecture, and the U.S., still not realizing that they were re- 


302 


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sponsible for the creation, asked these European designers to come over and 
command their architectural schools. 

It is necessary that Brazil comprehend distinctly that much of the present 
industrial configuration of the U.S. economy is that of the nineteenth-cen- 
tury scaffolding work, so to speak, surrounding the net final twentieth-cen- 
tury structure just emerging. 

In this connection the railroads, for instance, represented a horizontal 
scaffolding for temporary delivery services to set up an economy that could 
then graduate to a modern trackless and wireless economy. 

Brazil can now adopt these emerged features because they are now de- 
veloped to a prefabricated, know-how-degree as a finished phenomenon, 
eliminating the necessity of re-enactment of the many errors and experi- 
ences developed prior to the present state of overall advance. 

In this connection it must be remembered that the railroads were first 
conceived as means to a nationwide real estate development. Because they 
were so wastefully heavy, they could not pay for their own development ex- 
cept in the terms of the land value increments accruing to the rights of way. 
They were therefore bonded for half centuries ahead to be financed out of 
the wealth they would indirectly open up. This expediency, however, served 
to get the people distributed over the land that they might further explore 
and develop the resources whose raw or unconcentrated products were then 
carried great distances to highly centralized and relatively inefficient 
cramped plants of the industrial east. If technology had been sufficiently ad- 
vanced, the automobile would have done this much more thoroughly and 
quickly. 

By the railroad means of primary decentralization of national personnel, 
the American center of population was moved westward approximately 500 
miles in the course of a century-and-a-half. Russia, with a relatively minor 
percentage of the per capita railroad development of the trackless land and 
air transports, moved its center of population one thousand miles eastward 
in twenty-five years, while at the same time producing in accelerating vol- 
ume for the present severe war. 

This proved that the deployment of the people to the maximum of land 
area development does not spring from an initial transportation advantage 
provided exclusively by railroads. A modern railroad coach with one pas- 
senger weighs 140,000 pounds per passenger. The weight per passenger fully 
loaded is 3400 pounds. This is greater than the weight per passenger when 
a 1942 automobile carries only one person; i.e., 3000 pounds. Fully loaded, 
the average prewar auto weighs only 600 pounds per passenger. Postwar 
cars promise to reduce that average to under 300 pounds. Overall, door-to- 
door weight per passenger mile-per-minute of postwar air transport will pro- 
vide advantage over the auto or railroad in ratio of better than ten to one. 


Critical Path: Part Three 


303 


It must be remembered that the railroads were developed to a design lev- 
el, in the course of a century, competent to carry the structural and mechan- 
ical equipment and maintaining consumables of a civilization averaging 
many times as heavy and several times as bulky per unit of function as that 
comprising our present-day mechanical environment, and hundreds of times 
the weight and bulk per unit of function of the now increasingly complete 
equipment of air-borne armies. 

Houses and buildings, man’s largest and heaviest category of per capita 
controlled environment, so far but meagerly developed industrially, have av- 
eraged, throughout the 75 years between the Civil War and the beginning 
of present hostilities, a hundred tons per capita, whereas environment con- 
trol design now well-developed for airplanes, whose stresses in the air or in 
landing are many times those to which houses may ever be subjected by hur- 
ricane or earthquake, nonetheless make possible man’s comfortable ascent 
in minutes from tropic heats in the area of 150° F. to stratosphere tempera- 
tures of minus 65° F. This new range of environment control built lightly 
and sinuously into airplane enclosures indicates postwar housing solutions 
distinctly advanced in every standard of performance, yet weighing only a 
few hundred pounds per capita. Thus postwar human container weights of 
possibly one-quarter ton per occupant are to be compared with the lightest 
wallboard prefabricated structure of 1942, which weighed twenty-five tons 
(not including foundations), or better than five tons per capita, while the so- 
called permanent housing structures of 1942, including their foundations, 
still averaged in excess of 100 tons per capita and will be obsolete in ten 
years. 

In order to comprehend the overall foot-poundage significance of transi- 
tion from a rail-borne to an air-borne economy, it is necessary to envisage 
this vast change in tonnage per capita inherent in the changing design 
throughout all services which will be automatically propagated by the mass 
production industry of such lightweight housing. This industry is certain to 
take up the slack in world industrial production capacities and know-how 
created not only by the negative factor of war’s end but by the most positive 
and dire necessity of rehousing the multi-millions of world’s people, a re- 
housing whose standards progression will go on to rehouse the better than 
two billion population. This will be the greatest industry in all history. Bra- 
zil, with its Amazonian watershed, its hardwoods, its aluminum, its superior 
paper-making potentials (for paper will play a major role in the new 
houses), is in a unique position of advantage to initiate this industry on the 
scale required. Its network of jungle airport, scientific, tropic stations and 
exploration centers, and mechanical-chemical prototyping laboratories 
should divide up the problem. 

It is further pointed out, to bring this prognostication home, that the 


304 


Critical Path 


highest building rate ever attained in the U.S. provided only 280,000 single 
family dwellings in one year; 1/4 the number required by annual marriages; 
1/6 that required to offset annual disaster losses and complete obsoles- 
cence — a rate inadequate to total emergency. Such methods, which failed 
miserably to keep pace with civilization from 1913 on, obviously could not 
cope with a totalized world housing problem. 

Realistic planning on the part of Brazil means taking advantage in ad- 
vance of this vast accrual of overall foot-poundage saving per unit of de- 
signed environment control. If so, it is simply indicated that air transport 
can be relied upon by Brazil as the major category of direct physical com- 
munication. Air communication may be appropriately augmented in de- 
scending order of importance by roadways, waterways, cableways, and only 
in instance of highly specialized requirements, by railways. 

Emerging from an era of steel surplus, shut-down, and scrap-dumping, in 
which millions were spent to find out how many things could be built of 
steel, such business being secured on our “substitute” basis by price and ser- 
vice advantages, we came sharply into the war-caused shortage of steel. It 
became our job to supply half the world’s inherently wasteful, though ef- 
ficiently energy designed, steel requirements of war. Despite the strong 
need, it is only within recent months that steel has been importantly reduced 
in building, so strong were designing habits and so difficult to change were 
labor and building codes. 

In the course of abandoning all-steel buildings, and then steel structural 
buildings, for reinforced concrete and brick, first steps in real steel economy 
were taken by the engineer designer, Albert Kahn. These were effected 
through continuously welded steel reinforcing rods for large spans. Further 
steel reductions were effected by others through stressed steel wire rein- 
forcement. 

Opening just this month is the first steel-less bomber production plant of 
the Douglas Aircraft, designed and erected by Austin Company at Des 
Plaines, Illinois. Despite increasing spans unknown to prewar industrial re- 
quirements of 150 and 200 feet, with straightaways of several thousands of 
feet, the Austin Company provided a superior truss construction of lami- 
nated wood members not only for the roof but for all structural columns. 
Steel was eliminated even in the flooring, concrete aprons, and footings, 
without deleterious effect. 

This was not a compromise. It was better building. The equivalent insur- 
ance rates indicated equal fire safety to that of a steel building because the 
structure was completely equipped with sprinklers linked up by plastic con- 
duit. Practically the only steel used in the plant was for tools and equip- 
ment. 


Critical Path : Part Three 


305 


The tremendous advantage to Brazil, with its hardwoods so eminently 
suitable for building, as determined by the Ford Company in its Brazilian 
operations, that is implied in this change of affairs, freeing their industrial 
growth from any limitation by steel except for use in tools, is evident. It is 
even indicated that the bases, arbors, and frames of the machine tools them- 
selves, etc., which were formerly made of heavy steel casting and in recent 
war years were increasingly fabricated out of welded steel sections, could 
now be expeditiously supplanted in many instances by compound curvature, 
conical or cylindrical form, phenolic resin laminated hardwood structures. 
This would eliminate another important category of heavy steel tonnage. 

STANDARDS: 

While a great deal of additional information was received from the inter- 
views in connection with “optimum” versus “elephantine” or “insectine” 
sizes of equipment, to be amplified in production capacity by batteries of 
such optimum units — such as a thousand-ton blast furnace; 50,000 k.v.a. 
horizontal generator; grain storage in progressively decentralized 30,000 
bushel silos, country-town elevators of half a million bushels and central 
market elevators of 1, 2, and 3 million bushels, etc. — these are, of course, 
only dramatic items amongst millions of optimum standards developed to 
high degree by the war effort. 

Whether determined by guesswork or hard research, for Brazil to depend 
solely on the efforts of U.S. engineering concerns themselves, whose whole 
organization is given to maintenance of the latest stage of advance in such 
matters, is, in any event, inappropriate. This is the consensus of the inter- 
views. 

It is worth noting that there has been a long-time trend to increasing de- 
centralization of such industrial operations into the foreign countries by the 
specialists in such fields, in lieu of the constantly decreasing foreign invest- 
ment of dollars in uncontrolled operations. 

SAFETY FACTOR: 

In spite of a clearly defined trend of the major opinion cited in this report, 
it is worth noting that Russia’s first five-year plan was characterized also 
by complete modernization of their existing industrial plant structure. Their 
1914 industrial status was approximately that of Brazil’s present stage of in- 
dustrialization. A broad picture, with ample safety factor for present emer- 
gencies and future development, was demonstrated by the Russians, who 
renovated many old plants and augmented them with much new equipment 
in European Russia west of the Urals. East of the Urals Russia built its 
brand-new economy, literally growing its towns out of scientific exploration 


306 


Critical Path 


stations. To this new Russia they shifted their new tools from the European 
theatre when the enemy advanced and allowed their renovated old industry 
to take the gaff, essentially liquidating their “foothold” plants of the first 
five-year operation. 

In the same way plans for realistically improving Brazil’s present indus- 
trial plant may be considered as the stepping-stone of the moment, which 
Brazil can well afford to scrap when its brand-new scientific industry of the 
hinterland has gained youthful strength. 

USE FOR CES—DONT FIGHT THEM: 

Most urgent scientific admonition towards successfully realizing any plan 
is to take advantage of each of the trends and to develop them, no matter 
that it may be in a novel manner, towards the advantage of the populace 
concerned. 

There is no reason, for instance, why Brazil should not develop from the 
start a completely smokeless industrialization providing a high standard of 
living. The smoke characterizing early industrialization of the North is now 
a mark of unattended inefficiency to northern engineers — important by- 
products are being wasted, environment frictions are being increased. 

The area of dense jungleland of Brazil is greater than half of the U.S. It 
has been penetrated by few of the Brazilians, who, living in the cooler south- 
east, speak of it as the “green hell of the North.” Ford officials say that most 
Brazilians inquire of them with as much wonder regarding the vast reaches 
of Brazilian jungles as do New Yorkers regarding the North Pole. Certain 
it is that the jungle in no way lends itself to the easy, speculative wanderings 
of homesteaders and prospectors. 

An entirely different means for deploying the Brazilian population over 
the whole of their land for purposes of its development must be devised 
from those which augmented the pioneering of the U.S., Canadian, and 
Russian hinterlands. 

Almost so simple that it will be shunned by those who prefer to plan the 
hard way, in order to take advantage of their hard-earned specialized ex- 
perience of the past, is the technique now provided by modern warfare that 
would approach this whole Brazilian jungleland from above, bombing it 
open, then parachuting in with well-planned hand equipment and personal 
protective devices to carve out a complete polka-dot pattern of island air- 
ports over the whole country, into which pattern mechanical devices would 
be fed progressively as parachute deliveries graduate to plane-landed deliv- 
eries, etc. Each area would receive its quota of machine tools, drafting 
equipment, air conditioning, etc., and then its engineering and designing 
personnel would amplify the hold on the jungle. This “island” network of 


Critical Path: Part Three 


307 


“tropical research and development stations” should form the nuclear struc- 
ture for the new Brazil. 

Dramatically emphasized by its absence was any discussion on the part 
of American engineers of aid to Russia in establishment of communications 
services, beyond Russian consultations in New York with the Radio Cor- 
poration of America. The wireless had supplanted almost completely the 
wired technique of early American communication. Russia was able to 
adopt an electronic stage of wireless communication without re-exploring 
the arduous step-by-step advances in communication by wired means. In the 
same way it is quite as practical for Brazil to consider accelerated develop- 
ment of its lands by an essentially trackless scheme. They will be able to 
buy, postwar, if not later manufacture for their own account, thousands of 
helicopters, which would make this form of functional exploration highly 
effective and easy to integrate. 

INEXHA USTIBLE WEALTH OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE: 

Distinguishing characteristic of this digest is that it takes heed of the 
war’s number one lesson, i.e., the advantage of employing science to satisfy 
needs stated as functions . Any economy, irrespective of the relative quan- 
tities of traditionally esteemed elements in its physical resources inventory, 
can outperform, per capita, any other economy in direct proportion to the 
degree of the initial control in planning conceded to science by politics — that 
is, “outperform” as measured in terms of services and satisfactions pro- 
duced per potential consumer. 

That Germany will probably be smothered by the Allied war effort 
should not be allowed to obliterate this lesson. The United Nations’ already 
developed fuel and hydraulic generation flow and potential manpower, as 
well as its physical resources in most of the traditionally important econom- 
ic categories, outranked Germany’s initial inventory by one hundred to 
many hundreds percent. Advancing the physical odds constantly, which is 
what the continued war effort adds up to, does not change the fact that Ger- 
many’s operational set-up of overall scientific ingenuity forced the world 
race committee (in order to maintain its prerogative) into repeatedly calling 
for new run-offs, at the same time rearranging the handicap until, in a fi- 
nally “recognized heat,” at last won by the United Nations, the handicap 
ratio was equivalent to starting Germany’s horse at scratch in a one-mile 
mark. And because in the end sheer preponderance of physical advantage 
volumetrically smothers the scientifically engineered combustion, that blan- 
keting must never be allowed to blind the world to the technical significance 
inherent in the demonstration. This is it: by discovering the sources of en- 
ergy available (and every major economy has a scientifically potential su- 


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Critical Path 


perabundance); by decentralizing and enmobilizing parts fabrication and 
arranging a shifting foci of assembly to adjust to expediency, production 
may start with any one of a number of alternative raw sources of the at- 
mosphere, vegetation, water, metallic ores, woods, etc. Concentrated energy 
in stabilized potentials, in the form of coal and oil, are great conveniences 
and represent a head start, but no more than that, to science. Thus is in- 
dependence of immobile structure, tracked, wired, localized, frozen invest- 
ment accomplished. Thus the economy divests itself of slavery to 
obsolescence. Thus is energy constantly remounted to provide the human 
intellect with the greatest hitting power, or an over-alert morphology. 

Scrap elements everywhere, even in the form of bombed equipment and 
fired munitions, only represent an increased abundance of highly concen- 
trated raws, ever more widely distributed. Scrap, actual or potential , i.e., in 
junkyard or in obsolete building, machine, or fixtures, it must be realized, 
is a “mine above ground” in highly concentrated forms of the original 
chemical elements which had been “reworked” by nature many times before 
man “worked” them. The ninety-two “elements” are never “secondhand.” 
They are primary “electrical behavior” patterns. Energy to rework them is 
plentiful. They should always be rearranged in their most efficiently useful 
condition to the service of man. This is pure mathematics. Any evolutionary 
outcropping of the newer, more efficient arrangement can never be long sup- 
pressed. 


CHAPTER 10 



Part Four 


H aving committed ourselves to solving humanity’s problems with 
artifacts, we can use the Geoscope and World Gaming strategies as a 
“test-bed,” and can now sort out which comes first of various artifacts — 
all of which are going to be needed to get Spaceship Earth operating om- 
nicooperatively on behalf of all. 

Not only may we begin to make the whole world work for all humanity 
but incidentally to actualize the human functioning in Universe as local 
information-gatherers and local problem-solvers in support of the eternal re- 
generation of Universe itself. 

No single move can bring us more swiftly in the direction of complete 
overall desovereignization, unblocking the free flow of technologies and re- 
sources, than that of instituting the world-around integrated electrical- 
energy network fully described in the Introduction to this book and the 
“World Game” chapter. 

Next in artifact design priority to the integrated world electrical energy 
network comes the physical-environment-controlling equipment of world- 
around humanity’s momentarily geographically fixed activities — fixed in 
contradistinction to humanity’s swiftly mobile environment-controlling arti- 
facts such as automobiles, buses, trains, airplanes, and satellites. So seem- 
ingly stationary are city skyscrapers that few think about the fact that all 
their parts have been transported from far away and that many of those 
parts and materials have been intertransported many times in the course of 
their production and assembling. As of 1980 the average U.S.A. family 
moved out of town to a new location every three years. They do so primarily 
in readjusting human production functions to relocated factories and offices 
and to new airport and shopping centers’ living-local convenience. When I 


309 


310 


Critical Path 


speak of mobile dwellings, I do not refer to camping trailers or tents, I speak 
of those dwellings which will stay geographically fixed for many months or 
years but which are readily and economically transportable and reinstallable 
over wide ranges of distance. 

As I have mentioned before and now repeat in a more comprehensive 
manner, in 1800 the average human being was walking an annually cumu- 
lative distance of 1 100 miles and riding ten additional annual miles. By 1900 
the average human being was yet walking a total of yearly distance of 1100 
miles but the average U.S.A. citizen’s annual vehicle-ridden miles had in- 
creased to 400. All humanity is as yet in 1980 walking an annual average 
of 1100 miles but in the U.S.A., Europe, and parts of the Near East, Asia, 
Africa, and Australia, all men, women, and youngsters free to travel, are 
averaging over 20,000 annual miles of vehicular travel. 

Class-one evolution has all humanity progressively cross-breeding to pro- 
duce an integrated world human race. If we pass our present cosmic exami- 
nation to continue aboard planet Earth in Universe, the to-and-froing of 
humanity will increase rapidly. The motion patterns of humanity, as also 
mentioned earlier, are pulsating between ever more widely convergent and 
divergent to-and-froing. Two main types of environment controls are re- 
quired: a whole city under one dome for convergent phases of human living 
and single-family or small group air-deliverable domes for remote deploy- 
ment for skiers, geologists, artists, and others. 

* * * 

Since 1927 I have been deeply involved with the issue of making high- 
performance shelter available to all humanity. By high performance I mean 
such environment-controlling shells — and their survival equipment — as can 
be produced only by the most advanced aircraft and space technology and 
the latter’s level of technical problem-solving. In 1927 I anticipated a fifty- 
year-long gestation period for a new building industry. Since 1977 was the 
fifty-year target date, I began the prototyping of my Fly’s Eye dome, which 
embodied design attention to all that I had learned not only throughout that 
fifty-year development period but in all my thirty-two earlier years. They 
will not be sold. Like telephones, they will be rentable. 

The Fly’s Eye uses a very few types of nestable, mass-produced fiberglass, 
sheet aluminum of thin gauge, or polyester-coated sheet steel components 
that, when assembled, produce a 5/8 sphere of the “Hex-Pent” geodesic 
configuration. As with the ports and pores of all organic systems, the size 
and shape of these openings sort, sieve and classify the in-bound and out- 
bound physical-component traffic of metabolic regeneration which the Fly’s 
Eye domes embody. 

The Fly’s Eye domes’ “pores” are all seven-foot-diameter circular open- 


Critical Path: Part Four 


311 


ings. These circular openings serve alternately as doors, vents, solar-energy- 
cell mounts, etc. The circular openings constitute three-fourths of the 
surface area of the domes, while the manufactured shell-structure compo- 
nents constitute only one-fourth of the structures’ surface. Since the circles 
have rigid rims, the closure of the circles can be accomplished by two, 
spread-apart drumheads of tensed, thin film or fabric materials — ergo, at 
low relative cost. 

The structural shell components constitute a comprehensive leakproof, 
watershedding system that, with the circular openings covered, leads all rain 
and melting snow into the shell’s watercourse cisterning system. The cylin- 
drically rimmed circular openings will be tensilely covered with opaque, 
translucent, or transparent glass, plastic film, metal glazing or screening, or 
some combination thereof. They will serve as energy harvesters in the op- 
eration of the dwelling by parabolically collecting incoming energy in sun- 
light foci, liquid-heating cells and by circular-opening-mounted, wind-drag- 
driven, air turbines. 


Figure 41. 26-foot-diameter Fly’s Eye dome prototype 





V 


Figure 41. Fly’s Eye dome transported by helicopter 


Fly’s Eye domes are of two sizes. The smaller twenty-six-foot-diameter 
one is constructed of only one type of mass-produced, strong, lightweight, 
hyperbolic-saddle-form component; the larger fifty-foot-diameter one is 
comprised of only two types of mass-produced structural shell and water- 
shed-constituting components, which are also of the hyperbolic-saddle type. 

Both twenty-six- and fifty-foot-diameter domes can consist of two con- 
centric identical domes with a space of six inches between and no metallic 
interconnectors — this spacing produces highly effective insulation as well as 
an excellent hot- and cold-air ducting system. The concentric domes’ inter- 
connection is accomplished with a seven-foot-diameter outside circle and 
six-inch-deep conic tubes made fast at the seven-foot outside end of the cir- 
cular openings of the spheres. 

The smaller Fly’s Eye provides the optimally workable fundamentals for 
comfortable, efficient living in a two-story shelter. It is small compared to 


Critical Path: Part Four 


313 


a conventional house, but huge next to a van, camper, or almost any of the 
thousands of yachts enthusiastically occupied while tied up at the marina 
slips. Optimum use of space will be important. 

The larger Fly’s Eye is fifty feet in diameter, capable of enclosing three 
or more stories (each of 2000-square-foot floor area), a garden, trees, and 
a pool. While also equipped with all the living essentials at different levels, 
its space utilization will be quite different from the smaller Fly’s Eye — the 
fifty-footer accommodates what we call the Garden of Eden living — living 
in a garden. 

The Fly’s Eye domes are designed as components of a “livingry” service. 



Figure 42. Fly’s Eye dome with trussed flooring 


314 


Critical Path 



Figure 43. 50-foot-diameter Fly’s Eye dome prototype 


The basic hardware components will produce a beautiful, fully equipped, 
air-deliverable house that weighs and costs about as much as a good auto- 
mobile. Not only will it be highly efficient in its use of energy and materials, 
it also will be capable of harvesting incoming light and wind energies. The 
software part of the product will include a service industry to air- or high- 
way-transport, install, lease, maintain, remove, and relocate the domes or 
their separate hardware components. And as mentioned, they will not be 
sold. 

Both the twenty-six- and fifty-foot Fly’s Eye domes are semiautono- 
mous — i.e., have no sewer, water-pipe, or electric-power-supply connec- 
tions. The personal hygiene, clothes-and-utensil-washing functions are 
accomplished with the high-pressure, compressed air and atomized water 
fog gun which requires only a pint of water per hour. 

The human excrement is sittingly deposited in the dry-packaging toilet. 
The human sits on fresh, plastic-film-covered, fore-and-aft seat halves. The 
excrement falls into the top-open plastic tube as it is formed by the two con- 
verging edges of the two plastic sheets, which are then electrosealed together 
from the originally separate two plastic film rolls, whose filmstrips first cov- 


Critical Path: Part Four 


315 


ered the two seat-sides. The hermetically sealed-off tubular section contain- 
ing the excrement is then mechanically detached and conveyed away as 
litter to be neatly packed in a corrugated carton clearly marked for pickup 
and dispatch to the methane-gas-producing plant and the dry-powder fer- 
tilizer manufacturer or to be processed into methane gas and fertilizer pow- 
der by accessory equipment of the dome home itself. 

* * * 

Having undertaken the solution by artifacts of the world’s great housing 
crisis, I came to regard the history of cities. Cities developed entirely before 
the thought of electricity or automobiles or before any of the millions of in- 
ventions registered in the United States Patent Office. For eminently mobile 
man, cities have become obsolete in terms of yesterday’s functions — ware- 
housing both new and formerly manufactured goods and housing immigrant 
factory workers. Rebuilding them to accommodate the new needs of world 
man requires demolition of the old buildings and their replacement of the 
new and now obsolete real estate, streets, water and sewer lines, and yes- 
terday’s no longer logical overall planning geometries. I sought to take on 
this challenge and developed plans for an entirely feasible and practical new 
way for humans to live together economically. Old Man River’s City is one 
such design. 

Old Man River’s City, undertaken for East St. Louis, Illinois, takes its 
name from the song first sung by Paul Robeson fifty years ago, which dra- 
matized the life of Afro-American blacks who lived along the south-of-St. 
Louis banks of the Mississippi River in the days of heavy north-south river 
traffic in cotton. Cessation of the traffic occurred when the east-west rail- 
way network outperformed the north-south Mississippi, Mexican Gulf, and 
Atlantic water routes, which left many of its riverbank communities, such 
as East St. Louis, marooned in economic dead spots. East St. Louis is an 
American city overwhelmed by poverty. Its population of 70,000 is 70 per- 
cent black. 

I originally came to East St. Louis to discuss the design and possible re- 
alization of the Old Man River’s City, having been asked to do so by East 
St. Louis community leaders themselves, being first approached by my 
friend Katherine Dunham, the famous black dancer. At the community 
leaders’ request I presented a design that would help solve their problem. 
It is moon-crater-shaped: the crater’s truncated cone top opening is a half- 
mile in diameter, rim-to-rim, while the truncated mountain itself is a mile 
in diameter at its base ring. The city has a one-mile-diameter geodesic, quar- 
ter-sphere, transparent umbrella mounted high above it to permit full, all- 
around viewing below the umbrella’s bottom perimeter. The top of the dome 
roof is 1000 feet high. The bottom rim of the umbrella dome is 500 feet 


316 


Critical Path 


above the surrounding terrain, while the crater-top esplanade, looks 250 feet 
radially inward from the umbrella’s bottom, is at the same 500-foot height. 
From the esplanade the truncated mountain cone slopes downwardly, in- 
ward and outward, to ground level 500 feet below. 

The moon crater’s inward and outward, exterior-surface slopes each con- 
sist of fifty terraces — the terrace floors are tiered vertically ten feet above 
or below one another. All the inwardly, downwardly sloping sides of the 
moon crater’s terraced cone are used for communal life; its outward-sloping, 
tree-planted terraces are entirely for private life dwelling. 

The private-home terraces on the outward circular bank are subdivided 
by trees and bushes to isolate them one from the other. This garden-divided 
exterior terracing hides the individual private-home terraces from one an- 
other while permitting each an unobstructed view outward to the faraway 
landscape. Thus landscape-partitioned from one another, the individual 
homes beneath the umbrella dome do not need their own separate weather 
roofs. The experience will be that of living outdoors in the garden, without 
any chance of rain and out of sight and sound of other humans, yet being 
subconsciously aware that your own advantage is not at the expense of oth- 
ers’ zonal advantage. 

The floors of the individual homes on the outward terraced slopes pen- 
etrate inwardly of the “mountainside” to provide an 85-percent-enclosed 
family apartment set back into the “mountain’s” surface. Each family’s 
apartment floor area totals 2500 feet, being 100 feet inwardly extended and 
twenty-five feet, one inch, wide at its outside terrace front line and twenty- 
five feet at its innermost chord line. Each apartment occupies only one six- 
hundredth of the circle’s 360 degrees of arc. In addition there will be 1300 
square feet of public space for each of the 25,000 families that Old Man Riv- 
er’s City will accommodate on the fifty interior, communal, terraced slopes 
of the crater city. 

The geodesic-sky parasol-umbrella protects the whole of Old Man River’s 
City from rain or snow. The sky dome is transparent. Its aluminum-and- 
stainless-steel-trussed structure will be covered in two alternate ways: (1) 
glazed with wire-reinforced glass — ergo, fireproof; (2) with a pneumatically 
filled, glass-cloth-pillowed umbrella. The dome will admit all biological, life- 
supporting Sun radiation. The great umbrella is a watershed whose runoff 
is collected in a dome-level reservoir for a high-pressure fire sprinkler and 
service purification system, after which the reservoir’s overflow is piped 
downwardly to a dome-surrounding “moat” reservoir. 

The interiormost, circular diameter ground level of Old Man River’s City 
is twice the size of the playing-ground area of any of the world’s large ath- 
letic stadia. This means that it has about four times the interior horizontal 
area of a regulation football stadium’s oval ground area. 


Critical Path: Part Four 


317 


The terraced (angle of repose) slopes of Old Man River’s City, both out- 
side and inside, are very gradual slopes and are thus unlike the steeply tiered 
athletic stadium’s seating slopes. The angular difference is like that of a re- 
clining chair versus an upright chair. 

Many of the lower tiers of Old Man River’s City’s interior terraces have 
enough horizontal surface to accommodate groups of tennis courts, whole 
school and playground areas, supermarkets, outdoor theaters, etc. The ter- 
races are of graduated widths. With the narrowest at the top, they become 
progressively wider at each lower level. 

Inside — that is, below the moon crater’s three-and-a-half-mile-circumfer- 
enced, surface-terraced mountain mass — are all the communal services not 
requiring daylight: for instance, all the multilevel circumferential trol- 
leyways, interlevel ramps, roadways, and parking lots, with numerous radial 
crosswalks and local elevators. There are radial crosswalk bridges at every 
four terrace levels. These provide bridges — never more than two decks up 
or down — for walking homeward, outwardly from the interior community 
bowl, to one’s individual, terraced, tree-hidden dwelling area. In addition to 
the foregoing interior structuring and facilities, the factory, office and park- 
ing space within the crater mountain is colossal — about ten million square 
feet. The city is as complete a living, working, studying, and playing com- 
plex as is a great ocean passenger ship — but without the space limitations 
imposed by the ship’s streamlined forming to accommodate swift passage 
through the seas. 

Because its life-style will be so vastly improved over present-day living, 
Old Man River’s City has been designed to accommodate 25,000 families — 
i.e., 125,000 humans — though East St. Louis has now only 70,000 humans 
grouped in 14,000 families. 

There are many exciting consequences of Old Man River’s City commu- 
nity life being introverted and its private life extroverted. 

Within the interior community bowl everyone can see what all the rest 
of the community is doing, as do the 125,000-member audiences of our pres- 
ent-day great “bowl” games see all the other humans present, though indis- 
tinctly at the farthest distances. The difference in Old Man River’s City 
experience will be that each of its 125,000 individuals will have an average 
of 260 square feet of communal-terrace roaming space versus the six square 
feet of seating space of the football stadium fan — i.e., the OMR citizen will 
average forty-three times as much free space as does the football fan. 

From the individual, external home terrace on the crater’s outer slopes 
one can see no humans other than those within one’s own family’s home- 
terrace domain. People can look outwardly, however, from Old Man River’s 
City as far as the eye can see at the interesting Mississippi River scenery 
outside the moon crater’s umbrella limits. The Old Man River City’s home 


mound 


Outer Penmeter 4750m 



Figure 44. Total Undercover Area 1,767,146 M 


318 




Figure 45. Model of Old Man River’s City (elevation) 


Figure 45a. Model of Old Man River’s City (aerial view) 


319 


320 


Critical Path 



Figure 46. Plan view of Old Man River’s City, East St. Louis, Illinois 


views are analogous to those of individuals living in dwellings on mountain- 
sides, such as those of residents on the hills of Hong Kong Island or those 
above Berkeley, California. Such hillside dwellers overlook vast, mysterious- 
ly inspiring scenic areas, ever-changing with the nights, days, and weather. 

The total roof surface area of the one-mile-diameter, quarter-sphere dome 
is only 2 percent that of the total roof and exterior skin surface area of all 
the buildings standing on an equal ground area in any large conventional 
city. The amount of external shell surface through which each interior mol- 
ecule of atmosphere can gain or lose heat is thus reduced by 98 percent. An- 
other energy-conservation factor is operative, for every time we double the 
sphere’s diameter, we increase its surface by four and its volume by eight. 
Therefore, the energy efficiency doubles each time we double the dome size. 
This means that the structural efficiency, useful volume, and energy conser- 
vation are all at optimum in the Old Man River’s City project. Throughout 
the year Old Man River’s City will have a naturally mild climate. With a 
large, aerodynamically articulated, wind-and-weather-controlled ventilator 
system atop and round the dome, together with the 500-foot-high vertical 
opening that runs entirely around the city below the umbrella, the atmo- 
spheric controllability will guarantee fresh air as well as energy conserva- 
tion. The umbrella will jut out above and beyond all the outer-slope 


Critical Path: Part Four 


321 


residential terrace areas as does a grandstand roof, so that neither rain nor 
snow will drift horizontally inwardly, being blocked from doing so by the 
mass inertia of the vast quantity of atmosphere embraced by the umbrella 
as well as by the vertical mass of the crater’s cone within the dome. 

Optimum efficiency also characterizes the way in which Old Man River’s 
City is to be produced. The three-and-a-half-mile circumferential moon 
crater and its terracing will be developed entirely with modern, high-speed, 
highway-building equipment and earth-moving techniques as well as with 
suspension-bridge-building and air-space technologies. Construction will be- 
gin with installation of a set of concentrically interswitching railway tracks, 
with tangential shunting bypass tracks, on which great cranes and other ma- 
chinery will travel. The mammoth, 500-feet-high and 2000-feet-wide-based, 
A-frame-shaped, circumferential segments of the crater become highly re- 
petitive and economically producible. There will be 100 columns rising from 
the A-frame tops at the crater’s top-rim esplanade. These 100 columns will 
be 500 feet high and will be spaced forty meters apart, mounted above the 
A-frames. The tops of the 100 columns will be 1000 feet high and will be 
capped by a circumferential ring. 

The whole terraced crater structure, inside and out, will be of thin-wall 
reinforced concrete. This terraced shell will be cast-mounted upon, and will 
thus encase, an inverted, kitchen-sieve-like, domical basket, consisting of an 
omnitriangulated, quarter-sphere geodesic, basket-bowl, suspension web of 
fine-diameter, high-tensile steel rods and wires. The spider-fine steel web 
basket will be suspended from the A-frame tops at the base of the 100 col- 
umns. The whole structure is, in effect, a circular, triangularly self-stabiliz- 
ing, “suspension bridge”-principled, terraced, ferroconcrete bowl with the 
human occupants and their goods constituting only a small fraction of the 
stress loads of equimagnitude highway traffic bridges. 

The 1 500-meter- (one-mile) diameter dome itself will be a horizontal wire 
wheel suspension consisting of an octahedral-tensegrity-trussed, one-quarter 
sphere geodesic dome suspended horizontally from the 100 circumferential 
columns. This method means mounting the dome one-quarter of a mile in- 
wardly from the one-mile-diameter parasol dome’s outer rim. This results 
in an inner clear span of only one-half mile, a distance comparable to that 
of the Golden Gate Bridge’s central clear span between its two masts. 

I said to the East St. Louisans at the outset that our first resolve must 
be not to compromise our design solution in order to qualify for any private 
foundation or government subsidy funds. Three-quarters of the United 
States national debt of almost $1 trillion and much of the private debt, 
which altogether transfers $25 billion a year “interest” from our nation’s 
pocketbooks to the banks and insurance companies, has been amassed 
through government building subsidies that were designed strictly as “mon- 


322 


Critical Path 


ey-makers” for bankers, real estate operators, and handcraft building-indus- 
try interests. The funds were not amassed in the interest of the individuals 
and the community. I advised the East St. Louisans that we must develop 
our design and its production and assembly logistics strictly in terms of the 
individual and the community’s best interests. I said that if we solve the hu- 
man problem and do so in the most economical and satisfactory manner, 
independent of building codes, zoning restrictions, etc., while employing air- 
space technology, effectiveness, and safety, we will do that which no sub- 
sidized housing thus far has done. I pointed out that, with increasing 
socioeconomic emergencies, the economic support will ultimately material- 
ize simply because we have what world-around humanity is looking for and 
needs. The money-making solutions of housing are exactly what humanity 
is not looking for but has had to accept, lacking any alternatives. 

The East St. Louis schoolchildren are soon to be provided with a fifty- 
foot-diameter miniature OMR moon-crater city with which (and on which) 
to play, simulating actual living conditions. The children will furnish its ter- 
races with miniaturized, scale-model equipment, landscape material, athlet- 
ic facilities, interior transportation equipment, factories, and similar 
materials they will design and make. As the political leader of East St. Lou- 
is, who was formerly principal of its largest high school, says, “By the time 
Old Man River’s City gets completed, our present high school students will 
be its grown occupants, and they might just as well start right now using 
their imaginations in play living in and operating it.” Fabricating and as- 
sembling the model itself will be in strict conformity with the full-scale op- 
eration. 

At the outset meeting of our OMR’s City’s development, I told the East 
St. Louisans that I would develop the design and models at my own expense 
and do so without fee. I said that what I would design must be so “right” 
that the entire community would fall in love with it ... or it would be 
dropped. I said that if they did fall in love with it, I would carry on with 
all the development expense and that they must not allow the project to be- 
come a political football. It was fortunate that the East St. Louis community 
did fall spontaneously in love with the design. This held the project together 
through many critical moments of preliminary challenges of its validity and 
practicability. There were many critical meetings wherein skeptics, some of 
them powerful political activists, declared that this design, with its domed- 
over interior community and exterior private-dwelling terraces, might be 
part of its social enemy’s conspiracy to entrap them. Fortunately the design 
gradually explained itself, until all the leaders of the community’s diverse 
factions — political, ethnic, and economic, as well as the city’s engineer — all 
agreed on its desirability. 

I have been greatly aided in the Old Man River’s City development by 


Critical Path: Part Four 


323 


a group of volunteer architectural students from Washington University in 
St. Louis and, above all, by Professor James Fitzgibbon, head of Washing- 
ton University’s architectural school. As I am absent a great deal due to my 
world traveling, Jim, who is one of my best, lifelong friends, has been locally 
in command of the development. Most powerful support of the East St. 
Louisans has been provided by Wyvetter Younge, Carl Utchmann, and Bob 
Ahart. 

Both the East St. Louis and St. Louis newspapers and radio and television 
stations have given good and favorable reception to the project. Now world- 
around interest in the Old Man River project is beginning to be manifest. 
As interest grows, more and more articles are being published about it, de- 
spite its having no public relations or advertising promotion. Quite to the 
contrary, I have asked the community to let the project gestate at a natural 
rate. Answer questions faithfully when they are asked, but otherwise be si- 
lently at work. 

As the first favorable publicity occurred, it was inevitable that Illinois’s 
political representatives would quickly offer the East St. Louisans their aid 
in securing government funds, which funds, however, would involve so 
many restrictions and compromises as to utterly emasculate the OMR 
City’s design rationale. Thus it was a second victory for the project when 
I was able to dissuade the community from being tempted by the “millions” 
of dollars tendered them. 

I have never engaged in a development that I have felt to have such prom- 
ise for all humanity, while being, at the same time, so certain of realization, 
because its time is imminently at hand. 

* * * 

In 1951, at North Carolina State University at Raleigh, I designed an 
automated cotton mill. 

Situated upon the banks of many New England rivers and employing the 
latter’s waterpower, all the great cotton mills of the nineteenth-century 
U.S.A. were built four stories high. They used giant pulley wheels mounted 
on the hubs of their great main waterwheels to drive leather belts which led 
slantingly upward into the mills’ top floors and thence to the ceiling-hung, 
pulley-driven shafting mounted under the ceilings of each of the mills’ four 
floors. There were many pairs of pulleys, their axes hung in parallel. Each 
driving wheel had its own idler wheel. When the belts were shifted over 
from the idler to the driving wheel, they drove the wheels of their respective 
machines of the various types of cotton mill machinery, which was posi- 
tioned just below the ceiling-hung shafts. To operate those early-in-the-nine- 
teenth-century mills the owners imported whole town-size armies of 
immigrants, who settled into the companies’ houses. Having no other 


324 


Critical Path 


sources available, the millworkers bought all their supplies from the com- 
pany stores. Their wages were minimal. After one-half a century the orga- 
nized-labor movement forced wage increases for them. 

In the early twentieth century the cotton-manufacturing business owners 
abandoned their New England mills and moved their machinery into the 
Southern states, where homes need not be heated and where they could 
reach a low-cost labor market. Instead of the belting, overhead shafting, and 
pulleys, they used the World- War-I-developed electric motor drives for each 
separate machine. This freedom from a shafting-and-waterpower-driven sys- 
tem economizedly (which is not always most economically) called for single- 
story factories with large roof areas. The latter’s black tar and gravel roofs 
impounded vast quantities of Sun heat, which in turn produced many in- 
ternal environment-control problems. 

Before that southward cotton-milling migration my earliest job before 
World War I had been as an apprentice cotton millwright (cotton machine 
fitter). The new mill we were equipping with machinery was located in Sher- 
brooke, Quebec. Most of the machinery was manufactured in Lancashire, 
England, some in France. Working first as a helper to the Lancashire mas- 
ter machine fitters, I learned how to put together by myself every one of 
the various kinds of cotton mill machines. These began with the cotton bail 
“openers” at railroad track level and the blowing of the cotton to the top 
(fourth) floor of the mill, after which the cotton went through the pickers, 
combers’ cards, and slubbers, all of which gradually cleaned and formed the 
cotton into a continuous single strand of cotton, which strands then ran 
through the twisters, into thread-spinning machines, and thereafter into cot- 
ton cloth weaving machines. 

Eventually, together with other fitters, I taught the cotton mill workers 
how to operate their machines. It was a powerful and valuable experience. 
It was synergetic — behavior of a whole system unpredicted by the behavior 
of any one of its parts only separately considered. 

Fifty years later, with much other experience including the development 
of large geodesic domes, I found I could build a large spherical environment 
control for much less expense in materials and labor than was required to 
produce the traditional one-story-high Southern cotton mill. Inside the 
great column-free space of the clear-span geodesic sphere, an octet-truss 
mast structure would support many levels of surrounding, outwardly can- 
tilevered, octet-truss platforms. 

In the great steamships of yesterday the engine room area occupied a very 
large part of the ship’s interior space. This was occupied by large equip- 
ment, such as three-decks-high engines and boilers. In place of decks these 
engine rooms had open-grating platforms, walkways, and stairways, all open 
for seeing through and for free circulation of the air. 


Critical Path: Part Four 


325 


In 1952, at the university in Raleigh, North Carolina, I was asked to lead 
a full-term design problem in their department of architecture. I proposed 
the designing and detailed scale-modeling of a large spherical cotton mill 
within which — and not touching the sphere — would be open-frame grating 
platforms supported by octahedron-tetrahedron trusses cantilevered out- 
wardly around the central mast at many levels, with the octet-trussed plat- 
forms occurring only where the machinery was to be situated. In the 
conventional Southern one-story cotton factory all the machines are on one 
single floor, requiring the horizontal transfer of the semiprocessed cotton 
products of one machine to the next machine in the manufacturing se- 
quence. In mill terms this carry-across-of-product is called “doffing.” In my 
vertical mill proposal all “doffing” was eliminated. The first processing ma- 
chinery would be situated on a cantilevered open truss at the highest point 
around the mast, inside the dome, and the products would start a continu- 
ous downward flow from one machine to another accomplished exclusively 
by gravity. No doffing would be required. 

I designed this factory in conjunction with North Carolina State Univer- 
sity’s top cotton mill professors as well as with the operating superinten- 
dents and other industry experts from neighboring mills. All the cotton mill 
machinery companies’ sales engineers participated in the project, which was 
being run for the senior class in architecture of North Carolina State Uni- 
versity. (North Carolina State University happens to be the leading univer- 
sity in the cotton manufacturing area of the South, and has more engineers 
in that trade than can be found anywhere else.) We designed this factory 
to be completely automated. Inadvertently it became extraordinarily beau- 
tiful. (See Figs. 47, 47a and 47b.) 

When the cotton mill owners moved their mills from New England into 
the Southland, they did not move their own homes. They remained delib- 
erately remote from any labor hassling. When I developed this new mill, 
which all the professionals considered to be a great improvement, the own- 
ership of the cotton mills was so far away from where the mills are located 
that the owners heard nothing of our new cotton mill development. The 
people who managed the mills for the remote owners were economists and 
statisticians, seeking only to squeeze every cent out of costs. They had no 
engineering-design analytical capability. They sought only to reduce labor 
costs. Nobody was then considering new cotton-manufacturing technology. 
It was assumed that all possibilities of improving the manufacturing pro- 
cesses had been exhausted long ago. As a consequence the cotton mill own- 
ers paid no attention whatsoever to the mill I designed; the North Carolina 
State cotton-manufacturing engineering scientists who participated in the 
project agreed that my spherical, gravity-serviced mill was optimally effi- 
cient and highly desirable. The design exists. We probably will see it adopt- 


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Critical Path 



Figure 47. Model of automated cotton mill, Raleigh, North Carolina 



Figure 47a. Model of automated cotton mill, Raleigh, North Carolina 
(interior detail) 




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327 



ed one of these days. That is the way with critical-path items. They come 
into use only when class-one evolution needs them. 

* * * 

In the following year, 1952, at North Carolina State University I intro- 
duced the idea of what I called the mechanical Growth House. At that time 
I knew how to construct — and had already constructed — many geodesic 
domes. Some were enormous, spherical environment controls. As men- 
tioned before, ever-larger spheres have ever-less surface area per unit of en- 
closed volume. Doubling a dome’s diameter increases its surface fourfold 
while increasing its volume eightfold. Large domes can be completely trans- 
parent, allowing ultraviolet radiation to enter wherever necessary to support 
the growth of vegetation and the latter’s impoundment of Sun energy 
through photosynthesis. Transparent domes can also be opaquely shuttered 
or mirrored where desired. It is highly feasible to produce two concentric, 
translucent spheres, the outer one being, for instance, 100 meters in diam- 
eter, and the inner one being four meters less in diameter than the outer one 
and having no metal conductors running between their two plastic and fi- 
berglass intertrussed surfaces and with top and bottom, remotely controlled 
openings in both domes. 





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Critical Path 


The southeastern United States has more of what we think of as individ- 
ual farmers than anywhere else in this country. North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, Cornell, and Iowa State University, are the leading agricultural- 
engineering-sciences schools in America. It was at North Carolina State 
that, in conjunction with the Growth House, I conducted comparative stud- 
ies into (1) the economics of individually operated versus business- 
corporation-operated farms and (2) the critical-limit size and other 
conditions of individually owned and personally operated farms versus 
those same questions for corporation-operated farms. I also made compara- 
tive studies of farms operated by the very rich as tax write-offs versus the 
few little subsistence farms, such as those owned by the small tobacco farm- 
ers in North Carolina, which are worked entirely by the resident owner- 
farmers. These latter are very personal types of operation, in which the 
farmers carefully watch their crops, even to each tobacco leaf, to get the best 
out of their investment in the land. These little tobacco farms and certain 
subsistence farms were quite a different type of eco-technical game than that 
of the huge conglomerate-owned multithousands-of-acres farm operations. 
The small, individual farmers soon learned all the ways in which the gov- 
ernment could help them run their farms. 

For instance, the U.S. government at the time of the New Deal helped 
the small farmers by underwriting the cost of constructing little local dams 
on their land, which produced small ponds and lakes that the government 
stocked with fish. These new energy sources greatly increased the farmers’ 
crop yields and earnings. 

From that time on the farms began to hold the water that fell on them. 
People like myself who were light-plane flyers began to notice as we flew 
westward cross-country that, late in the afternoon with the Sun in the west, 
its brilliance began to reflect from the myriads of these little newly dammed 
farm ponds. Soon the glare of these farm ponds became almost blinding to 
the airplane pilot; before that period the farmland had been a dark carpet 
at dusk. 

Overnight the New Deal had captured all that water for all those farms 
and had stocked them with highly reproductive fish. 

I found that North Carolina State University at Raleigh was a great place 
to discuss the idea of a Growth House because the plant physiologists there 
were some of the best agricultural scientists I could find in America. 

These scientists agreed with me about the desirability of producing a 
Growth House — an enormous clear-span sphere with no interior bearing 
walls or columns. It would have a great central mast around which, one 
above the other, would be cantilevered octahedron-tetrahedron arms, like 
branches of a tree extended at successive levels. The horizontally rotatable 


Critical Path: Part Four 


329 


arms would carry the growing plants, with their roots hung in trays. The 
Growth House would be a multitiered-tray agriculture. Tray agriculture 
had already been studied a great deal in North Carolina and had been suc- 
cessfully developed. (We had some very satisfactory tray-growing experi- 
ments.) We then went on to find that inside the great sphere we could 
atomize the water, atomize all the chemical fertilization, and immerse the 
plants in a Sun-and-nutriment-filled atmosphere that would produce the 
greatest growth in a given time. The growth-supporting, rotatable arms 
could be separately rotated for cultivation. All the resultant food grown 
would gradually work downwardly by gravity, finally to be packaged or 
canned automatically and delivered in cases out through the bottom. This 
Growth House is completely designed and ready to be produced. If it were 
to be used to produce the new “winged bean,” the life-support worth of its 
product would be enormous. 

Referring back to my designing of the Dymaxion House of 1927 — that of 
producing an environment most favorable to a living organism’s growth and 
to its dynamic process, and doing so in the most economically pleasing and 
safe manner — we found that in designing our North Carolina Growth 
House we had used the same principles for inventorying its essential func- 
tions as those we had employed in designing the 1950-1956 North Carolina 
cotton mill and subsequent projects. Considering in some detail how such 
a most favorable environment can be arrived at, we see that, in the first 
place, we wished to have clear space wherever possible. Needing no interior 
bearing columns or walls, we would interrupt our enclosed space only when 
we had some service that we needed at that point. There would be no walls 
or partitions that arbitrarily stopped you from passing through. Space 
would be broken up only by devices that served you at preferred locations — 
for instance, by a bathroom or a clothes-storage device. 

* * * 

I saw in 1927 that all storage may be divided into two classes — things we 
rest on shelves, held in horizontal display by gravity, and things we hang 
vertically, with gravity always maintaining the economy of individual dis- 
play. The horizontal storage we developed in the Dymaxion House is very 
different from the drawers of a conventional bedroom bureau. I developed 
what I called O-Volving shelves and storage walls. The storage walls had 
two parts: a hemicircular revolving coat closet and shoe rack structured 
with aluminum tubing (see Fig. 48). This hemicircular hanger tube hemi- 
revolved around a center axle with an ample amount of room for vertically 
hanging all clothing, short or long; and with a hemicircular shoe rack, 
rigged horizontally below the bottom of hung dresses, coats, etc. The revolv- 


330 


Critical Path 



Figure 48. Storage walls 


ing coat closet had also the advantage of coming out into a room so you 
could pick things out very neatly instead of having to reach back blindly 
into a closet. 

The horizontal O-Volving shelves operated like a paternoster, using ver- 
tically rotated circular chains (similar to a bicycle chain but more powerful) 
with geared wheels at top, vertically rotating the bicycle-chain-supported 
hanging shelves. The shelves were suspended in such a way that they would 
never tilt, yet were strong enough to support great weights. On pressing a 
button, electric motors rotated the two top sprocket wheels, from both of 
which, mounted at both ends of the rig, the bicycle-type chain loops were 
suspended. Each shelf in turn would appear swiftly at a single horizontal 
opening in the storage wall, positioned at a height safe from the reach of 
children. With these shelves children would never have to be told, “Don’t!” 

I was designing an environment that in every way could accommodate 
children learning what they have to learn in order to conduct themselves 
physically and safely, without getting into trouble with the operations of the 
environment, so an adult would never have to “don’t” the children or dis- 
courage their curiosity-initiating — i.e., experiments — for fear that a child 
might get hurt. 



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331 



Figure 49. O-Volving shelves 


I then decided my O-Volving shelves would be very logical for use in a 
library. I designed a proposed library project for Princeton University 
which, although not built at that time, would be very practical if used in 
the future. It had a deep, fifty-meter-in-diameter, circular silo well going far 
below into the ground, with walls that were thoroughly waterproofed on 
their outside. Above this deep circular well I mounted two levels of Octe- 
truss floors, and above them a hemispherical geodesic dome sixty meters in 
diameter. I designed a radial arrangement of many consoles on the library's 
ground floor, each within a library book category. Instead of taking eleva- 
tors to the right floor and walking to the shelves, the O-Volving shelves 
would bring the one-meter-long shelves of books to you — ovol ving vertically 
before your eyes, fast or slowly, until the right shelf arrives and you locate 
your book. 

All the vertical bookshelves’ ovolving was actuated by an electric push 
button and high-speed motor. It could be run by you at a speed suitable for 
your adequate inspection of the contiguous titles. Any book-seeker who 
wants to can dial for the book by computer-entered title or description, and 
it will ovolve to the seeker’s window at high speed. When the book arrives 
at the console, it is practical to have it pneumatically and mechanically 
opened behind the console window for the reader’s intimate viewing. The 



332 


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Figure 50. O-Volving console floor placement patterning, Princeton University 
Library project 


reader cannot put hands on it, possibly to damage it. By push button the 
viewer at the console can also order a Xerox copy of any or all of the book’s 
pages. Also by push buttons the viewer can order a copy of the book for 
purchase. At the exit door of the library the Xeroxed pages or the purchased 
book will be waiting for credit-card purchase. 

In the Princeton University design there were two decks of consoles. One 
was for the book-untouching, general library visitor; the other deck, twenty 
feet above the ground level entrance, would be accessible only to research- 
accredited visitors, who could remove the books from the shelves and open 
them after they ovolved into place. The O-Volving consoles on both decks 
would be triangularly arrayed all around the library’s circular decks in a 
pattern of as-close-to-one-another-packing as possible without making the 
viewer feel crowded. The many perpendicularly book-loaded, O-Volving 
shelves would be parallelly suspended within the vast and deep underground 
air-conditioned silos. In terms of overall initial and operating costs com- 
pared to those of a multilevel, searchingly walk-around, fixed-steel-book- 
stacks library, my design solution costs are extremely favorable. 

The O-Volving shelf technology was perfected operationally to everyone’s 
satisfaction at Beech Aircraft thirty-five years ago. The principle is now 
completely sound, only awaiting application. 

* * * 

In the early 1960s I was commissioned by a Japanese patron to design 
one of my tetrahedronal floating cities for Tokyo Bay. 


Critical Path: Part Four 


333 


Three-quarters of our planet Earth is covered with water, most of which 
may float organic cities. 

Floating cities pay no rent to landlords. They are situated on the water, 
which they desalinate and recirculate in many useful and nonpolluting 
ways. They are ships with all an ocean ship's technical autonomy, but they 
are also ships that will always be anchored. They don't have to go any- 
where. Their shape and its human-life accommodations are not compro- 
mised, as must be the shape of the living quarters of ships whose hull shapes 
are constructed so that they may slip, fishlike, at high speed through the wa- 
ter and high seas with maximum economy. 

Floating cities are designed with the most buoyantly stable conformation 
of deep-sea bell-buoys. Their omni-surface-terraced, slope-faced, tetrahe- 
dronal structuring is employed to avoid the lethal threat of precipitous falls 
by humans from vertically sheer high-rising buildings. 

The tetrahedron has the most surface with the least volume of all poly- 
hedra. As such it provides the most possible “outside" living. Its sloping ex- 
ternal surface is adequate for all its occupants to enjoy their own private, 
outside, tiered-terracing, garden homes. These are most economically ser- 
viced from the common, omni-nearest-possible center of volume of all poly- 
hedra. 

All the mechanical organics of a floating city are situated low in its hull 
for maximum stability. All the shopping centers and other communal ser- 
vice facilities are inside the structure; tennis courts and other athletic facil- 
ities are on the top deck. When suitable, the floating cities are equipped with 
“alongside" or interiorly lagooned marinas for the safe mooring of the sail- 
and powerboats of the floating-city occupants. When moored in protected 
waters, the floating cities may be connected to the land by bridgeways. 

In 1966 my Japanese patron died, and the United States Department of 
Housing and Urban Development commissioned me to carry out full design 
and economic analysis of the floating tetrahedronal city for potential U.S.A. 
use. With my associates I completed the design and study as well as a 
scaled-down model. The studies showed that the fabricating and operating 
costs were such that a floating city could sustain a high standard of living, 
yet be economically occupiable at a rental so low as to be just above that 
rated as the “poverty" level by HUD authorities. The secretary of HUD 
sent the drawings, engineering studies, and economic analysis to the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, who ordered the Navy’s Bureau of Ships to analyze the 
project for its “water-worthiness," stability, and organic capability. The Bu- 
reau of Ships verified all our calculations and found the design to be prac- 
tical and “water-worthy." The Secretary of the Navy then sent the project 
to the U.S. Navy’s Bureau of Yards and Docks, where its fabrication and 
assembly procedures and cost were analyzed on a basis of the “floating city" 


334 


Critical Path 


being built in a shipyard as are aircraft carriers and other vessels. The cost 
analysis of the Navy Department came out within 10 percent of our cost — 
which bore out its occupiability at rental just above the poverty class. 

At this point the city of Baltimore became interested in acquiring the first 
such floating city for anchorage just offshore in Chesapeake Bay, adjacent 
to Baltimore’s waterfront. At this time President Lyndon Johnson’s Demo- 
cratic party went out of power. President Johnson took the model with him 
and installed it in his LBJ Texas library. The city of Baltimore’s politicians 
went out of favor with the Nixon administration, and the whole project lan- 
guished. The city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and other cities of the 
U.S.A. are interested in the possibility of acquiring such floating cities. 
Chances of one being inaugurated are now improving. 

In relation to such floating cities it is to be noted that they are completely 
designed under one authority, and when they become obsolete, they are 
scrapped and melted and the materials go into subsequent production of a 
greatly advanced model whose improvements are based on earlier experi- 
ences as well as the general interim advances of all technology. 

There are three types of floating cities: There is one for protected harbor 
waters, one for semiprotected waters, and one for unprotected deep-sea in- 
stallations. The deep-sea type is supported by submarine pontoons posi- 

Figure 51. Triton Floating City 




Critical Path: Part Four 


335 


tioned under the turbulence, with their centers of buoyancy 100 feet below 
the ocean’s surface. Structural columns rise from the submarine pontoons 
outwardly through the water to support the floating city high above the 
crests of the greatest waves, which thus pass innocuously below the city’s 
lowest flooring, as rivers flow under great bridges. The deep-sea, deeply 
pontooned floating cities will be as motionless in respect to our planet as 
are islanded or land-based cities. 

There are also deep-sea spherical and cylindrical geodesic floating cities 
whose hulls are positioned entirely below the ocean surface turbulence. Only 
their vertical entrance towers penetrate outwardly through the disturbed 
surface waters. The occupants of submarine cities with their vertical towers 
penetrating outwardly above water can be serviced by helicopters landing 
on the tower-top platforms. Such pontooned or hulled submarine cities also 
can provide safe mid-ocean docking for atomic-powered cargo- and passen- 
ger-carrying submarine transports. With their submarine hulls locked to- 
gether below the turbulence, a safe passageway can be opened between 
them. 

Even in mild weather docking cannot be done on the open water surface 
of the ocean. Even the mildest “old-sea” or ground swells would roll any 
two ocean ships’ great tonnages into disastrous hull-smashing clashes. Rel- 
ative mass attraction is proportional to the product of the masses of the in- 
terattracted pair multiplied by the second power of the relative proximity 
changes. When any two oceangoing steel vessels come within “critical prox- 
imity,” their interattraction increases as the second power of their relative 
distance. Their interattraction is fourfolded every time the distance between 
them is halved. This chain-attraction-increasing force pulls them sideways 
toward one another, ultimately to touch and chew up one another’s skins — 
that is, unless one is maneuvered in time backward or forward away from 
the other. Land harbors are essential for surface docking or inter-tie-up of 
ships of any size. There are relatively few big-ship harbors in the world. This 
fact, and the world-around scarcity of such good harbors as Athens’ Pirae- 
us, France’s Cherbourg, Italy’s Venice, the U.S.A.’s New York, or Tokyo’s 
Yokohama, have greatly affected the geographical patterning of world his- 
tory. The new ability to transfer cargoes at sea could completely alter world 
economic balances and could bring ships once more into economic compe- 
tition with airplanes. The recent decades’ development of seventy-knot sub- 
merged speed of the great atomic submarines, complemented by floating 
cities, could herald the beginning of a new era of subsurface oceanic traffic. 

In due time small cruising yachts also will be able to sail or power around 
the world in safe, one-day runs from one protected floating city’s harbor to 
the next. 


336 


Critical Path 


* * * 

In 1958 I saw clearly the progression of technical events altering all old 
engineering concepts regarding the relative increase in the overall weights 
of structures — and designed my sky-floating tensegrity structures, which I 
call “Cloud Nines.” 

A 100-foot-diameter, tensegrity-trussed, geodesic sphere weighing three 
tons encloses seven tons of air. The air-to-structural-weight ratio is two to 
one. When we double the size so that the geodesic sphere is 200 feet in di- 
ameter, the weight of the structure increases to seven tons while the weight 
of the air increases to fifty-six tons — the air-to-structure ratio changes as 
eight to one. When we double the size again to a 400-foot geodesic sphere — 
the size of several geodesic domes now operating — the weight of the air in- 
side increases to about 500 tons while the weight of the structure increases 
to fifteen tons. The air-weight-to-structure-weight ratio is now thirty-three 
to one. When we get to a geodesic sphere one-half mile in diameter, the 
weight of the structure itself becomes of relatively negligible magnitude, for 
the ratio is approximately a thousand to one. 

When the Sun shines on an open-frame aluminum geodesic sphere of one- 
half-mile diameter, the Sun penetrating through the frame and reflected 
from the aluminum members of the concave far side bounces back into the 
sphere and gradually heats the interior atmosphere to a mild degree. When 
the interior temperature of the sphere rises only one degree Fahrenheit, the 
weight of the air pushed out of the sphere is greater than the weight of the 
spherical-frame geodesic structure. This means that the total weight of the 
interior air plus the weight of the structure is much less than the surround- 
ing atmosphere. This means that the total assemblage of the geodesic sphere 
and its contained air will have to float outwardly, into the sky, being dis- 
placed by the heavy atmosphere around it. 

When a great bank of mist lies in a valley in the morning and the Sun 
shines upon it, the Sun heats the air inside the bank of mist. The heated air 
expands and therefore pushes some of itself outside the mist bank. The total 
assembly of the mist bank weighs less than the atmosphere surrounding it, 
and the mist bank floats aloft into the sky. Thus are clouds manufactured. 
As geodesic spheres get larger than one-half mile in diameter, they become 
floatable cloud structures. 

If their surfaces were draped with outwardly hung polyethelene curtains 
to retard the rate at which air would come back in at night, the sphere and 
its internal atmosphere would continue to be so light as to remain aloft. 

Such sky-floating geodesic/tensegrity spheres may be designed to float at 
preferred altitudes of thousands of feet. The weight of human beings added 
to such prefabricated “Cloud Nines” would be relatively negligible. Many 


Critical Path: Part Four 


337 


thousands of passengers could be housed aboard one-mile-diameter and 
larger cloud structures. The passengers could come and go from cloud to 
cloud, or cloud to ground, as the clouds float around the Earth or are an- 
chored to mountaintops. 

While the building of such floating clouds is some years in the future, we 
may foresee that, with the floating tetrahedronal cities; air-deliverable sky- 
scrapers; submarine islands; sub-dry-surface dwellings; domed-over cities; 
flyable dwelling machines; and rentable, autonomous-living, black boxes, 
man may be able to converge and deploy around Earth without its deple- 
tion. 


* * * 

In the 1920s Frank Lloyd Wright made a drawing of a mile-high tower 
building. Engineering feasibility studies were never made. 

In 1966 I was contracted by a Japanese patron — Matsutaro Shoriki, own- 
er of the Nippon Television Network Corporation — to undertake a design 
feasibility study for a 12,250-foot-high observation tower, which was to 
overtop the height of Mount Fuji on the island of Honshu. In view of the 
fact that at that time the world's tallest building was the Empire State 
Building at 1472 feet, including TV towers, and the tallest man-made struc- 
ture was a 2000-foot TV transmission tower a mere one-sixth the proposed 
tower's height, totally-new-for-humanity considerations necessarily came 
into play. Our tightly phrased, detailed engineering report contained 10,000 
words. 

The patron’s given budgetable limit for the project was $300 million. The 


Figure 52. Cloud Nine Floating Tensegrity Spheres 



338 


Critical Path 


feasibility study showed that a 12,250-foot tower that performed all the 
functions desired by the tower’s patrons could be met by present technol- 
ogy, but not at the $ 300-million figure. The study, therefore, also included 
critical details covering the construction of an engineering- and function- 
satisfying tower of 8000 feet, which could be produced for $300 million. 

The studies showed that there was nothing that presently operative tech- 
nology could not cope with even at the 12,250-foot Mount Fuji height. Al- 
most all objectionable features of the 12,250-foot tower were eliminated at 
the 8000-foot height. 

Such formidable safe working assumptions had to be adopted as that of 
icing one foot thick covering the tower’s entire surface; wind loadings of 
250-mile-per-hour winds; allowance for ice dropping into protected areas; 
and unitary five-story-high, air compression and decompression elevators in 
order to accommodate pay-for-itself observatory traffic, etc. A section of the 
report even covered helicopter rescue operations from the observation sec- 
tion at the top should the elevator fail. 

* * * 

With all human beings furnished with their personal, automatic, comput- 
er-programming, “chips”-containing credit cards, the computers will be 
making it clear that all humanity will be able to employ their along-the- 
streetside-controlled, slot-machine-like, travel-program-and-ticket dispens- 
ers to get themselves from any part of the world to any other part of the 
world in the shortest possible time. 

The world computers will keep track of all available air-travel passenger 
spaces in all directions. The airlines will operate on a load-shuffle-and-shut- 
tle, special-destination-pallet basis. When each eight-seat-or-bed-capacity 
pallet is full, it will be hang-loaded by local cranes onto overhead monorails 
and electric-trolleyed into an en-route-to-destination plane. The destination- 
programmed, eight-place pallets will be overhead-monorail, electric-trolley 
loaded aboard through each plane’s tail. The planes can carry many pallets 
with many different ultimate destinations. 

For example, there will be a pallet for Sydney, Australia, being loaded in 
New York City’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel lobby. When it is full, the comput- 
er will have it overhead-monorailed to the first overseas plane going most 
directly toward Sydney — say to Mexico City. At Mexico City it will be com- 
puter-overhead-trolley-transferred to a plane for Papeete, Tahiti, in the So- 
ciety Islands, and thence into another plane leaving in a short space of time 
from Papeete directly to Sydney. 

At each world airport the computers will re-sort the variously destined 
pallets, sending them forward in the most efficient manner. The pallets will 


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Figure 53. Tokyo Tower 


339 



Figure 54. Tokyo Tower 


340 



Critical Path: Part Four 


341 


be computer-shuttle-sorted in and out of the planes through the planes’ 
hinged-open tails and continually rerouted to their ultimate destination in 
the computer-determined swiftest manner. 

The pallets themselves will accommodate all the passengers’ luggage in- 
side the floor-truss space below the passengers’ seats. Passengers will never 
be separated from their luggage. On arrival at destination their pallet will 
take them “downtown” to their destination hotel. 

There will be a variety of pallet designs. All the pallets for long-distance, 
multihoured flights will have all their seats convertible by elevation into 
comfortable full-length beds. 

Travelers can even start their trips in a pallet in the lobby of their hotel. 
The pallet will be overhead-trolleyed into a truck thus to produce in effect 
a small bus. Pallets will be loaded into trucks through their tails by over- 
head trolley rails. 

Because the world-around computer system is continually rerouting its 
pallets to adjust for unexpected delays, there will be no way of planning to 
hijack a plane from within a pallet. 

* * * 

We now find that every human being generates a self-surrounding, ultra- 
ultra-ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic field — exquisitely ephemeral but 
exquisitely real. Each individual’s field alternates between positive and neg- 
ative. When an individual is feeling predominantly negative mentally, the 
field is negative, and vice versa. 

The sensitivity of the satellite-mounted, electronic, spy-sensing equipment 
developed by both Russia and the United States is such that satellites, dy- 
namically space-stationed around the world, can take continual readings of 
the sum-total proportions of positive and negative electromagnetic field re- 
actions of all humanity in respect to world-numbered “proposals” — to be 
broadcast at given times all around the world — regarding computer-discov- 
ered solutions to each and every world-human-affecting problem. 

The computer will make it quite possible to continually confront human- 
ity via the electronic media with its own world’s nonpolitical, professionally 
trained, and examination-qualified management’s successively evolved hu- 
man-problem-solution proposals. 

With adequate time to get the world informed of each of the nonpolitical, 
professional world-management committee’s specific computer-derived 
problem-solution proposals, at specific world-around times readouts will be 
broadcast reporting the world majority’s disposition toward any one pro- 
posed solution. All humanity can keep track of the changing disposition of 


342 


Critical Path 


the majority of all humanity and of how many are positive or negative in 
respect to any world-around, simultaneous, periodical presentation of any 
given proposition. After a proposition has been exposed for a given period 
of days and a 75-percent majority is attained, the professional-management 
world committee will be authorized to put the proposition into the world- 
around industrial production and service. 

Thus will begin the world’s first real tamper- and corruption-proof de- 
mocracy. Humanity will make mistakes, but the minority, knowing that this 
is the first true democracy, will often go along spontaneously with the ma- 
jority, knowing that if it develops that the majority has made a bad judg- 
ment, negative readings will swiftly occur as society discovers that it has 
chosen the wrong course. 

Norbert Wiener’s and Claude Shannon’s cybernetic “feedbacks,” which 
implement their “information theory,” will swiftly and progressively correct 
the decisions and thereby the historical course of world-around citizenry 
evolution. Very swiftly all humanity will learn to think about total Earth, 
total humanity, and total accumulated knowledge, total resources, etc., and 
will begin to make some powerful omnihumanity, omni-Uni verse-consider- 
ate decisions. 

When a 51 -percent majority shows that humanity now regrets the pre- 
vious decision, the world management committee will propose a means of 
correcting the course, and the foregoing processes will be repeated. 

* * * 

Refer to my 760-year “Pure Science Acceleration Chart” and the accom- 
panying text in my book Earth , Inc . (Doubleday, 1973, pp. 3-26). In that 
piece and its chart, first published by me in 1959, I predicted that by 1985 
we humans would be doing something as presently incredible as sending 
ourselves around the world by radio. Whatever this presently incredible 
form of circumnavigation may be, it will be right on schedule. 

We have gradually been learning how to substitute various inanimate me- 
chanical parts in our total human organic assembly. We have also been 
learning how to synthesize more and more of the atomic and molecular in- 
gredients of our organic assembly. We have also been learning from the vi- 
rologists’ DNA-RNA about all the unique biological-design programming 
of various biological species. We have also been learning that you and I and 
“life” are not the physical equipment that we use. “Life” itself is entirely 
metaphysical — a pattern integrity. 

Of timely relevance to nature’s progressive disclosure that “life” is not 
physical, in early 1980 it was reported in science journals that a seventy- 
kilogram baby mammoth had been found preserved for 44,000 years in a 


Critical Path: Part Four 


343 


chunk of hitherto-never-defrosted Siberian ice. Some of the animal’s mole- 
cules were still “alive” when the beast was found, occasioning the observa- 
tion that biochemists are trending to grow organisms — perhaps as complex 
as the woolly mammoth — from a single molecule of DNA or any part of 
the physical organism. But “life” is not the physical molecule or a morsel 
of flesh or a blood corpuscle — as we have been progressively discovering. 
These are all minor complexes of inanimate atoms. 

Now, in July 1980, at eighty-five years of age, I have consumed over 1000 
tons of food, water, and air, which progressively, atom by atom, has been 
chemically and electromagnetically converted into all the physical compo- 
nents of my organism and gradually displaced by other income atoms and 
molecules. Now all but 146 pounds of that 1000 tons have been progressive- 
ly discarded. In 1895 I weighed in at seven pounds — at 146 pounds in 1980 
my organism is the same slightly evolved and aged “personality” pattern be- 
ing manifest in pure principle by the total complex of unique behaviors of 
the only-in-pure-principle-existent inanimate “atoms.” 

Each one of us is a unique behavioral pattern integrity. The metaphysical 
you and I are not the coarsely identified “cornflakes” and “prunes” that we 
ate in the days before yesterdays — some of which became constituents of 
what are identified momentarily as our “flesh” and “hair” functions. 

Our human organisms were designed to initially operate only nakedly and 
only within the tropical-island areas of the Earthian biosphere. However, 
our metaphysical minds were given the capability progressively to discover 
and comprehend many of the principles governing various complex environ- 
ment formulations as well as the principles that must be employed in order 
to permit human presence under those various intolerable-to-naked-human 
conditions. Excursions to the Moon require an additional special set of 
environment-suitable, external sensing-and-manipulating equipment. 

We have already operative the equipment to accommodate abstract, 
metaphysical you or I observing various Moonscapes, which does not re- 
quire our donning space suits. It requires only our subscribing to the Na- 
tional Geographic. We have now achieved exactly the right physical- 
information-gathering-and-problem-solving artifacts for the weightless, 
invisible, metaphysical you and I to employ our instrumental extensions to 
occupy, explore, and operate in scientific depth on the Moon, Mars, Venus, 
and the other celestial bodies of our solar system. 

In thinking about what I’ve just said, remember that no human has ever 
seen or sensed outside of self. All our sensing is nerve-relayed inward to be 
directly sensed only in our brain. We have become so accustomed to the re- 
liability of the information-relaying-inward to our brain that we now mis- 
assume that we are seeing things directly outside ourselves. 


344 


Critical Path 


Let us consider an athlete — a hockey player who has played for a number 
of years on his city’s professional team in his city’s principal rink. He is in- 
jured and is hospitalized for months. He tunes his hospital-room television 
to his team’s hockey games in their regular rink. He tends to see what is 
going on and groans and grins as though he were really present, on the rink. 
That is the way our sight system works, seemingly to see things transpire 
outside ourselves. 

We noted earlier that all living organisms other than humans have spe- 
cial, integral organic equipment that gives them special advantage in special 
terrestrial environments — the seaweed that lives exposed to air at low tide 
and is submerged at high tide, the penguins that live and flourish only at 
water’s edge in the Antarctic. Within a larger cosmic scheme humans are 
given the special physical equipment to flourish initially only within the 
planet Earth’s biosphere. But humans are also given the metaphysical equip- 
ment with which to discover the principles governing metaphysical informa- 
tion-gathering and physical action-taking within extreme macro-micro 
ranges of physical Universe unreachable directly with the naked organism’s 
primary equipment as initially implemented. It is possible for humans to de- 
sign, produce, and enclose themselves within such awkward equipment as 
that which permits their effective coping with nakedly lethal environmental 
conditions such as those on the Moon. But having visited the Moon to prove 
our capability thus to cope, we discover that computer-controlled mechani- 
cal equipment can be rocketed to the Moon or elsewhere and can do an even 
better job of exploring and visually recording macro- and micro-remote en- 
vironments, as well as their respective invisible physical, chemical, and elec- 
tromagnetic phenomena. While the data that can be thus instrumentally 
attained are inherently fascinating, their real value consists of what may be 
discovered and comprehended thereby of the generalized scientific princi- 
ples demonstrated to be operative in these remote-from-everyday-experience 
environments. 

Eventually we realize that what is transpiring is that the metaphysical 
weightless mind of humans — the real you and I — is spontaneously preoccu- 
pied with hitherto-unharvested local Universe information and therefrom is 
gleaning omni-Universe-operative principles and therewith is solving local 
Universe problems in the comprehensively responsible maintenance of the 
local integrity of eternally regenerative Universe — which we have heretofore 
hypothesized as the reason humans are included in the cosmic scheme. 

Our most prominent present local Universe problem is how to wean hu- 
manity from metabolic sustenance only by exploiting nature’s local Universe 
energy savings account — energy being locally imported by cosmic evolution 
design to produce a new star ten billion years hence. How can we convince 


Critical Path: Part Four 


345 


those in power the world around that we can live handsomely as supplied 
only by our daily income of cosmic energy? The answer is we can’t convince 
them. Only the cosmic wisdom manifest in inexorable evolution can cope 
with such matters. 

When I was twenty-seven years of age, Earthian humanity knew of only 
one galaxy — our own Milky (Latin: Galactic) Way. A year later astronomer 
Hubble discovered another galaxy. During the subsequent fifty-seven years 
human astronomers and astrophysicists have discovered two billion more 
galaxies, all doing their galactic acts within the eleven-and-one-half-billion- 
light-year-radiused sphere of humanity’s present limit of omnidirectional 
observing. 

The average star population of each of these two billion known galaxies 
is 1CX) billion. This is to say that the thus-far-discovered star population is 
two times 10 20 — that is the integer two followed by twenty zeroes. Within 
this 200-quintillion star group our star Sun ranks among the pygmies. Each 
one of the 200 quintillion known stars is an atomic-energy plant. There is 
nothing new or cosmically illogical about atomic-energy plants. Nature — 
the intellectual integrity designer of eternally regenerative scenario Uni- 
verse — designed human organisms to serve metaphysically weightless mind 
as the physical instruments of exploration and of development — first of the 
planet Earth’s biosphere, and thereafter of that planet’s local Universe op- 
erating planetary companions, and possibly later other whole star systems, 
thus to fulfill their cosmic functions as local Universe information-gatherers 
and local-Universe problem-solvers. As we have also discovered early in this 
book, nature’s design of the human mind’s complex organic instrument of 
exploration and information-gathering — known as the human body — solved 
all the structural compression problems of these exploratory organisms with 
water, which boils and freezes within very limited thermal range in respect 
to the vast range of cosmic temperatures. We also discovered that all the 
biological organisms — botanical or zoological — which altogether comprise 
the terrestrially regenerative system ecology (no ecology ... no humans). 
Radiance from a candle diminishes rapidly as we recede from the candle. 
The intensity of all radiation from all radiant sources diminishes as the dis- 
tance from the source increases. As Einstein’s formula anticipated and phys- 
ical experiments have proved, the sum-total energy content of all the 
radiation distributed radially outwardly in all directions from the source re- 
mains the same but the amount of energy concentrated at any one spherical 
surface point decreases as the distance from the source increases. Draw a 
picture of concentric circles, each circle divided into identical arc lengths. 
The further out we go more arcs of the same length are required to con- 
stitute the greater circles. Nature — the impeccable designer that knew ex- 


346 


Critical Path 


actly how to design and produce what we do not know how to design and 
produce — our human brain, out optical systems, etc., let alone all the com- 
plex interplays of all the organisms, visible and subvisible, of all ecology — 
has discovered and heeded its own designing laws which state that Sun en- 
ergy — the atomic energy plant called Sun — is essential to life on planet 
Earth but that its radiation is too intense for direct exposure by many of 
the constituent members of the total ecological regeneration team. Such too- 
radiation-sensitive ecological constituents are designed to operate only with- 
in the Earth’s earth or at its sea bottoms. 

We have also learned earlier that in order to produce these limited-tem- 
perature-range organisms nature has designed them to be evolved and in- 
cubated only within the very special environmental conditions of planet 
Earth’s biosphere. Nature as the omni-informed and omniconcerned, omni- 
considerate cosmic designer discovered and heeded the fact that human or- 
ganisms and their absolutely essential ecological support complex could not 
operate safely at a distance of less than ninety-two million miles away from 
their nearest atomic-energy plant — the Sun — and all the latter’s lethal ra- 
diation involvements. The would-be exploiters of atomic energy on board 
our planet Earth will in due course discover there is no way for them to 
solve atomic-energy-radiation waste-disposal problems save by rocketing it 
all back into the Sun, where it belongs. Humans will then have to learn how 
to keep all humans and their ecological support system operating success- 
fully on our vastly adequate daily income of solar atomic energy. 

Cosmically acceptable and effective decisions of humanity regarding such 
matters will not be made by leaders single or plural, political or religious, 
military or mystic, by coercion or mob psychology. 

The effective decisions can only be made by the independently thinking 
and adequately informed human individuals and their telepathetically inter- 
communicated wisdom — the wisdom of the majority of all such human 
individuals — qualifying for continuance in Universe as local cosmic prob- 
lem-solvers — in love with the truth and in individually spontaneous self- 
commitment to absolute faith in the wisdom, integrity, and love of God, 
who seems to wish Earthian humans to survive. 


APPENDIX I 


Chronology of Scientific 
Discoveries and Artifacts 


W hen I published Nine Chains to the Moon, I was doing research for 
Phelps Dodge Company. As a copper company, they were eager to 
have a history of scientific inventions in relation to copper. I was given a 
team of fifth-year engineering students from Columbia University to com- 
pile a history of inventions. This team, consisting of metallurgical, electrical, 
civil, and mechanical engineers, did their research for me in 1936. 

Heretofore all such listings of inventions and discoveries had been warped 
in favor of this country or that in regards to the place or date of origin of 
each of the listed inventions. 

Using their information of their branches of science, and as typical New 
Yorkers with forebears from around the world, they were able to select the 
true origins of inventions. This list was published in Nine Chains to the 
Moon in 1938. 

In the intervening forty-four years an enormous amount of inventing and 
discovering has taken place. In the last decade an accelerating increase in 
the number of inventions and scientific discoveries has occurred. 

For example, during the intervening forty-four years our knowledge of 
humans in Universe has been extended from 50,000 years of existence to 
over three and one-half million. Our knowledge of the number of galaxies 
has increased from two to over two billion! 

Earlier in Critical Path I pointed out that in order for humans to get to 
the Moon and safely back, a very large number of technological develop- 
ments had to be accomplished. None of them would have been accom- 
plished had not there been the previous artifact developments of all human 
history. 

We felt it appropriate to again review the number, dates, and origins of 


347 


348 


Critical Path 


the sources on which our latest technological critical-path developments 
had been predicated. 

I feel it appropriate to compile our own latest chronology because the 
many published chronologies of scientific and engineering history have 
lacked many of the items we consider critical and have included many we 
have not considered critical. 


Ancient 
4000 b.c 
3500 b.c. 
3500 B.c. 

pre-3480 b.c. 


3400 B.c. 

3400 b.c. 
3100 b.c. 
3000 b.c. 


2200 b.c. 
2100 b.c. 


2000 b.c. 

1800 b.c. 
1700 b.c. 


1500 b.c. 
1400 b.c. 

1500- 
1100 B.C. 
1000 b.c. 


Stone Age tools for at least three million years 
Picto-linguistic writing, Tartaria 
Bronze in Thailand 

Sumerian picto-graphic writing (evolves later into cune- 
iform) 

Grain, domesticated animals, pictograms, copper, silver, 
gold, tin, lead, zinc, iron, carbon, sulphur, mercury; levers; 
wheels and wheeled vehicles; sledges (Scandinavia); stone 
wall structures; coal known, but its potentials unrecognized 
Mesopotamian evidence that number language preceded 
written language by thousands of years 
Irrigation system in Egypt 
Egyptian hieroglyphics 

Chinese ideograms, complex generalized concepts 
Drainage and sewage system in India 
Dams, canals, pyramids, heavy stone statues constructed us- 
ing inclined plane and lever — Sumeria 
Pyramids in Egypt 
Clay maps, Babylon 

Babylonian calendar modified to include movement of stars 
True astonomical observation, Mesopotamia 
Spherical geometry in Babylon (120 L.C.D. triangles) 
Cretan writing (led to Hittite writing in Anatolia several 
centuries later) 

Babylonian cuneiform (Hammurabi’s Code) 

Network of roads, Babylon 

Linear A — development of Cretan writing with largest cor- 
pus from Hagia Triada 
Phonetic spelling developed by Phoenicians 
Linear B, Greek adaptation of Cretan writing either on 
mainland or at Knossus 

Cypro-Minoan, distant olfshoot of Cretan writing 
Phonetics transmitted by Phoenicians to Greeks 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


349 


900 b.c. 

640 b.c. 

600 b.c. 

460 b.c. 

600-400 b.c. 

410 b.c. 

350 b.c. 

300 b.c. 

220 b.c. 

200 b.c. 


Rustproof iron in India 

Beginning with Thales, the Ionian Greeks were the first of 
the Grecian natural philosophers. 

Discovery of “irrationals” 

Laws of right-angle triangle — Pythagoras 
Thinking microcosmically, Democritus was the first known 
human to conceive of a smallest cosmic entity, which he 
named the “atom.” 

Thinking macrocosmically, the Greek Pythagorean scien- 
tists (situated to the north of Athens) were the first humans 
known and recorded to think of our world as a spherical en- 
tity. 

The Pythagorean Philolaus was the first to conceive of the 
Earth as a spherical body in motion around a central cosmic 
fire. He also conceived of the stars, Sun, Moon, and five 
planets — Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn — as 
spherical bodies. His Sun was not at the center. 

All the Greek states adopt a 24-letter alphabet enabling 
Greek philosopher-scientists to record and transmit their 
ideas. 

A latter-day Pythagorean, Heraclides, was the first to con- 
ceive of the Earth sphere as spinning west to east. But Her- 
aclides’ cosmos was as yet geocentric. His Earth spun at the 
center of the fixed-stars Universe. 

Geometry — Euclid 

Most of Greek culture — poetry, science, and philosophy — 
and its written records are moved to Alexandria, Egypt, 
which was part of Alexander the Great’s Greek Empire. 
Archimedes — law of displacement of floating bodies and 
specific gravity, hydraulic screw pump, much mathematics, 
many polyhedra; first formulation of concept of limit 
Phoenicians circumnavigate the Earth 
Aristarchus, the Greek, conceived of the Sun as at center of 
planetary revolutions. For him all the stars were fixed, and 
the Moon revolved around the Earth. He was almost killed 
for his unprecedented thoughts. 

Eratosthenes measuringly calculates circumference of Earth 
within 1.5-percent accuracy. Also, makes map of world 
from England on the northwest to mouth of Ganges in the 
east and all of Africa on the south. 

Hipparchus calculates distance of Earth to Moon, calculates 
solar year to within six minutes. 


350 


Critical Path 


150 b.c. 


100 B.C. 

47 b.c. 

200 A.D. 

272 A.D. 

300 A.D. 

391 A.D. 

529 A.D. 

642 a.d. 

700 A.D. 

720-813 a.d. 

875-925 a.d. 


Crates, Stoic philosopher, develops first terrestrial globe; ce- 
lestial globes preceded it. 

It is clear that a special chain of Greek scientist-philosopher- 
cosmologists consisting of Philolaus (410 b.c.), Heraclides 
(350 B.c.), and Aristarchus (200 b.c.) had successively 
evolved a concept of the solar system that was in fair agree- 
ment with Copernicus (1543 a.d.) and even with our late- 
twentieth-century conceptioning. 

It is also clear that beginning with Plato’s pupil, Aristotle 
(384 B.C.-322 B.c.), and his practical philosophy that the 
geocentric concept of the celestial system, despite its diffi- 
culty rationalized complexity, was after 200 B.c. becoming 
more and more formally adopted by the “authorities.” 

It seems almost equally clear that between 200 b.c. and 200 
a.d. a deliberately planned policy of the combined political 
and religious powers undertook the conditioning of the hu- 
man reflexes to misconceive, mis-see, or mostly not see at all 
the macro-micro systems in which we live. Their success 
drew the curtains on science for 1700 years — until 1500 a.d. 
Alexandrian library reputed to have reached 700,000 manu- 
script volumes, or rolls. Fortunately, volumes in Alexandria 
copiously copied and distributed to libraries all around civ- 
ilized world of that time. 

40,000 volumes of Alexandrian library burned during siege 
in war between Caesar and Pompey. 

Ptolemy’s conic, latitude-and-longitude world map reading 
from British Isles on west to China on east involved North 
Africa, Arabia, India. His Almagest publication containing 
storehouse of navigational data — catalog of over 1000 stars. 
Second burning of Alexandrian library by Roman emperor 
Compass, China 

Third burning of Alexandrian library by another Roman 
emperor 

Closing of all universities 

Final complete burning of library of Alexandria by Muslims 

Moorish invasion of Spain, introducing Arabic numerals 
and algebra 

Principal salts of arsenic, sulphur, and mercury are discov- 
ered. 

Persian Rhases applies chemical knowledge to preparation 
of medicines. 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


351 


800 A.D. 

Al-Khwarizmi, in Baghdad, writes treatise in Arabic ex- 
plaining function of ciphra and positioning of numbers. 

1000 A.D. 

Leif Erikson reaches America 

Gunpowder in China 

First real lenses — Alhozen 

Avicenna’s medical Canon and alchemical De Anima 

1100 

Bologna University established 

1105 

First recorded windmill in Europe 

1118 

Cannon used by Moors 

1144 

Paper used in Japan 

Alchemy introduced to Europe through translation of Ara- 
bic texts 

1147 

Use of woodcuts for capital letters 

1180 

Fixed steering rudder 

1190 

Paper mills at Herault, France 

1200 

Al-Khwarizmi’s 780 A.D. “Treatise on Cipher” translated 
into Latin, published in Carthage, North Africa 

1230 

Hot-air balloons in China 

1250 

Discovery of arsenic 

1260 

Pivoted magnetic compass 

1270 

Treatise on lenses — Vitellio 

Compound lenses — Roger Bacon 

Silk-reeling machine 

1280 

Compendium of agricultural practice 

Spectacles 

1290 

Marco Polo returns to Europe from Far East with data. 
Spinning wheel 

1300 

Ship’s compass 

1310 

Dissection of human body — De Luzzi 

1320 

Water-driven blast furnace 

Sawmill at Augsburg 

1330 

Crane at Luneberg 

Wool manufacture established at York 

1346 

Battle at Crecy, guns used in battle 

Division of hours and minutes into sixtieths 

1350 

Wire-pulling machines at Niirnberg 

1390 

Metal types, Korea 

1400 

Diving suit 

First book in movable type, Korea 

1410 

Street lights in London 

1420 

Velocipede — Fontana 

First European woodcut 


352 

1430 

1440 

1450 

1460 

1480 

1482 

1492 

1497 

1500 

1508 

1511 

1513 

1515 

1521 

1522 

1524 


Critical Path 


Scientific cartography 

Azores discovered 

Laws of perspective — Alberti 

Modern printing with movable type in Europe 

Copperplate engraving 

Printing established a universal symbolism for algebraic 
numerals 

Discovery of antimony 
Wagon springs 

Trigonometry — Regiomontanus 
Printing introduced in England — Caxton 
Canal lock 
Arquebus introduced 
Copper etching 

Leonardo da Vinci career begins: perspective frame, wheel- 
barrow, speaking tube. Also plans for: centrifugal pump, ca- 
nal dredge, polygonal fort and outworks, breech-loading 
cannon, rifled firearms, antifriction roller bearings, lens 
grinder and polisher, universal joint, conical screw, rope and 
belt drive, link chain, submarine, bevel and spiral gear, pro- 
portional and paraboloid compasses, lathe, silk doubling, 
winding apparatus, flying machine, parachute, lamp chim- 
ney, helicopter, ship’s log, double-deck streets, standardized 
mass-production house, perfect whorehouse. 

Moors driven from Spain 

Positioning of numbers was popularly established; first 
post-Dark Ages globe was made. 

Columbus discovers America. 

Cabot lands in North America 

Vasco da Gama reaches India 

First portable watch with iron mainspring 

Mechanical farming drill 

Multicolored woodcut 

Pneumatic beds 

Porcelain introduced in England 
Balboa discovers Pacific 
Camera obscura 

Discovery of potato by European population 
Magellan’s voyage around the world is completed. 

First arithmetic book is published in England. 
Fodder-cutting machine 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


353 


1535 Diving bell 

First English Bible is printed. 

1539 First astronomical map 

Printing introduced to America (Mexico) — Pablos 

1540 Padlock invented 

Invention of mathematical symbols — Vieta 
First handbook of dyeing 

1541 Tartaglia finds general third-degree equation solution. 

1543 Copemican system published 

1 544 Elaboration of algebraic symbols — Stifel 

1 545 Pare — surgical instruments 

1548 Water-pumping works in Augsburg 

1550 First known suspension bridge in Europe 

1552 Iron-rolling machine — Brulier 

1561 Copper mines discovered in England 

1564 Coaches first made in England 

1565 Lead pencil 

1568 Mercator projection of world map 

1576 Discovery of magnetic dip 

1579 Automatic ribbon loom 

1582 Tide mill pump, London 

Gregorian calendar revision 
1585 Decimal system — Stevin 

1589 Knitting frame 

1590 Compound microscope — Jansen 

1594 Use of clock to determine longitude 

1600 Treatise on terrestrial magnetism and electricity — Gilbert 

Pendulum — Galileo 

1605 Stevin revives study of statics. 

Theorems on inclined planes, pulleys and equilibrium — Ga- 
lileo 

1606 Discovery of Australia 

1608 Telescope — Lippershay 

1609 First laws of motion — Galileo 
Kepler’s laws (first and second laws) 

1612 Bituminous coal smelting — Sturtevant 

1613 Gunpowder in mine blasting 

1614 Logarithms — Napier 

1615 Triangulation in surveying 

1617 Log tables 

Adding machine — Napier 
1620 Spirit thermometer 


354 

1624 

1628 

1629 

1631 

1635 

1637 

1638 

1639 

1640 

1642 

1647 

1650 

1650 

1654 

1657 

1658 

1661 

1662 

1666 

1667 

1669 

1670 

1675 

1677 


Critical Path 


Slide rule — Oughtred 
Bacon’s Novum Organum 
First patent law in England 
Worcester’s engine 

Harvey’s discovery of circulation of blood 
Explanation of negative roots 
Branca’s engine 

Invention of mathematical symbols x and : 
Discovery of microscopic organisms 
Infinitesimal calculus — Fermat 
Threshing machine 
Laws of refraction 
Periscope 

Formulation of infinite aggregate — Galileo 
Rain gauge 

Invention of coordinate geometry — Descartes 

Cotton manufacture in England 

Calculating machine — Pascal 

Calculation of foci of all lenses 

First bread made with yeast — England 

Magic lantern — Kircher 

Air pump — Von Guericke 

Mathematical induction — Pascal 

Laws of probability — Pascal 

Pendulum clock — Huygens 

Balance spring for clocks 

Red corpuscles discovered in blood 

Boyle’s “skeptical chemist” 

Boyle’s law 

Discovery of diffraction 

Newton discovers light dispersion by prism 

Reflecting telescope — Newton 

Paris observatory 

Cellular structure of plants 

Double refraction discovered 

Discovery of phosphorus 

Sulphur ball electric machine 

Greenwich observatory 

Determination of speed of light — Roemer 

Infinite series 

Calculus — Newton and Leibnitz 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


355 


1680 

Discovery of chlorophyll 

1685 

Foundation of scientific obstetrics 

1687 

Newton’s Principia, laws of gravitation and motion 

1688 

Distillation of gas from coal 

1690 

Huygens’s wave theory 

1695 

Plate glass 

Papin’s engine 

1698 

Isogonic charts 

Savery’s engine 

1700 

Explanation of beats, overtones, and sympathetic vibrations 

1702 

First daily newspaper, London 

1704 

Newton’s Optics 

1705 

Newcomen’s engine 

1707 

Physician’s pulse watch in seconds 

1708 

Wet sand iron casting 

1709 

Coke used in blast furnace 

1714 

Mercury thermometer — Fahrenheit 

1717 

Iron-covered wooden railways 

1720 

Three-color copperplate printing 

1727 

First exact measurement of blood pressure 

Invention of stereotype 

Light images with silver nitrate 

1732 

Discovery of cobalt 

Discovery of platinum 

1733 

Roller spinning 

Flying shuttle — Kay 

1736 

Commercial sulfuric acid 

1737 

Centigrade thermometer 

1738 

Kinetic Theory of Gas — Bernoulli 

1745 

First technical school separate from military engineering 
Leyden jar 

1746 

Sulfuric acid by lead chamber process 

Discovery of zinc 

1747 

Beet sugar 

1749 

Scientific calculation of water resistance to ships — Euler 

1751 

Lightning jar 

Discovery of nickel 

1753 

Discovery of bismuth 

1756 

Latent heat — Black 

1758 

Achromatic telescope 

1760 

Steam blast — Smeaton 


356 


Critical Path 


1761 Modern type chronometer 

1 763 Spinning jenny 

1765 Steam engine 

1766 Discovery of hydrogen 

1767 Cast-iron rails 

History of Electricity (including phlogiston theory) — 
Priestley 

1769 Steam carriage 

Lightning conductors on high buildings 

1770 Caterpillar tread 
Screw-cutting lathe — Ramsden 

1771 Discovery of fluorine 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, first edition 

Discovery of electric nature of nervous impulse — Galvani 

1772 Vitamin cure for scurvy 
Discovery of nitrogen 

1774 Boring machine — Wilkinson 
Lighting in Boston streets 
Discovery of chlorine 
Discovery of manganese 

1775 Reciprocating engine with flywheel 

1776 Reverberatory furnace 
Machine plane 

Chemical nomenclature “element,” “compound” — 
Lavoisier 

Scientific explanation of combustion — Lavoisier 
Discovery of oxygen by Priestley — named by Lavoisier 

1777 Torsion balance 
Torpedo — Bushnell 
Circular wood saw 
Steam hammer — Wilkinson 

1778 Discovery of molybdenum 
Modern water closet — Bramah 

1779 Cast-iron bridge sections 

1780 Mass-produced cast-iron farm implements 

1781 Drill plow 

Siberian highway begun 
Synthesis of water 

1782 Discovery of tellurium 

1783 Argand lamp 

Free hydrogen-balloon flight 
Discovery of tungsten 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


357 


1784 Power loom 

Puddling process in manufacture of wrought iron — Cort 
Patent lock — Bramah 

1785 Balloon flight across Channel 
Interchangeable musket parts 
First steam spinning mill 
Chlorine used as a bleach 

1786 Gold leaf electroscope 

1787 Steamboat 
Nail-making machine 

1788 Galvanic electricity 

1789 Discovery of uranium 
Discovery of zirconium 

Modern classification of plants — Jussieu 

1790 Gas lighting 
Ultraviolet rays discovered 
Soda from sodium chloride 

1791 Gas engine 
Discovery of titanium 

1793 Cotton gin — Whitney 
First U.S. balloon flight 

First sulfuric acid made in U.S. 

Planer 

1794 Discovery of yttrium 
Ecole Polytechnique 

1795 Food canning 
Hydraulic press — Bramah 

1796 Lithography 
Natural cement 
Hydraulic cement 
Discovery of photosynthesis 

1797 Cast-iron plow 
Carding machine 

Discovery of geometric interpretation of complex 
numbers 

Improved screw-cutting, and slide rest lathe — Maudsley 

1798 Vaccination introduced 
Discovery of chromium 
Cavendish weighs Earth 
Discovery of beryllium 

1799 High-pressure steam engine 
Laughing gas as anesthetic 


Critical Path 


358 

Manufactured bleaching powder 
Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers 

1 800 Voltaic cells 
Infrared rays discovered 
Macadam roads — McAdam 
First experimental electrolysis 

1801 Discovery of interference of light waves 
First asteroid discovered 
Discovery of columbium 
First practical submarine 

1802 Machine dresser for cotton warps 
Planing machine 
Discovery of tantalum 

1803 Atomic theory — Dalton 
Discovery of palladium 
Discovery of rhodium 
Discovery of cerium 
Boat propelled by steam power 

1804 Jacquard loom 
Discovery of iridium 
Discovery of osmium 
Bottling factory 

1807 Voyage of steamboat S. C. Clermont from New York to 
Albany 

Kymography-revolving cylinder, recording continuous 
motion 

Discovery of sodium 
Discovery of potassium 

1 808 Discovery of polarization of light 
Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes of gases 
Discovery of strontium 

Discovery of barium 
Discovery of calcium 
Discovery of magnesium 

1810 Discovery of boron 

1811 Modern chemical notation 
Discovery of iodine 

Avogadro’s hypothesis on composition of gases 

1814 Steam printing press 
Steam locomotive 

Discovery of Fraunhofer black lines in Sun’s light spectrum 

1815 Stethoscope 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


359 


Macadam roads officially adopted in Britain 
Miner’s safety lamp — Davy 

1817 Discovery of lithium 
Discovery of cadmium 
Discovery of selenium 

1818 Milling machine — Whitney 

1819 Steamship Savannah crosses Atlantic 
Dulong and Petit’s law 

Isomorphism of chemical elements discovered — 
Mitscherlich 

1 820 Modern wood planer 

Formulation of power of an aggregate — Bolzano 
Discovery of catalysis 

1823 Faraday — laws of electromagnetism 
Calculating machine — Babbage 
Waterproof fabric 

Discovery of silicon 

1 824 Mechanical equivalent of heat — thermodynamics 

1825 Algebraic numbers not expressed by radicals discovered 

1 826 Discovery of bromine 

1827 Niepce — first photograph 
Practical ship’s screw 
Brownian movement discovered 
Discovery of aluminum 

Ohm’s Law — current equals pressure/resistance in given 
electric circuit 

1 828 Electromagnet 

Hot blast in iron production 
Wohler synthesis of urea 
Discovery of thorium 

1 829 Paper matrix stereotype 
Water-filtration plant, London 

1830 Sewing machine 

Compressed air for underwater tunnels 
Discovery of vanadium 

1831 Steam railway passenger train 
Mowing machine 
Phosphorus match 
Chloroform 

1832 Magnetic telegraph 
Principles of induction — Faraday 
Magneto — Pixii 


360 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 


Critical Path 


Reaper — McCormick 

Laws of electrolysis — Faraday 

Principles of geology — Lyell 

Law of substitution in organic chemistry 

Revolver-type pistol 

Commutator 

Pin machine 

Harvester 

Type-casting machine 

First metal ship 

Electric motor — Davenport 

Discovery of nature of fermentation 

Screw propellor 

Shorthand — Pitman 

Rubber vulcanizing 

Photography — Daguerre 

Power-driven rope-making machine 

Use of single wire and ground circuit 

Steam drop hammer 

Penny postage in England 

Brick-making machinery 

Electrotype 

Discovery of lanthanum 

Corrugated iron roofing 

Microphotography 

First iron-link suspension bridge 

Liebig shows need for artificial fertilizer 

Principle of conservation of energy — Mayer 

Doppler effect discovered 

Mechanical equivalent of heat 

Superphosphate fertilizers 

Chemical spectrum analysis 

Gutta-percha 

Discovery of terbium 

Discovery of erbium 

First telegraph line, Washington to Baltimore 

Practical wood pulp paper 

Portland cement 

Turret lathe — Fitch 

Pneumatic tire (bicycle type) 

Sewing machine — Howe 
Mechanical boiler stoker 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


361 


Discovery of ruthenium 

1 846 Rotary printing press 
Ether — Warren and Morton 
Nitroglycerine and guncotton 
Prediction and discovery of Neptune 

1847 Penny postage in U.S. 

Second law of thermodynamics 

1 848 Rotary fan 
Corliss engine 

1849 Hydraulic turbine 
Steam power rock drill 

1850 Law of mass action 

1851 Wire rope for power transmission 
Vernier caliper 

Sewing machine — Singer 
Foucault pendulum 
Cast-iron-frame building 

1852 Elevator with brake 
Gyroscope 
Hydraulic mining 
Theory of valence 

1853 Mechanical ship’s log 
Mass-production watches 
Gear-cutting machine 

1854 Riemann’s geometry 

1855 Gas-stove burner 
Lathe safety lock 
Powdered milk 

1856 Steel — Bessemer 
Perkin’s aniline dye 

1857 Kinetic theory of gases 
Passenger elevator — Otis 
Discovery of sols, theory of colloids 

1858 Steel— Kelly 

Structure of organic compounds — Kekule 

1859 Storage cell — Plante 
Electric accumulator — Plante 
Absorption spectra 

First oil well 

On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection — Darwin 
Steamroller 

1860 Dynamo, Italy 


362 


Critical Path 


Ammonia refrigerator 
Discovery of cesium 
Asphalt paving 

Laws of radiation, emission, and absorption 

1861 Electric furnace in Siemens, England 
Discovery of rubidium 
Discovery of thallium 

Germ theory of disease — Pasteur 
Milling machine 

1862 Machine gun — Gatling 
Pasteurization 
Monitor battleship 
Synthesis of acetylene 

1863 Solvay process for making soda 
Argelander catalogs 324,000 stars 
Discovery of indium 

Cell theory — Schultze 

1864 Electromagnetic theory — Maxwell 
Cylindrical grinders 

1865 Multiple-cell electrolytic copper 
Law of heredity — Mendel 
Modern ore stamp mill 
Newland’s octaves 

Ring theory of the structure of benzene — Kekule 
Antiseptic surgery — Lister 

1 866 Bunsen burner 

Underwater torpedo — Whitehead 

First successful transatlantic telegraph cable 

Dynamite — Nobel 

1867 Railroad block signals 
Elevated railroad in N.Y.C. 

Micrometer caliper 

1868 Railroad refrigerator car 
Tungsten steel — Musket 

First metallography of iron — Tscherroff 

1869 Transcontinental railroad in U.S. 

Air brake 

Shield tunneling 
Suez Canal 

Science of eugenics — Galton 
Periodic table — Mendeleyev 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


363 


“Angstrom” (wave length of light measurement) 

1 870 Celluloid 
Discovery of invertase 

1871 Welt machine 

1873 Automatic railroad coupler 

Typewriter 

Discovery of chromosomes 

1874 Audruplex telegraph 

Atomic theory of electricity — Stoney 
Pressure-cooking method for canning food 

1875 Telephone 
Discovery of gallium 

1876 Gas engine — Otto four-cycle 
Toxins discovered 

Gibbs’s phase rule 

1877 Microphone 
Automatic gear cutters 
Anthrax cure 
Osmotic pressure 
Electric welding 
Reinforced-concrete beams 
Phonograph 

1878 Incandescent lamp 
Synthesis of indigo 
Discovery of ytterbium 
Cathode ray — Crookes 

Basic removal phosphorus iron products 

1879 Arc lamp 
Synthesis of saccharin 
Discovery of samarium 
Discovery of scandium 
Discovery of holmium 
Discovery of thulium 
First electrified railroad 

1880 Centrifuge 
Discovery of gadolinium 
Ball bearings (cup and cone) 

1881 Depressing freezing point solutions 

1882 Tuberculosis bacillus isolated 
First central electric power station 
Hydroelectric plant 


Critical Path 


Rayon 

Steam turbine 
Brooklyn Bridge 
Trolley car 

Fountain pen — Waterman 
Roll film — Eastman 
Manganese steel 
Skyscraper with steel frame 
Cocaine 

Micro-organisms responsible for cholera, tetanus, 

and diphtheria discovered 

Gasoline motor — Daimler 

Drinell’s laws of metallography 

Linotype patented — Mergenthaler 

Transformer 

Hydrophobia cure — Pasteur 
Discovery of praseodymium 
Discovery of neodymium 
Van’t Hoff’s laws 

Aluminum commercially produced — Hall 
Electrolytic copper (series cell) 

Electric fan 
Fluorine isolated 
Discovery of dysprosium 
Discovery of germanium 
Split-phase induction motor 
Rotary converter 
Automatic telephone 

Esperanto — attempt at artificial universal language 

Ionization — Arhennius 

Fructose synthesized 

Monotype machine — Lanston 

Electromagnetic waves — Hertz 

Michelson-Morley experiment 

Voltaic cell explanation 

Allotrophy in heat treatment 

Adding machine (recording) 

Box camera 

Calcium carbide (acetylene) 

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria discovered 
Pneumatic tire inner tube 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


365 


Electric-induction motor 
Color film 

1 890 Electrolytic alkali 
Mantle gas burner 
Silicon carbide 
Synchronous converter 
Clincher tire 

Gold and silver refining (cyanide) 

1 89 1 Thermoelectric pyrometer 
Morrison electric auto 
Electric cooking 

1892 A.C. motor — Tesla 
Automatic telephone switchboard 

1893 Motion picture machine 
Zip fastener — Judson 
By-product coke oven 
Railroad car dumpers 
Artificial diamonds 

1 894 Submarine — Lake 
Dry-air blast furnace 
Liquid oxygen 
Experimental embryology 
Discovery of argon 
Andean railway 

1895 Automobile 

Diesel oil engine 
Wireless telegraphy 
X ray — Roentgen 
Automatic screw machine 
Discovery of helium 

1896 Disc plow 

Zeeman effect 
Ore unloader 
Discovery of europium 

1897 Steel hopper cars 
Electric trip-hammer drill 
Cure beri-beri with vitamins 
Electron discovered 
Chromium 

Radio tuning — Lodge 

1 898 Discovery of krypton 


Critical Path 


Discovery of neon 

Discovery of xenon 

Discovery of polonium — Curies 

Discovery of radium — Curies 

Coil-and-condenser tuning system for radio — Lodge 

X-ray diagnosis 

Discovery of actinium 

Oil flotation of ore 

Aspirin 

Nernst lamp 

Mercury lamp 

Quantum theory — Planck 

Arrhenius discovers the pressure of radiation 

Electric steelmaking 

Induction furnace 

Escalator 

Revolver — Browning 
Discovery of radon 
Automatic stereotype plate process 
Caterpillar tractor 
Dirigible balloon — Zeppelin 
High-speed alloy steel 
Gas welding 
Wright glider 

Transatlantic radio telegraph 

Trans-Siberian Railroad completed 

Discovery of yellow fever transmission 

Isolation of adrenaline 

DeVries theory of mutation 

Catalytic hydrogenation 

Radio telegram 

Discovery of heaviside layer 

Photos by wire 

Edison cell 

Oil-burning steamer 

Ultramicroscope 

Theory of colloids 

Tantalum lamp 

First successful turbogenerator at Chicago 
Pacific cable — around-world message in 12 minutes 
Ford Motor Company founded — beginning of mass- 
production autos 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


367 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 

1911 


Motor taxis in London 
Bottlemaking machine 

Wright brothers’ gas engine-propelled airplane flight 
Fleury tube 

Electrostatic fume precipitation — Cottrell 

SAE founded 

Safety razor blades 

Reinforced concrete 

Electric subway trains — N.Y.C. 

Mercury pump — Goede 
Process-nitrogen fixation (cyanamide) 

Synthetic ammonia 
Power plant at Niagara 
Special Theory of Relativity — Einstein 
Fleming valve 

Turbine drive on Lusitania and Mauretania 
Crystal detector (radio) 

Gyrocompass 

Deflocculated graphite 

Nickel refining 

Vacuum radio tube 

Automatic bottle-blowing machine 

Phosphorus rustproofing (Parkerizing) 

First Ford Model T and assembly-line production 
Removable auto tire 
Discovery of lutetium 
Bakelite (phenolic resin plastic) 

Oil cracking 
Electronic valence 

Thermit process of welding railroad rails 

East and Hudson river railroad tubes 

Electron — Millikan 

Maxim silencer 

Bleriot flies English Channel 

Duraluminum 

North Pole reached — Peary 

Haber process 

Poulson continuous-wave radio transmission 

Roller bearings 

Pulmotor 

Recognition of protons 
South Pole discovered 


Critical Path 


X-ray study of metals 
Kinemacolor movies 
Hydroplane 

First use of gyrocompass — Sperry 

First cloud chamber 

First self-starter exhibited — Bendix 

X-ray spectra, X-ray crystallography 

Cellophane 

Vitamins — Hopkins 

Atomic numbers — Moseley 

Successful diesel installation on ship 

Diesel-engine submarines capable of transatlantic crossings 

Copper from low-grade ore (electrowinning) 

Tungsten-filament lamp 

Research on radiation — Geiger 

Atom model — Bohr 

Metal spray plating machine 

1 00-kilocycle generator — Alexanderson 

Nitrogen fixation from air 

Military tank 

Regenerative circuit — Armstrong 
Chrome-nickel-steel (in lab only) 

Panama Canal 

World War begun 

Selenium photometer 

Chrome vanadium steel 

Transcontinental phone service 

Magnesium industry started 

Theory of continental drift — Wegener 

High vacuum radio tube — Langmuir 

Tuned radio frequency reception — Alexanderson 

First chlorine gas attack in World War I 

General Relativity Theory — Einstein 

Neon lamp — Claude 

Radiotelephone 

Introduction of chloropicrin, mustard gas 

Development of gas mask 

Ajax Wyatt furnace 

Helicopter 

Depth bomb 

Stainless steel (secret of World War I, first commercial use 
in 1928) 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


369 


1917 Submarine detector 
Sperry rangekeeper 
Aerial photography 
Discovery of protactinium 
Optical glass industry in U.S. 

Commercial cadmium 
Vitamin B 

1918 Electron employed 
Examination by X ray of brain 
Lewisite 

Toaster 

Sonar 

1919 NC-4 flight across Atlantic via Bermuda and Azores 

First wireless phone two-way conversation across Atlantic, 
from Brest, France, to Arlington, Virginia 
Alcock and Brown nonstop flight across Atlantic 
R-34 Atlantic flight 

Lewis Langmuir theory of atomic structure 
First man-made transmutation — Rutherford 

1920 Neutron discovered — Harkens 
Sodium from salt 

Electric furnace production of phosphoric acid 
Commercial radio broadcast of voice 

1921 Compound gas engine 
Electrical prospecting devices 
Rubber plated on metal 

1922 Thermocouple for interplanetary sensing 

Fundamental complementarity in physical Universe 
A.C. radio tube 

Autogyro 
Clear-fused quartz 
Air conditioning 

Practical automobile self-starter — Bendix 

Push-button elevator 

Insulin 

Vitamin D 

Radar 

1923 Nitriding process 
Discovery of hafnium 

First chromium plating — Fink 
Mercury steam boiler — Emmet 
Chemical physiology of muscle contraction 


Critical Path 


Bulldozer 

Hubble discovers another galaxy 

Flettner rotor ship 

Spectrohelioscope 

Atomic hydrogen welding 

Insulin fattening 

Liver for anemia 

Wave mechanics — De Broglie 

First dynamic loudspeakers on radio sets 

First intercity bus lines 

Air mail, from New York to San Francisco 

Beryllium copper 

Electrochemical restoration of corrosion — Fink 
Transmutation of mercury to gold 
Discovery of rhenium 

First commercial airline on regular schedule 

Phototelegraphy 

Methanol 

Science and the Modern World — Whitehead 
Movies (talking) 

Electric refrigerator 
Dirigible to North Pole 
Airplane to North Pole 
Liquid-fuel rocket — Goddard 
Conditioned Reflexes — Pavlov 

German lightweight streamline railcar, beginning of stream- 
lining 

Television (laboratory only) 

Photoelectric cell 

Lindbergh flies airplane nonstop across Atlantic from New 
York to Paris 

Heisenberg’s indeterminacy 

Dirac predicts existence of antiparticles 

Holland Tunnel from New York to New Jersey 

Dymaxion House — Buckminster Fuller 

Energetic/Synergetic Geometry — B. Fuller 

Michaelson’s final, most accurate measurement of speed of 

light in vacuo (accredited by world science in 1970) 

Transatlantic telephone service inaugurated 

Teletype 

Dirigible Graf Zeppelin flown across Atlantic by Dr. Eckner 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


371 


Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith flies Pacific, California to 

Australia 

Ford Model A 

Penicillin discovered — Fleming 
Tungsten and tantalum carbide 
Coalescence from brittle copper cathode 

1929 Coaxial cables 

Rocket engine successful — Goddard 
Automatic airplane pilot 

“Paper bottles” first used for frozen juices and vegetables 
Closest packing effect — Aston 

1930 Cyclotron (atom smasher) 

Electrolytic sheet copper 
Electrolytic powdered metal 
Spectra photography 

First air-conditioned passenger train 

1931 Stratosphere balloon flight — Piccard 
Neoprene rubber developed 

Empire State Building completed (world’s tallest at 1250 
feet) 

Around-world airplane flight — Post and Gatty 
George Washington Bridge opened (3500-foot span) 

Ford Trimotor Stout aluminum airplane 
Pauli postulates neutrino (25 years before first observed) 
Godel’s proof, hallmark of modern mathematics 
Heavy water — Urey 

A1 Williams sets seaplane speed record, 407 mph 

1932 Boeing and Douglas DC-3 all-metal passenger airplanes 
Cosmic ray camera 

Inauguration of transcontinental U.S.A. airline service 

92nd isolation of a chemical element 

X-ray diffraction 

Neutron discovered 

Dymaxion House prototype 

First use of sulfa drugs 

South Atlantic transoceanic zeppelin service 

1933 Dymaxion car successfully demonstrated (invented 1927, B. 
Fuller) 

FM broadcasting 

Positron — Anderson and Millikan 

1934 Sulfanilamide discovered 


Critical Path 


372 

Casting of 200-inch mirror for Mount Palomar telescope 
High-intensity mercury arc lamp 
Perfection of sodium lamp 

1935 Cortisone 

First trans-Pacific airplane passenger service (Pan Am) 

Flying boat 

Ion-exchange resins 

Public TV begins in England 

GE portable shortwave beam radio transceiver 

1936 Rust cotton picker 
Micrometer 

1937 Atomic fission theoretically envisaged by Hahn and 

Stresemann in Germany 

Discovery of technetium 
Jet engine, England — Whittle 
Nylon produced 

1938 Ballpoint pen 

1939 Sikorsky helicopter invented 
DDT 

Development of A-bomb funded (dubbed Manhattan 
Project in 1942) 

Discovery of francium 
Electron microscope 
Synthetic rubber 

1940 First radio map of Milky Way published 

Discovery of astatine 

Discovery of plutonium 
Plutonium fission 
Meningitis cure 
Discovery of neptunium 
Rh factor discovered in blood 

1941 Dacron 

1942 Magnetic tape 

First sustained uranium fission reaction — Fermi 
V-2 rocket 

1943 Sikorsky helicopter successfully flown 

Dymaxion projection Sky-Ocean World Map published — 
B. Fuller 

LSD-25 — Hoffman 

1944 DNA discovered 
Discovery of curium 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


373 


First jet airplane (fighter), England 

Prototype Dymaxion Houses constructed by Beech Aircraft, 
Wichita, Kansas 

1945 World’s first atomic bomb, Alamogordo, New Mexico 
Streptomycin developed 

Phototypesetting machine 
Discovery of americium 

1946 First regular transatlantic airplane (DC-4) passenger service 
First all-electronic general-purpose digital computer 
Pilotless radio-controlled rocket missile 

1947 Geodesic dome — B. Fuller 

“Atomic time clock” developed using carbon- 14 
Discovery of promethium 

World’s largest reflector telescope, 200-inch mirror (Mount 
Palomar) 

Reflecting microscope developed 
Commercial television broadcasting — U.S. 

Speed of radio waves in vacuo — Essen 
Supersonic air flight 

Theory that all massive rotating bodies are magnetic — 
Blackett 

1948 Aureomycin developed 
Bathyscaphe 

Xerography — Carlson (first envisioned in 1938) 

Holograph — Gabor 

Long-playing record — Goldmark 

Polaroid Land camera marketed 

Transistor invented — Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley 

1949 Giant electronic computers introduced to implement com- 

plex stockpiling and anticipatory arming and preparation 
for World War III under title “cold war,” invisible psycho- 
logical warfare. 

U.S.S.R. explodes A-bomb, ending U.S. monopoly 
ACTH 

General industrial automation emerging 
Neomycin 

1950 DC-6 airplane passenger service 

1950s consumer goods “fall-out” from emergent technology: 
frost-free refrigerator, dishwasher, self-cleaning oven, etc. 
Discovery of berkelium 
Discovery of californium 


Critical Path 


DC-7 propellor-drive airplane introduced 
Peat-fired gas turbine 

DNA helical structure discovered by Wilkins, Watson, 
Crick 

“Flying spot” microscope 

First hydrogen bomb explosion, Eniwetok Island, South 
Pacific 

Artificial lung-heart machine used in surgery 
Radioisotopes come into scientific, medical, industrial use 
Ford Motor Company 93-foot geodesic dome successfully 
installed 

Polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk 

Cryosurgery — Swan 

Cosmic-ray observatory in Alaska 

Nautilus, first atomic-powered submarine, launched 

Solar battery capable of converting Sun’s radiation into 

electricity 

Vertical-takeolf aircraft 

Discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter — Burke 
Maser invented by Towne 

Compatible color TV receiver (widespread use in U.S. in 10 
years, and 40 million worldwide by early ’70s) 

Open-heart surgery 

Discovery of molecular structure of insulin 
Artificial diamonds — gem-quality by early ’70s 
Salk polio vaccine effective 

First glass with regular crystalline molecular pattern 
discovered 

Neutrino first detected 
Transcontinental helicopter flight, 37 hours 
First transatlantic telephone cable 
Mullard image-dissector camera 
Ion microscope 

International Geophysical Year 
First civilian nuclear-power station 

History’s largest clear-span structural enclosure at Baton 

Rouge, Louisiana (384 feet in diameter) — B. Fuller 

Sputnik, first satellite launched by Earthians 

First containerized cargo ships 

First monorail — Cologne, Germany 

Discovery of nobelium 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


375 


1958 Nuclear-powered ice-breaker ship 
First U.S. satellite orbits Earth 
Stereophonic phonograph recordings 

Geodesic domes at North and South Poles to house research 
Invisible high-energy Van Allen radiation belts discovered 
Discovery of mendelevium 

Law of Conservation of Parity does not hold for weak inter- 
actions — Lee, Yang 

Atomic submarine crosses Arctic Ocean and North Pole 
from Pacific Ocean to Atlantic submerged below ice cap. 

1959 World-around air jet passenger service network established 
Unmanned rocket Luna 2 crash-lands on Moon (U.S.S.R.) 
Luna 3 circles Moon and sends first radiophoto of “far side” 
back to Earth 

First nuclear-powered passenger-cargo ship launched 
Luna 1 orbits Sun as first man-made planet (U.S.S.R.) 

St. Lawrence Seaway opens mid- America to ocean traffic 

1960 Laser demonstrated — Maiman 

Chlorophyll is synthesized from man-made materials 
Structure of protein myoglobin elucidated — Kendrew, 
Perutz 

Birth control pills 
Pacemaker for human heart 

Bathyscaphe navigates seven miles inward to bottom of 
Pacific Ocean 

Nuclear submarine Triton circumnavigates Earth 
submerged the whole way — 84 days 
First weather satellite, Tiros I (U.S.A.) 

U.S.S.R. recovers dogs after 17 orbits of Earth in satellite 

1961 DNA genetic code deciphered — design control for all life 
Gagarin orbits Earth as first human spaceman 

Russians orbit Earth in hourly cycles in co-rocketing 
vehicles 

Discovery of lawrencium 

National electric ultra-high-voltage grids of France and 
Britain are connected by cable and superconductivity 
Methane used to supplement coal-gas in Britain 

1962 Telstar, half-ton communication-relay satellite 
Satellite studies of cosmic radiation and Venus 
Advances in molecular biology — Perutz 

Four ice ages established from soil core diggings 


376 


Critical Path 


1963 Friction welding 

Discovery of anti-xi-zeno, fundamental atomic particle of 
antimatter 

Measles vaccine perfected 

Syncom satellite holds position over spinning Earth 
Belt of copper needles orbited to test a secure global radio 
communications system 
Quasars discovered 

1964 Verrazano Narrows Bridge, New York, world’s longest sus- 
pension bridge 

Close-up photos of Moon’s surface 

Divers live in underwater Sealab for nine days 

1965 First space walks (U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.) 

Mars photos from 7000-mile fly-by 
First use of satellites in TV transmission 

1966 Luna 9 instrument package makes soft landing on Moon 
Bubble memories for computers 

1967 Docking of two unmanned spacecraft 
2.5-million-year-old human bone fragments 
DNA virus synthesized 

Human heart transplant 
B. Fuller’s tetrahedral floating-city project 
Mendelevium 258, heaviest element yet known, discovered 
Chromium dioxide magnetic tape, doubling information- 
storage capacity 

1968 First men orbit Moon 
Pulsars first detected 
Integrated circuits 
Ribonuclease molecule synthesized 

1969 First humans on Moon 
First remote sensing satellite 
Single gene isolated 
Enzyme synthesized 

Structure of gamma globulin deciphered 
Fiber optics, microwaves, fluidics 

1970 Venera 7 spacecraft makes soft landing on Venus 
Boeing 747 jumbo jet 

Completion of gene synthesis 

Largest fully steerable dish radio telescope 

1971 First synthesis of hormone responsible for human growth 
First man-made object to orbit another planet — Mars 


Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts 


377 


Moon soil brought back 
1972 Jupiter fly-by launched 

Computer-programmed subway train 

1974 Orbiting space station 

Astronauts spend 85 days aboard Sky lab space station 
“Close-in” pictures of Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter 

1975 B. Fuller’s Synergetics published 
Particles with “charm” discovered 
Venus soft landing with surface pictures 

Satellite brings educational TV to 2400 villages in India 
U.S. -Soviet satellite link-up 

Marketing of home video recorders, home TV projection 
systems, and home personal computers 

1976 Mars unmanned landing 

Progress in unification of general relativity, quantum me- 
chanics, and thermodynamics leads to prediction that min- 
iature black holes (10 15 grams) created early in history of 
Universe are exploding now, yielding burst of gamma rays 
that should be observable. 

World’s largest solar furnace, France 

1977 Many moons discovered around Uranus 
Gene-splitting technique to attack human disease 

Cruise missile, neutron bomb, and charged particle beam 
weapons secretly researched 

First explicit demonstration of a bum within the target core 
in fusion reaction 

Fiber optics for telephone transmission using gallium arsen- 
ide lasers 

Instant-motion-picture system marketed 

Chinese claim to predict three of six major earthquakes 

1978 World’s first test tube baby 

Smallpox completely eliminated from planet 
All-microwave Seasat satellite launched to study ocean 
surface 

Insulin production using recombinant DNA techniques 
First transatlantic balloon flight 

1979 Gossamer Albatross, human-powered England-to-France 
flight 

Jupiter fly-by photographs 

Fly’s Eye dwelling-machine prototype completed 

Interferon studied by cancer researchers 


APPENDIX II 


Chronological Inventory of 
Prominent Scientific, 
Technological, Economic, and 
Political World Events: 

1895 to Date 

U PON WHICH HAS been superimposed the utterly personal chronology 
of Buckminster Fuller (RBF), his family, his discoveries and his inven- 
tions, both philosophic and technological. 

The integration of the prime world history events with those of one in- 
dividual and his family at first exaggerates the infinitesimal stature of the 
individual in respect to humanity’s integrated, news-processed, and arbitrar- 
ily classified experience. 

But this exaggerated relationship of the minute individual in respect to 
the whole is nonetheless the only possible common direct experience of each 
and every human being. All else is hearsay. 

The inventions of the single individual at first seem irrelevant and pre- 
posterous as associated with the great legends of the publicly accredited his- 
torical accounting. Gradually, however, the relevancy of the philosophy of 
the individual to the comprehensive evolution may become visible, and his 
inventions may gradually appear feasible, even logical, if he persists and 
learns how to perfect them both by inclusions and refinements. 

If the individual were not moved by the seeming significance of his un- 
dertakings, as exaggeratingly disclosed in this chronological juxtaposition of 
all humans and one human, he would not have an adequately sustaining 
drive to reduce his inventing to commonly assimilable practice and possible 
common advantage. 

Taken out of the context of scientific search for data apparently govern- 


378 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


379 


ing and motivating the individual inventor in the era of the massive corpo- 
ration and the massive state and the latter’s apparently staggering economic 
and political starting advantage over the prime design initiative of the in- 
dividual, the following record could only be classified as egotistical. How- 
ever, it was compiled and is submitted in scientific earnest by its only 
possible direct observer. Because the lag between the dates of invention and 
common public use averages twenty-two years, the dates of the inventions 
listed must be considered only as harbingers, with their effective industrial 
realizations and public advantaging variously postponed. 

1895 Automobile (first U.S.A. gasoline engine) designed under Charles 
Duryea’s U.S. patent; wireless telegraph, automatic screw machine 
invented; X rays discovered; photoelectric cell; First diesel engine; 
RBF bom July 12, Columbine Road, Milton, Mass.; Cleveland, 
President. At this time the Flatiron Building, 23rd Street and Broad- 
way (at Fifth Avenue), New York City, was the tallest occupied 
building in the world, and the Eiffel Tower, built in 1889 and 984 
feet high was the tallest man-made structure in the world and re- 
mained the tallest until Empire State Building of 1250 feet erected 
in 1930; psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud). 

1896 Steam turbine, disc plow; Anne Hewlett (RBF’s future wife) bom, 
January 9, Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N.Y.; discovery of radioac- 
tivity in uranium. 

1897 Electric trip-hammer drill; William McKinley inaugurated Presi- 
dent; Electron discovered. 

1898 Spanish-American War begins; U.S. annexes Hawaii; Curies discover 
radium. 

1899 Flotation of ore (oil); RBF enters kindergarten, makes octet-truss. 

1900 Escalator; Caterpillar tractor; dirigible balloon (Zeppelin); electric 
steelmaking; mercury lamp; quantum theory, by Max Planck; Presi- 
dent McKinley re-elected; U.S. “Open Door’’ policy toward China; 
Boxer Rebellion. 

1901 Wright brothers’ glider; gas welding; Marconi’s transatlantic radio 
telegraph; yellow fever vanquished; RBF enters elementary school; 
President McKinley assassinated; Theodore Roosevelt becomes 
President. 

1902 Mt. Pelee erupts on the island of Martinique, destroying 30,000 peo- 
ple, powerful impression on RBF; RBF’s father and mother travel 
to Buenos Aires via London and Rio and via White Star liner Oce- 
anic and the steamers Don and Magdalene. 

1903 Around-the- world telegram, 12 minutes; Wright brothers’ gas-en- 


Critical Path 


380 

gine-propelled airplane flight, Kitty Hawk, N.C.; ultramicroscope; 
arc light; bottlemaking machine; oil-burning steamship; Ford Motor 
Company founded, beginning of mass-production automobiles. 

1904 Theodore Roosevelt elected President, proposes “Corollary” to 
Monroe Doctrine; reinforced concrete; Russo-Japanese War; N.Y.C. 
electric rapid transit “subway” opens 42nd to 14th streets. (RBFs 
Uncle Waldo Fuller, a chief engineer of project. Uncle Waldo Fuller, 
a Harvard football great of 1883 who had gone to Klondike in the 
gold rush, was RBFs greatest living boyhood hero.) RBF enters Mil- 
ton Academy, lower school; RBF’s Grandmother Matilda Wolcott 
Andrews and all her grand family of Kings and Fullers go for sum- 
mer to John Quinn’s on Eagle Island in Penobscot Bay, Me., buy 
Bear, Compass, and Little Sprucehead Islands. 

1905 Einstein’s relativity; RBF’s family occupy Bear Island, Me., as sum- 
mer home; Russo-Japanese peace treaty signed at Portsmouth, N.H., 
with Teddy Roosevelt as mediator. 

1906 Sperry gyrocompass; radio vacuum tube; crystal radio detector; RBF 
enters Milton Academy, upper school; San Francisco earthquake 
and fire; RBF has one of first appendectomies by Dr. Dan Jones of 
Massachusetts General Hospital. 

1907 Ford’s Model T automobile inaugurates major world mass-produc- 
tion industry, demountable tires, Bakelite (phenolic resin plastic); 
RBF’s father has stroke, brain clot. 

1908 East River (L.I.R.R.) and Hudson railroad tunnels; President Wil- 
liam Howard Taft elected; fire destroys Chelsea, Mass., witnessed 
clearly by RBF from Milton Hill as RBF’s mother and Grandmoth- 
er Andrews described their witnessing of the Chicago fire from the 
cupola of their “Sweet Briar” farmhouse just north of Chicago. 

1909 Bleriot flies English Channel; North Pole discovered by Admiral 
Peary, April 6; typhus vaccine discovered. 

1910 Salvarsan discovered; Albany-to-New-York Curtis flying-boat flight; 
RBF’s father dies; cosmic rays identified. 

1911 South Pole discovered by Amundsen, December 14; atomic nucleus 
proton discovered; hydroplane; pulmotor; first use, gyrocompass ser- 
vos (Sperry); first cloud chamber. 

1912 President Woodrow Wilson elected; vitamins; S.S. Titanic sunk in 
collision with iceberg; first S.O.S.; New Orleans music — “Alex- 
ander’s Ragtime Band,” Turkey Trot becomes popular; U.S.A. -type 
music and dance, displacement of classical and European dances. 

1913 Tungsten incandescent lamp; gasoline “cracking” process; concept of 
atomic number (Moseley); RBF graduates from Milton Academy 
and enters Harvard University in Class of 1917. Although U.S. cur- 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


381 


rency fully convertible to gold until 1933, U.S.A. internal monetary 
system goes off gold standard. Federal Reserve System established 
(as private bankers’ gold becomes inadequate to implement new in- 
dustrial mass-production magnitudes of trade). Although under 
many constraints Federal Reserve as yet in private banker manage- 
ment, as the Alexander Hamilton U.S. constitutional interpretation 
of the dogma persists that U.S. government had no fundamental 
wealth initiative and must borrow all wealth from private bankers 
and repay them through collection of taxes, tariffs, and excises. 
RBF’s Milton home sold; U.S. intervention in Mexican Revolution. 

1914 Military tank; Armstrong’s regenerative radio circuit; chrome-nick- 
el-steel (in-lab-only); Panama Canal; World War I begins as indus- 
trialized powers compete for world-around resources for their new 
technology; RBF expelled from Harvard College, then reinstated, 
after intensive experience as apprentice and millwright in cotton mill 
at Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. 

1915 Transcontinental telephone; gas warfare; neon lamp; radiotelephone; 
RBF expelled from Harvard second time, employed in New York 
City by Armour 8c Co., worked in 28 branch houses throughout 
greater New York City, working 3 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily; Woolworth 
Building, N.Y.C., 792 feet high, 60 stories, succeeded Singer as 
world’s tallest occupied building and remained tallest until exceeded 
by Empire State Building fifteen years later (1930). 

1916 Stainless steel (secret World War I accomplishment), does not get 
into commercial use until 1928; depth bomb; President Wilson re- 
elected; S.S. Lusitania sunk by German submarine; RBF and AHF 
engaged; RBF corporal at U.S. military training camp, Plattsburg, 
N.Y. 

1917 U.S. into World War I (April 6); Russian Revolution, U.S.S.R. born; 
Vitamin B; RBF enters U.S.N.R., March; AHF and RBF married 
July 12 at Rock Hall, the Hewlett family homestead at Lawrence, 
Long Island, N.Y., for 130 years (Rock Hall was built by Josiah 
Martin, British governor of Antigua, and his son Josiah Martin, Brit- 
ish colonial governor of North Carolina, as their joint summer man- 
sion about 1750, and was used by the English as Tory headquarters 
in Battle of New York during American Revolution). 

1918 RBF assigned to short special course at U.S. Naval Academy, An- 
napolis. Over one million American troops safely deployed in Europe 
by July. World War I Armistice, November 11; electron employed 
and development of mass spectroscopy; toaster; RBF and Anne 
Fuller’s first child, Alexandra Willets Fuller, born December 12; so- 


nar. 


382 


Critical Path 


1919 U.S. Navy flying boat NC-4 flies Atlantic in three jumps, Newfound- 
land, to Azores, to Lisbon, to Spain, May 16-27; transatlantic two- 
way radio telephone conversation, U.S.S. George Washington in 
Brest Harbor, France, to Arlington Tower, Washington, D.C. 
(U.S.S. George Washington was transport that carried President Wil- 
son to France for Versailles Treaty and inauguration of League of 
Nations); Ensign RBF assigned temporarily to U.S.S. George Wash- 
ington , then to U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, on a special course. 
Alcock and Brown fly Atlantic in airplane nonstop, Newfoundland 
to Ireland, June 14-16; British dirigible R-34 crosses Atlantic, En- 
gland-U.S.A., July 2; RBF promoted to Lt. (j.g.) U.S.N. Then to ac- 
tive war zone Atlantic troop transport duty as personal aide for 
secret information to Admiral Albert Gleaves, who commanded 
cruiser and transport forces U.S. Atlantic Fleet. Service in U.S.S. 
Great Northern, U.S.S. Seattle ; November 1 — RBF resigns from U.S. 
Navy, as his admiral is assigned to commander-in-chief of Asiatic 
Fleet, and his daughter, Alexandra, successively contracts infantile 
paralysis and spinal meningitis in N.Y.C.; RBF becomes assistant ex- 
port manager of Armour & Co. in their N.Y.C. headquarters in new 
Equitable Building at 120 Broadway; RBF, Anne, and Alexandra 
live in house on Pearsal Place, Lawrence, Long Island, N.Y.; alco- 
holic beverage prohibition begins in U.S. A. 

1920 Neutron discovered; commercial radio broadcast of voice; Harding 
elected President; League of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland (minus 
U.S. A.); women get the vote, U.S.A., August 26. 

1921 RBF resigns from Armour & Co. to become National Account Sales 
Manager of Kelley-Springfield Truck Co. with office in Equitable 
Building, N.Y.C. 

1922 Practical automobile self-starter (Bendix); air conditioning; push- 
button elevator; insulin; vitamin D. RBF resigns Kelley-Springfield 
Truck Co. and starts career as independent enterpriser. Stockade 
Blocks invented by RBF’s father-in-law, J. M. Hewlett, and manu- 
factured by RBF; RBF and Anne’s only child, Alexandra Willets 
Fuller, dies November 14, just before her fourth birthday. AHFs 
mother dies, and her brother, Willets, killed in auto accident; radar 
invented (Taylor and Young); Reader's Digest founded. 

1923 House oil burners; RBF and Anne live in apartment, East 95th St., 
N.Y.C.; Hubble discovers another galaxy in addition to our own 
“Milky Way” galaxy. (In the half-century since Hubble’s discovery 
of another galaxy other than our own “Milky Way,” two billion gal- 
axies each averaging 100 billion stars have been discovered and pho- 
tographed — trying to record these precessional discoveries from 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


383 


1923 onward would overwhelm this chronicling.) Bulldozer; sound- 
on-sound motion pictures. 

1924 Coolidge elected President; first dynamic loudspeakers on radio sets, 
using Major Armstrong’s regenerative circuits; first intercity bus 
lines established — Chicago to Detroit; Fageol twin coach — Grey- 
hound buses; RBF and Anne have apartment, East 94th St., N.Y.C.; 
Soldiers’ Bonus Act compensated soldiers for overseas duty — a mil- 
lion Americans had served overseas in World War I; transcontinen- 
tal airmail carried by cloth-covered-wing biplanes. 

1925 First commercial airline — Detroit to Chicago; phototelegraphy; 
methanol; Alfred North Whitehead’s Science and the Modern World 
discloses separation of science and humanities with rise of scientific 
materialism. 

1926 Electric refrigerator — adapted for domestic use from oceangoing 
technology; talking, moving pictures; Amundsen, Ellsworth, and 
Nobile fly to North Pole in Italian dirigible; Richard Byrd and Floyd 
Bennett fly Norway to North Pole and return, May 9, in airplane; 
Air Commerce Act provides federal aid to airlines and airports; 
RBF’s five Stockade Building System companies have their blocks 
and building system employed in total of 240 homes and commercial 
buildings between 1922 and 1927; RBF fails to make money with 
Stockade, loses all the money his friends had ventured in support of 
his enterprise; RBF resigns as president of Stockade Company as 
company is acquired by Celotex Company; Firestone leases million 
acres in Liberia, Africa, for rubber plantations, provides medical/ 
educational services to Liberians; Goddard launches first liquid-fuel 
rocket; Pavlov’s Conditioned Reflexes published, U.S.S.R. 

1927 Television (laboratory only, not in popular use in U.S.A. until 1947); 
photoelectric cell; Lindbergh flies airplane, Spirit of St. Louis , across 
Atlantic, New York to Paris, nonstop, May 20-21; Heisenberg’s in- 
determinism; Holland Tunnel under Hudson River, New York to 
New Jersey; RBF’s and AHF’s second child, Allegra Fuller, born 
August 28, Chicago, 111.; RBF and family live on Belmont Ave., Chi- 
cago; RBF writes book, 4D, privately published; RBF founds “4D” 
company for research, development, and patent protection of his Dy- 
maxion House and Car; Energetic/Synergetic geometry discovered 
by RBF; Dymaxion House invented as part of his concept of air- 
deliverable, mass-producible, world-around, dwelling machine based 
on anticipatory design science. 

1928 Teletype; Hoover elected President; dirigible Graf Zeppelin flown 
across Atlantic by Dr. Eckner; Amelia Earhart flies Atlantic, June 
17; Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith flies Pacific, Oakland, Calif., to 


384 


Critical Path 


Brisbane, Australia, in airplane Southern Cross, May 31; both Ame- 
lia Earhart and Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith became warm friends 
of RBF in 1934; Ford introduces Model A, with stainless steel head- 
light trim; Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war signed by U.S.; Stalin 
initiates five-year-plan for rapid industrialization of U.S.S.R.; peni- 
cillin discovered (Fleming). 

1929 Aston’s closest-packing-effect; RBF and family move from Chicago 
to N.Y.C.; World Stock Market Crash, October 29; “Great Depres- 
sion” begins; night airmail inaugurated out of Chicago in cloth-cov- 
ered biplanes; RBF and family take house Woodmere, Long Island, 
N.Y.; coaxial cables; rocket engine successful (Goddard); automatic 
airplane pilot. “St. Valentine’s Day Massacre” in Chicago. RBF fre- 
quents Romany Marie’s Tavern, Greenwich Village, N.Y.C.; “paper 
bottles” first used for frozen juices and vegetables. 

1930 Cyclotron (atom smasher); Fortune magazine, conceived in pre-1929 
boom days to service the boom’s millionaires, then frustrated by the 
Crash, comes inadvertently into being as a protagonist of the (it is 
hoped) re-emergent enterprise concept of a self-perpetuating 
industrial-management capitalism, surprisingly escaped from Fi- 
nance Capitalism’s 1929 shipwreck and death, by “drowning,” of in- 
ternational banking as the world’s economic master; RBF and family 
have house, Johnson Place, Woodmere; RBF also has apartment on 
the roof, Lehigh-Starret Building, N.Y.C.; Empire State Building 
(1250 feet) under construction — to become the world’s tallest build- 
ing; RBF sells Navy life insurance policy to finance taking over T- 
Square magazine in Philadelphia and renames it Shelter magazine; 
Einstein’s “Cosmic Religious Sense — the Nonanthropomorphic Con- 
cept of God,” published by the New York Times Sunday magazine. 

1931 Piccard’s stratosphere balloon flight; Post and Gatty fly around 
world by airplane in succession of refueling short hops; George 
Washington Bridge (New York) opens, 3500-foot span; Ford Trimo- 
tor Stout aluminum airplane flown; Pauli postulates neutrino 25 
years before observed directly (1955); Godel’s proof — hallmark of 
modern mathematics; neoprene rubber developed. 

1932 Economic depression depth in U.S.A.; FDR elected President; 
Boeing and Douglas DC-3 all-metal passenger airplane; inauguration 
of transcontinental U.S.A. airline service; 92nd isolation of a chemi- 
cal element; X-ray diffraction; neutron discovered; RBF closes Shel- 
ter magazine after November election of FDR and inauguration of 
New Deal, hoping that economic ills Shelter cited might be correct- 
ed; Fortune magazine publishes “The Industry that Industry 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


385 


Missed,” citing RBF Dymaxion House as prototype of new mass- 
production house industry; first use of sulfa drugs. 

1933 Dymaxion Car (invented 1927), built and successfully demonstrated 
by RBF in old plant of Locomobile Co. at Bridgeport, Conn., as 
first-stage experimental vehicle leading to eventual omnimedium 
wingless transport, propelled and maneuverably controlled by twin, 
orientable, rocket and jet-stilts; FM broadcasting; alcoholic beverage 
prohibition ends in U.S.A.; Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Ger- 
many, January 30; U.S. banks failing finally at peak rate of 5000 in 
one day, bank moratorium declared by FDR, March 6-9; Congress 
gives President power to control money (law upheld by U.S. Su- 
preme Court, February 18, 1935); FDR begins “Fireside Chats,” ra- 
dio; approximately all of world’s monetary gold paid over to U.S. 
government and put into Kentucky hill vaults; world completely off 
gold standard of exchange; RBF, Anne, and Allegra live in house in 
Darien, Conn.; “Dust Bowl” droughts begin to ravage Great 
Plains. 

1934 NRA (U.S. National Relief Administration), WPA (U.S. Works 
Progress Administration), RFC (U.S. Reconstruction Finance Cor- 
poration, world’s largest capital), REA (U.S. Rural Electric Admin- 
istration), TVA (U.S. Tennessee Valley Authority), SEC (U.S. 
Securities and Exchange Commission), and HOLC (U.S. Home 
Owners Loan Corporation); RBF’s mother dies; sulfanilamide dis- 
covered. 

1935 RBF completes Dymaxion Transport #3 — displayed at Chicago’s 
“Century of Progress” World’s Fair; cortisone; first trans-Pacific 
airplane passenger service, in Pan Am flying boats. 

1936 RBF joins Phelps Dodge Corporation, Research Department, as as- 
sistant to its director; RBF, Anne, and Allegra have apartment, East 
87th St., N.Y.C., between Park and Madison avenues; RBF as guest 
performer of director Gilbert Seldes in frequent experimental broad- 
casts of CBS television from Grand Central Station office building 
studio to 100 experimental sets of CBS executives; Allegra Fuller 
also guest on first TV shows; public television broadcasts begin in 
England; micrometer. 

1937 Atomic fission theoretically envisaged by Hahn and Stresemann in 
Germany; jet engine, Whittle, England; nylon produced; RBF, 
Anne, and Allegra move to apartment, 105 East 88th St., N.Y.C.; 
Allegra to Dalton School, 100 E. 89th St., N.Y.C.; auto and steel in- 
dustry labor unions win first big labor contracts. 

1938 RBF book, Nine Chains to the Moon, published; RBF travels much 


386 


Critical Path 


of U.S. with Christopher Morley; RBF joins Fortune magazine staff 
as its science and technology consultant; Munich; Hitler. 

1939 World War II begins; Sikorsky helicopter invented; Einstein and oth- 
ers warn FDR of possibilities of developing atomic bomb; FDR im- 
mediately funds the research, eventually to become the Manhattan 
Project; electron microscope; synthetic rubber. 

1940 First radio map of Milky Way published, U.S. A. — invisible world 
emerging; plutonium fission; meningitis cure; RBF leaves Fortune 
magazine; backed by Robert Colgate, RBF inaugurates Dymaxion 
Deployment Unit of Butler Manufacturing Company, Kansas City; 
units used as first radar shacks and as air-conditioned dormitories of 
U.S. flyers and mechanics making fly-away delivery of war planes to 
Russians at head of Persian Gulf; FDR’s Four Freedoms — freedom 
from fear, freedom from want, freedom of religion, freedom of 
speech; Rh factor discovered in blood. 

1941 Penicillin comes into use to fight pneumonia; Lend-Lease Act; At- 
lantic Charter; Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, December 7; U.S.A. 
enters World War II, December 8; commercial TV inaugurated in 
U.S. A., but held up until war’s end; aerosol spray. 

1942 RBF joins U.S.A. Board of Economic Warfare, Washington, D.C., 
as its head mechanical engineer; first sustained uranium fission re- 
action achieved at University of Chicago; RBF, Anne, and Allegra 
move to 2222 Decatur Place, N.W., Washington, D.C.; magnetic 
tape. 

1943 Sikorsky helicopter successfully flown; RBF’s Dymaxion Projection 
Sky-Ocean World Map published in Life magazine, March 1; Hoff- 
man discovers LSD-25. 

1944 DNA discovered; first jet airplane (fighter), English; RBF becomes 
Special Assistant to Deputy Director, U.S. Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration; prototype Dymaxion House manufactured by aircraft 
industry, Wichita, Kans., under joint auspices AFL-CIO Labor, War 
Production Board, War Manpower Commission, Aircraft Industry 
Production Board, Beech Aircraft’s Executive Administration, with 
RBF as chief design engineer; RBF, Anne, and Allegra move to 6 
Burns St., Forest Hills, N.Y.C., apartment, as RBF goes to live in 
Wichita, Kans., ’44, ’45, ’46; “D-Day,” Normandy invasion, June 6; 
FDR elected to fourth term. 

1945 FDR dies April 12, Warm Springs, Ga.; Truman succeeds him as 
President; Mussolini executed April 28; Hitler commits suicide, 
April 29; Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal; United Nations meets 
in San Francisco, April 25, chartered June 26; world’s first atomic 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


387 


bomb exploded secretly near Alamogordo, N. M., July 16; Hiro- 
shima, August 6 — Nagasaki, August 9; VE Day, May 8 — VJ Day, 
September 2 — World War II ends; streptomycin developed; photo- 
typesetting machine. 

1946 Regular transatlantic airplane passenger service begins with prop- 
driven Douglas DC-4, secret transoceanic “workhorse” of World 
War II; League of Nations dissolved; RBF awarded first cartograph- 
ic projection patent ever granted by U.S.A. Patent Office for Dy max- 
ion Map (January 29); Eniac — first all-electronic general-purpose 
digital computer. 

1947 Geodesic dome invented by RBF; “atomic time clock” developed us- 
ing carbon- 14; Marshall Plan aids European countries; Taft-Hartley 
Act limits power of labor; world’s largest reflector telescope (Mount 
Palomar, Calif.), 200-inch, 14-ton mirror, remains largest until 
U.S.S.R.’s 236-incher constructed in early ’70s; commercial televi- 
sion broadcasting gets underway in U.S.A.; RBF professor at Black 
Mountain College, N.C.; Nehru becomes prime minister of newly es- 
tablished independent India; new postwar automobile designs begin 
to emerge. 

1948 President Truman wins close election over Dewey; aureomycin de- 
veloped; RBF to Massachusetts Institute of Technology; RBF teach- 
ing, summer session, Black Mountain College; State of Israel 
established; Gandhi assassinated in India, January 30; xerography 
(Carlson); long-playing record (Goldmark); holography (Gabor) first 
proposed; Polaroid Land camera first marketed (invented before 
World War II, a million sold by 1956); Rock Hall given by Hewletts 
to the people of Nassau County, N.Y., as a museum. 

1949 Giant electronic computers introduced to implement complex stock- 
piling and anticipatory arming and preparation for World War III 
under title “cold war” — invisible and psychological warfare; 
U.S.S.R. explodes first atomic bomb, ending U.S. monopoly; ACTH; 
general industrial automation emerging; Mao Tse-tung establishes 
People’s Republic of China, October 1; RBF, dean at Black Moun- 
tain College, summer session; RBF to Chicago Institute of Design 
and to M.I.T. as visiting lecturer. 

1950 DC-6 airplane passenger service inaugurated; Joseph “Witch Hunt” 
McCarthy; Brink’s robbery of million dollars, Boston; RBF in heavy 
schedule of invited university appointments and lectures — M.I.T., 
North Carolina State University, University of Michigan; AHF and 
RBF’s daughter Allegra Fuller graduates from Bennington College 
and marries Robert Snyder; Diner’s Club introduces universal credit 


388 


Critical Path 


card; 1950s consumer goods “fall-out” from emergent technology — 
dishwasher, frost-free refrigerator, self-cleaning oven, etc.; Korean 
War begins. 

1951 DC-7 propellor-driven airplane introduced; DNA helical structure 
discovered by Wilkins, Watson, Crick; RBF later points out similar- 
ities of DNA helix to his tetrahelix model; rise of African national- 
ism. 

1952 U.S. detonates world’s first hydrogen bomb, Eniwetok Island, South 
Pacific; Geodesic Dome project started, in contract with RBF, for 
Ford Motor Co., River Rouge headquarters; Eisenhower elected 
President (in first step of Wall Street lawyers’ strategy to overturn 
New Deal controls of big business); Queen Elizabeth II crowned; 
first commercial jetliner service, British DeHavilland Comet. 

1953 Ford Motor Company’s 50th anniversary, Dearborn, Mich.; 93-foot- 
diameter geodesic Rotunda Dome installed as first successful indus- 
trial acceptance of RBF’s concepts a quarter of a century after his 
1927 prediction that first realization would be in 1952; Mount Ev- 
erest climbed by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norkay, May 29; 50- 
foot-diameter tensegrity sphere constructed under RBF’s direction at 
Princeton University; Alexandra Fuller Snyder born November 1 
(RBF and Anne Fuller’s first grandchild). Polio vaccine developed 
by Jonas Salk; cryosurgery (Swan). 

1954 Nautilus , first atomic-powered submarine launched; vertical-takeoff 
aircraft; U.S. A.; RBF granted U.S. Patent No. 2,682,235 for geodesic 
dome; U.S. Marine Corps’ family-house-size geodesic dome helicop- 
ter air-lifted and delivered at 60 knots, front-page picture feature of 
New York Times; geodesic domes adopted by U.S. Marines for all ad- 
vanced-base enclosures; Supreme Court orders school desegregation; 
compatible color TV receiver introduced, with widespread purchase 
in U.S. within 10 years and 40 million worldwide by early ’70s; open- 
heart surgery; artificial diamonds — gem-quality by early ’70s; Walter 
O’Malley, owner of Brooklyn Dodgers, comes to RBF to develop 
geodesic dome to be installed over Dodgers’ Brooklyn baseball sta- 
dium. 

1955 “DEW Line” geodesic radomes installed in Arctic; Warsaw Pact; 
maser invented; Salk polio vaccine effective; Jaime Lawrence Snyder 
born April 28 (RBF and Anne Fuller’s first grandson); RBF con- 
ducted development at Princeton University Architecture School of 
Brooklyn Dodger Stadium geodesic dome (Walter O’Malley and 
Robert Oppenheimer both served as critics of the problem — much 
newspaper note of the event); Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet at 
Geneva, with their atomic scientists, followed by UN Food and Ag- 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


389 


riculture Organization, at which time it became publicly known that 
scientists conceded that Malthus was wrong and there could be 
enough food for 100 percent of humanity but for time being obvious- 
ly frustrated from realization by world political sovereignties. 

1956 Transistor developed for consumer use; first transcontinental heli- 
copter flight, 37 hours; first transatlantic telephone cable; U.S.A. In- 
ternational Trade Fairs adopt RBF’s geodesic domes as main 
pavilions (first geodesic 100-foot-diameter trade fair dome flown to 
Kabul, Afghanistan, in one DC-4; dome erected in 48 hours by Af- 
ghans led by one U.S. engineer). RBF’s first appointment as visiting 
lecturer, Southern Illinois University. 

1957 International Geophysical Year; European Economic Community 
established; first civilian nuclear power station; history’s largest 
dear-span structural enclosure, 384-foot-diameter RBF-designed 
geodesic dome in Baton Rouge, La. (until RBF’s geodesic dome, the 
largest dear-span domes in the history of the world were the 150- 
foot-diameter St. Peter’s dome in Rome and the 150-foot-diameter 
dome of the Pantheon, also in Rome); first satellite (Sputnik) 
launched by Earthians — orbits Earth every 90 minutes as humanity 
initiates the Space Age; first containerized cargo ships; Walter 
O’Malley moves his Dodgers baseball team from Brooklyn, N.Y., to 
Los Angeles, Calif., obviating his further need for geodesic dome. 

1958 RBF makes first of his subsequently multiannual circuits of Earth in 
course of fulfilling his regular university appointments in South Af- 
rica, India, Japan, England, etc.; Boeing 707 commercial transport 
inaugurated; laser invented — patented with working model in 1960 
(Maiman); geodesic domes go to Arctic and Antarctic and all around 
Earth; first U.S. satellite orbits Earth; invisible high-energy radiation 
Van Allen belts first observed around Earth; U.S. nuclear submarine 
Nautilus , under Commander William R. Anderson, crosses Arctic 
Ocean and North Pole from Pacific Ocean to Atlantic Ocean sub- 
merged below ice cap; RBF’s Energetic/Synergetic Geometry dis- 
covered by nuclear physicists and molecular biologists to 
mathematically explain nature’s fundamental structuring at the 
atomic nucleus and virus levels (see Dow Chemical Company’s chief 
physicist, John Grebe, in paper to New York Academy of Sciences, 
and Dr. Klug, Birbeck College, London University); RBF awarded 
Gold Medal, Scarab, National Architectural Society. 

1959 World-around air-jet passenger-service network established; Luna 2, 
Russian unmanned rocket, crash-lands on Moon; Luna 3 circles 
Moon and sends radiophotos of “far side” back to Earth; first nu- 
clear-powered commercial ship launched; Luna 1, Russian rocket, 


390 


Critical Path 


into orbit around Sun as first man-made planet; 200-foot-diameter 
RBF-Kaiser gold-anodized aluminum geodesic dome is U.S.A.’s In- 
ternational Exhibit, Moscow, Russia — acclaimed by Khrushchev 
and after fair purchased (at full cost) by Russia from U.S.A. (dome 
now permanent structure in Moscow’s Sokolniki Park); Alaska and 
Hawaii admitted as 49th and 50th states to U.S.A.; year-long out- 
door garden exhibit of RBF’s geodesic domes, Octetruss, and tense- 
grity mast at Museum of Modem Art, N.Y.C.; RBF appointed by 
State Department to visit Russia as representative of engineering in 
protocol exchange — Russians, in giving dinner for RBF, stated they 
had been following his work for 29 years; St. Lawrence Seaway 
opens mid-America to ocean traffic; Major Rogers, U.S.A.F., flies 
airplane 2455 m.p.h.; RBF appointed as University Professor (Re- 
search) at Southern Illinois University where he is awarded honorary 
Doctor of Arts degree; RBF and Anne erect geodesic dome home, 
407 S. Forest, Carbondale, 111., moving there from Forest Hills, 
N. Y.; 200-foot-diameter aluminum geodesic dome constructed as Pa- 
lais des Sports, Paris, France; treaty reserving Antarctica for scien- 
tific research accepted by 12 nations. Judge Hofheinz of Houston 
comes to Walter O’Malley in Los Angeles to gain his aid in securing 
a National Baseball League membership for a team Hofheinz pro- 
posed forming in Houston, Texas — O’Malley told Hofheinz that he 
would need a domed-over stadium due to the weather pattern in 
Houston, O’Malley told Hofheinz to get in touch with RBF as the 
only one capable of designing such a dome, a matter that O’Malley 
assured Hofheinz he had studied deeply. Hofheinz contacts RBF and 
asks him to work on the design of such a dome; he had RBF meet 
with all his financial associates and explain why dome was possible 
despite no engineering anticipation that such might be possible. 

1960 John F. Kennedy elected President; Peace Corps established; 114- 
foot-diameter, 10,000-square-foot-floor-space geodesic dome of Ford 
Motor Co. delivered by helicopter, fully erected; in 1960s oral birth 
control pills come into widespread use despite possible and unknown 
dangers; bathyscaphe navigates seven miles (35,810 feet) inward to 
bottom of Pacific Ocean, Marianas trench; U.S. nuclear submarine 
Triton circumnavigates Earth, submerged the whole way, in 84 days; 
Russia aids Egypt in beginning construction of Aswan High Dam on 
Nile; Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller , written with Robert 
W. Marks, published by Doubleday; U-2 photo-reconnaissance spy 
plane shot “in” by Russians — Americans agree to suspend flights; 
civil war breaks out in new Republic of Congo; Cyprus gains inde- 
pendence, with Archbishop Makarios as president; RBF awarded 


Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 


391 


Frank P. Brown Medal of Philadelphia’s Franklin Institute and 
Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects (Philadelphia chap- 
ter); RBF continues intensive development of Houston stadium 
dome for Hofheinz. 

1961 Dag Hammarskjold, UN Secretary General, dies in plane crash, 
Congo; DNA genetic code deciphered — design control for all life; 
Russian Gagarin orbits Earth as first human spaceman; men (Rus- 
sians) orbit Earth in hourly cycles in co-rocketing vehicles; over 2000 
geodesic domes produced by over 100 industrial corporations, licens- 
ees of RBF, primarily air-delivered and speed-installed in 40 coun- 
tries around Earth and in North and South Polar zones, 1951-1961. 
RBF proposes to 2000 architects of International Union of Archi- 
tects at Fifth World Congress, London, England, to officially initiate 
Phase I of Design Science Decade — 1965-75, which will put world 
on notice that making world work is an invention initiative and not 
a political responsibility and is only solvable by a world design rev- 
olution, which is the only revolution universally tolerable to diverse 
political interests of the world; and that the design revolution must 
be conducted by world-around students under university auspices 
and supported by professional-degree accrediting boards and visiting 
committees of all the architectural-engineering and scientist profes- 
sions and officially underwritten by their professional societies. RBF 
granted patent for Octetruss; Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba turned 
back by Fidel Castro; RBF continues Houston stadium dome design 
in aluminum for Judge Hofheinz. 

1962 RBF appointed by Harvard University as Charles Eliot Norton Pro- 
fessor of Poetry — one-year appointment; a year of transition of com- 
prehensive technology from dry land into sea and into sky, from 
visible to invisible, because more-with-lessing, through transistors, 
metallurgy, chemistry, electronics, and atomics transfers all basic 
controls to invisible ranges; one Telstar communications-relay satel- 
lite weighing only a quarter-ton replaces transatlantic cables weigh- 
ing 75,000 tons in equivalent function; first American to orbit 
Earth — John Glenn; RBF established “Inventory of World Re- 
sources, Human Trends, and Needs’’ at Southern Illinois University 
with John McHale as executive director; John McHale’s R . Buck- 
minster Fuller published by Braziller; RBF exhibit at American Em- 
bassy in London, England; RBF awarded U.S. patent for tensegrity; 
U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. Cuban missile crisis confrontation. On eve of Hof- 
heinz signing contract for aluminum dome with RBF company, Syn- 
ergetics of Raleigh, N. C., which had engineered Union Tank Car 
Domes, U.S. Steel, intent that first such large structure — 642-foot- 


392 


Critical Path 


diameter clear span, 208 feet high — should not be built in aluminum, 
subsidized a company, Roof Structures of St. Louis, Mo., which had 
long been attempting to invade RBF’s patented geodesic field. Roof 
Structures took a license from RBF under his patent and entered a 
far lower bid on a steel geodesic with Hofheinz, who forsook RBF 
and gave contract to Roof Structures, who then proceeded to rede- 
sign their plans by using RBF’s omnitriangulated truss, but by mak- 
ing the pattern of triangulating so asymmetrical as not to tread on 
RBF’s allowed patent claims. They saved a small royalty fee at an 
enormous increase in cost of their structure which would work be- 
cause of the omnitriangulation of RBF — but with greatly increased 
weight of structure. When Houston Astrodome opened in 1965, 
Judge Hofheinz’s son was in charge of its public relations. He always 
explained to its sightseeing parties that th